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woman hearing a basket of cucumbers. He asked the largely to those already established, and, literally, price, and, to her surprise and his brother's discomfiture, went forth into the highways and byeways to would know the price of the whole store. It was in vain for his brother to remonstrate; he would buy, and he meet with objects on whom he might exercise his

We have no space would sell. The old woman finding him really in earnest, mission of charity and mercy. concluded a bargain, and the cucumbers became his own. for further extracts, but we trust we have said It was not a very likely investment for the capital of a sufficient to interest our readers in the simple school-boy; but his energy made it answer. The cucumbers were all sold at, I think, the notable profit of ninepence. not omit mention of Samuel Budgett's singular

annals of this second Man of Ross. We must It requires no prophet to predicate well of the piety. He was a preacher, and an ardent and future career of one who was born a merchant, as enthusiastic member of the Wesleyan community, others are born poets. He never forgot or was and as such—and we say it without offence to that ashamed to allude to his small beginnings, and estimable body-was addicted to what we are invariably encouraged those who evinced the same bound to declare an exuberant display of his qualities to which he owed his rise. Prosperity, religious sentiments. His reading was confined which too often narrows and chills the nobler to the works which have emanated from the folfeelings and qualities of the heart, left his un-lowers of Wesley, works, we consider, to be in scathed; nay, more, this ordeal, so trying, so often very many respects highly objectionable, worksfatal to the best of us, served but to expand and but we must not allow ourselves to enter upon quickeu the kindly impulses of his nature. We topics so serious and of such grave importance, as will not follow him in his path to fortune, if not to be totally unsuited to pages such as ours, else to fame, that has now become matter of notoriety. could we say very much as to the value or usefulHis biographer, moreover, does not spare us a ness of literature such as the shelves of Wesleyan single detail of his career. No legislative enact- publishers teem with. In many respects, the last ments were requisite to teach him that property hours of Mr. Budgett were highly touching and has its duties as well as rights. No Government edifying; but let the dispassionate reader consider commissioner or lynx-eyed inspector was needed them well, and he will admit the justice of the to report as to over-hours' toil, or want of facili- defects we have hinted at. ties or opportunity for self-improvement of those

And now to revert to the manner in which in his employ; in him they ever found, not only Mr. Arthur bas executed his task. Had a master, but an indulgent father and judicious fined himself to a simple record of the progress friend. Nor was his kindness unappreciated by and virtues of his hero, we should have had but the large class towards which it was displayed. little fault to find with him; but, as it is, we are

That attention to the comfort of his men which was compelled to quarrel with him for his very diffuse manifested in abridging the hours of labour was not the style. He is constantly breaking the threads of only token of his interest in their welfare. Every sign of his narrative by tedious homilies of his own, or, industry and of sincere interest in the establishment gave him pleasure ; and he was never slow to meet it with a still more tedious, dwelling upon and expounding reward. One, very long in his employment, told me that facts and circumstances which were so manifest as but a short period before his death he mentioned to him to require no moral. The memoirs might be some improvement which had occurred to him for one reduced two-thirds, and they would gain in intepart of the putting a sovereign into his hand. When a year wound rest what they lost in bulk; and, to us, the conup well

, the pleasure was not all with the principals; stant reference to sacred matters, the “ improving several of those whose diligence and talent had a share in upon" every incident, whether trivial or important, gaining the result, found also that they had a share in almost savours of profanity. We doubt not the the reward. Stock-taking became to them a matter of personal interest; and they would often inquire, “ Hope genuineness, the fervour, of the reverend author's you find things satisfactory, sir ?”. Surely, it must be far piety, but we do most strongly object to such more cheerful for a master to feel that those around him".

vain repetitions." have some pleasure in his success, than to know that it is indifferent to them, because they are aware that however doubt has but few sins to his share, possesses at

Moreover the rev. gentleman, who we make no large the cake may be he will eat it all alone. One, after describing the pains Mr. Budgett had taken to make him least that of being addicted to fine writing. Much master of his own branch of the business, and how, when as has been the nonsense written about the Exhisatisfied with his fitness, he had devolved upon him im- bition, we doubt if it have ever received so glowportant responsibilities, said, with a fine feeling which I should love to see masters generally kindle among those in ing a description as this :—“The radiant microtheir employment, “And he never had a good year but I cosm where his (Mr. Paxton's) genius gathers was the better for it when stock-taking came ! Indeed, I under its shining wings," &c., &c. may say he was a father to me in body and soul.” Another Yet, at times, Mr. Arthur writes powerfully who gave a similar report of the pains taken to train him and well. Save as aforesaid (to adopt legal said, “ At stock-taking he has sometimes given me a hun. dred pounds at a time.” He also mentioned to me that phraseology), we highly commend the following on one occasion he called at his house, and seeing his graphic account of his hero's character; and with three children, said he would like to make them a present, this extract we close our present remarks on a and when he went home gave him a ten-pound note for work over which the class to whom it is dedicated each of them.

will do well to ponder But not alone to his workmen was such kindness confined. Want and destitution, ignorance

His character, then, was based on an intellect of unand the fearful evils it brings in its train, found common penetration, foresight, and power of systematising; ever his saving hand stretched forth to ameliorate affections warm to domnestic claims, eager to communicate

on a temperament singularly active and persevering; On their condition. He founded schools, contributed happiness, and susceptible of intense emotion ; on 8

natural love of trade, amounting to a passion; on a home The Lady Felicia. A Novel. By Henry Cockton. where worth nurtured his affections, instruction guided London : Office of the National IČustrated Library. him toward integrity and religion, and exigency called If this novel had no greater recommendation forth his efforts; on a childhood of which the great events were scenes of domestic anxiety that highly excited his than that of being comprised in one handsome feelings, or personal dangers that shook his system; on a volume, instead of being orthodoxically dilute, beat school-training imperfect and unfavourable ; on religious out into the most impalpable tinsel until the rea conflict between two sacred desires-the one to live for quisite number of sheets for “3 vols. post 8vo" his family, the other to live for souls, a confliet in which were somehow covered, it would be welcome not so much his will as his self-distrust cast the die and enough. But, luckily for the author's reputation, sent him forth to take the lot of an apprentice.

this is not all. The book is cleverly written; and,

despite some extravagances of conception which, The Battles of the Bible. By A CLERGYMAN's it would seem, Mr. Cockton shares in common DAUGHTER. Edinburgh: Paton and Ritchie, with more ambitious authors, will be warmly reHanover-street. 1852.

ceived by that large class of readers which the We must give all credit to the “Clergyman's author's previous works have delighted. Daughter" for her excellent intentions, and the industry she has displayed in compiling this little Poems, Essays and Opinions. Second Series. By work; but, to our mind, the “ Battles of the Bible” ALFRED BATE RICHARDS, Esq., Barrister-at-law. are not the most fitting subjects which she could London : Aylott and Jones, Paternoster-row. have chosen as means for teaching the duties of THESE works possess one eminent and singular obedience and faith.

claim to public attention, that persons of every The plan of the work is conversational, being a shade of opinion will recognise therein something dialogue between some children and their grand-which chimes in with their own peculiar views of father, the latter supplying, with exemplary men and things, whilst the general reader will be promptitude, a continuous flow of sanguinary en-struck with the genuine spirit of independence gagements

, which, from the eagerness of the and impartiality by which they are so signally former, would seem to have been demanded more characterised. from curiosity and love of the marvellous than Each topic and current event of the day, every from any view of profiting by the lessons to be object of our national policy and economy, is drawn from them.

vigorously and fearlessly discussed-discussed with There is also a gloominess to be detected here so much sincerity as to increase our regret that so and there, which is distasteful to our notions on able and ready a writer should, in some instances, religious matters. For example, one of the inqui- advocate views diametrically opposed to our own. sitive infants causes great mental agony to its But such must necessarily be the case with those venerable relative, and receives a severe lecture who tread the thorny path of politics ; their friends in consequence, for having been found "playing and foes increase in equal ratio. on the road-side with some other children," before There are some very pleasing verses interspersed tea-time on Sunday afternoon! Verily, we tremble throughout the first volume, which attest the verto think of this sinful child's condition in a future satility of the author and the variety of his world!

pursuits.

ASSURANCE OFFICES We have repeatedly urged the great public importance Liverpool and London Fire Insurance Company. of those principles which are embodied in the system of - At the sixteenth annual meeting of this company, lately life-assurance-principles which, when adequately deve- held, a report was read to the proprietors which, with the loped (and they are fast becoming so), must effect å vast remarks it elicited from the chairman and others, suffiif unobtrusive improvement in the habits and morals of the ciently evidenced the company's prosperous position. dation; and we are the more inclined to urge the advan- Combining transactions in both fire and life assurance, tages which are offered because, professional men being each branch of business seems to bave been conducted with by this time sufficiently impressed with them, large efforts great success during the past year; the results contrasting are now being made to induce the humbler classes to share very favourably with the past experience of the company. the benefits of the system, instead of casting their savings As regards the fire department, it was announced that there into the coffers of benefit-societies, to be expended in had been an increase of 25 per cent on the amount of prerobsonic trumpery and convivial beer, and finally to ex- miums; and that in connexion with this increase of insuplode altogether. Warning the public, however, that the rance on commercial property, there had also been a large generally-increasing confidence may induce the pro- addition to the “life business," to an amount approaching motion of bubble companies, and venturing to hint to even 60 per cent. The transactions in the life-department com. the best-regulated institutions that this same confidence, prised the issue of 231 policies, insuring 152,7551., and competition, the magnificence and success of the transac- producing in premiums 5,8321. 14s. 11d. , Twelve annuitytions, may not impossibly lull them into error, without a l bonds had also been issued for the payment of 5061. 118. continuance of the caution which has mainly induced per annum; while out of 1400 insured, only twenty-three that success—we will continue to lay before the public or twenty-four lives had lapsed during the year. In addiabridgements of reports or other information of those tion, a transfer had been obtained of the business of the societies whose stability or constitutional excellence render Australasian Life Assurance and Annuity Company, a them worthy of notice.

small concern, whose individual expenditure proved too

great for the extent of its transactions, though these were 1851, cause to be made and estimated a full account and unquestionably good. By this arrangement, wbich took statement of the value of the several outstanding and ex. effect from the 1st September last, the Liverpool and Lon- pectant liabilities of the company, together with the amount don Company's income from life-premiums is inade upwards of all assets, with the view of ascertaining the profits and of 45,0001. a-year; besides which, the company will be accumulations of the several branches of the business of the favourably introduced into our Australian colonies and company within the preceding six years, and that they shall eastern possessions. On the other hand, the increase of cause a full report thereof to be submitted to the society." expenditure caused by the annexation of the Australasian Accordingly, an investigation into the assets and liabilities Company, was stated to be little more than that incurred of the company, is, we understand, now in progress, and by the keeping a single additional clerk. It is obvious that will shortly be laid before an extraordinary meeting of such transactions as the above transfer, if accomplished at shareholders, to be convened for the occasion; but the moderate cost, must be rery advantageous to both parties. result of the analysis may be pretty safely anticipated from We also learn from the report, that the premiums received the statements we have above given. The Directors, it on the shares issued during the year had been carried appears, have under consideration a new combination of to the credit of the Reserve Fund, which now amounts to life-interests, and have recently published the particulars 138,6371. 10s.; and the Directors declared a dividend of of their novel scheme of "Self-Protecting Policies," by 103. per share, less income-tax, and five per cent. on the wbich are secured in one policy, and at one rate of pre. uncalled capital in the case of those shares on which 21. 103. mium, the payment of a principal sum at a specified age, had not been received. This brief matter-of-fact statement an annuity to commence at that period; relief from all will be received with great satisfaction by all interested in future premiums ; an assurance in the eventof death before the affairs of the association.

attaining such age; and the benefit of all sums paid, United Kingdom Life Assurance Association.- although the premiums should be discontinued at any The accounts published at a recent meeting of this society time. There is a straightforward tone in the present report, are also additional proofs of the steadily increasing im- a lack of that frothy post-prandial (and post brandial ?) portance attached by the public to the principles of life-clap-trap too frequent on such occasions, which gives one a assurance, to say nothing of the confidence which seems to very favourable impression. be reposed on the stability and general management of this Maritime Passengers' Assurance Company.individual company. It appears that at the last annual Starting from the fundamental principle of life-assurancemeeting, 4,866 policies had been issued, assuring the sum provision against the uncertainties which, at all times and of 650,1991., and yielding an annual revenne of 21,2951. in all circumstances, beset human existence—it is somewhat 4s. Od. ; and in the course of the last year, notwithstanding surprising that this principle was not first called into that, as we have good reason to suppose, the attention of operation particularly against those more obvious and all classes was unusually diverted from the ordinary course sudden examples comprised in accident by flood and field. of business by the Great Exhibition, 731 policies were This, however, was not the case; and not till recently, and issued, assuring 130,2601., and yielding an annual revenue after years of experience had shown the value of the prinof 4,2461. Os. 6d. The deaths in the past year have been ciple generally, did any association offer the advantages of twenty-three, and the claims 4,0901. It further appears that life-assurance to those whom calling, or the dangers of travel, the receipts of premiums and interest to the 20th of Novem- rendered peculiarly liable to loss of life or limb. That these ber, 1851, amounted to 22,6771. 4s.6d., being 2,1801. 149. 30. associations, however, while conferring a positive public more than in the previous year; the balance in favour of benefit, have been abundantly successful is known to all; the institution at the same date was 57,0501. 10s. 3d., show- and no prudent passenger now travels by railroad without ing an increase from the year's business of 12,827 15s. A his assurance-ticket. The Railway Passengers' Assurance more general idea of the progress of this institution may be company, while paying a rich dividend to its shareholders, gathered from the fact that since 1841, the year of the has published a long list of casualties which is only renSociety's foundation, the number of policies issued has in- dered less melancholy by the attendant fact that in each creased from 255 to 5,597; and the sum thus assured from case compensation has been made, in some degree, for 31,1851 to 780,4591. The company is formed entirely on the loss of life or less important injuries. The operations mutual principle, and possesses the advantage of being of the Accidental Death Assurance Company are, we are enrolled under the provisions of the Acts of Parliament informed, becoming widely extended among those whose relating to Friendly Societies, whereby the sums assured to avocations place them in situations of peril, as also amongst the widow, widower, or children of deceased members, are those who fear lest “a tile should fall." To complete the payable to them free from legacy or probate-duty.

chain of assurance against accidental death, an association City of London Life Assuranco Society.-From has lately commenced operations under most favourable the report we have received of the progress of this society, it auspices, and with the suggestive title of the Maritime would seem to have been hitherto es steady and satisfactory Passengers' Assurance Company. It proposes to undertake as, under careful administration, it could hardly fail to be. every kind of risk by water, from the capsizing of a wherry The total sum now,assured by the society is 258,9791. 8s. ld., to the foundering of a man-of-war, by which the loss of life or and its annual income, 9,5631. 8s. 3d.; 153 proposals personal injury may be sustained; and as far as we can during the past year, amounting to the sum of 40,8771. 178., gather from the prospectus before us, its subscribed capital have been accepted and completed; forty-five proposals seems ample enough to meet contingencies, its scales of for additional assurances, amounting to 24,700l. have been premium moderate and carefully compiled, and its plan considered and declined; and since the 31st of October of operation sound and business-like. The owner anderlast, the close of the society's financial year, further as- writes his ship at Lloyd's, the merchant insures the goods surances, to the amount of 6,3501., have been accepted. he intrusts to the frail bark, and the passenger may now The sum of 12,4311. 129. 40. has been advanced by the assure himself against the “ dangers of the seas." of the society, for which it holds securities, independent of tem necessity, or, at any rate, of the wisdom of availing oneporary investments, amounting to 3,1191. 4s. 5d. We ob- self of the opportunity, we have a recent and fearful proof serve that the assets of the society have been increased in the fate of the crew and passengers of the Amazon, or during the past year to the extent of 5000l. On the other rather of their surviving families, many of whom are thus hand, the demands on the society's funds, arising from added to the long category of those who, by similar calaclaims by death, seem to be considerably less than the mities, have been suddenly plunged into pecuniary as well amount which they might have attained aceording to the as mental distress. Since this shocking occurrence, howlaw of mortality assumed as the basis of the rates of the ever, the Maritime Assurance Company has opened its society, and provided for by its tables.

doors, and those who choose may avail themselves of the The deed of constitution of this society declares, “That advantages it offers. To all who go down to the sea in the Directors shall on and to the 31st day of December, ships the existence of the association must be a boon.

LONDON : SALISBURY AND CO., PRINTERS, BOUVERIE-STREET AND PRIMROSB-HILL, FLEET-STREET,

TAIT'S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE.

APRIL, 1852.

THE GOVERNMENTS OF CONTINENTAL EUROPE,

AUSTRIA AND ROME.

In the beginning of the year 1848, every state period of thirty-three years, the people generally in Europe enjoyed domestic tranquillity, and at applied their labour and skill to peaceful and inthe same time endured the affliction of a general dustrial pursuits. The captains and soldiers of crisis in commerce—the sufferings caused by the the last general war had either died or had become stagnation of industry, which followed bad har- superannuated and unfit for active services. Even vests—and the losses of railway-speculations un- in France it had become a remarkable fact, that precedented in the amount of capital risked and military service became so repugnant to the citiinvested.

zens, especially to the rural population, as to render A Pope remarkable for inactivity and for resist- it nearly impossible, even for high rewards, to preing the progress of intellectual freedom had lately vail on any of those who had previously served died. He was succeeded by an ecclesiastic who, under the conscription to become a substitute for like Thomas à Beckett, had once been a soldier, any other citizen who became a conscript. The and who was seated in the pontifical chair by the distress occasioned by deficient harvests and comsuperior influence acquired, at the time, over the mercial embarrassments was considered only temcardinals by Louis Philippe. The sagacity of the Citi- porary, and far greater calamities had often occurred zen-King foresaw not any one of the consequences: before without causing any disturbance of either historically he knew that the Most Christian Kings the internal or external peace of any state in of France held it as a political maxim, " to bind Europe. the Pope's hands, and at the same time to kiss his The whole superficial aspect of Christendom feet;" but he knew also that from the day that seemed as if all European nations reposed in Louis XIV. fell into decrepitude, the House of security—as if the people were satisfied with their Hapsburg alone, and not that of Bourbon, fettered material, political, and moral condition-- as if the temporal authority, and used for its own pur- monarchs were safe on their thrones, and Governposes the spiritual power of the Bishop of Rome. ments firm in their institutions and administra

At no former period did there appear greater tions. But sagacious men perceived that elements security for thrones and governments, nor less of of a dangerous character reposed under the moral, the spirit of political turbulence. The new Pope, physical, and political surface of European society. it is true, astonished Christendom by conceding to Disguised below the authority of centralised admihis temporal subjects a plenary extension of politi- nistrations and bureaucratic routine, explosive cal liberty; and although Austria, Prussia, Russia, combustibles had accumulated, unobserved except and some other states, continued obstinately to by the few who are acute observers and profound resist constitutional reforms, yet generally the thinkers--except by those who judge of the probacivilisation of Europe seemed to have advanced bilities of the future by their comprehension of past gradually, but with insignificant clamour from the events. To such observers and thinkers it was people for their natural rights, and without any evident, that when monarchs and ministers have apparent danger to the power and dignity of their allowed the deception of historical rights and heresovereigns.

ditary prerogatives to obstruct the progress of inWith the exception of the kingdom of the telligence, and to resist the necessities which new Netherlands and the small state of Cracow, the circumstances develope, they peril the authority by territorial statu quo of each European Government which they hold their dignities. Such especially remained almost precisely the same as that which was the condition of the Austrian empire. Histowas fixed by the Congress of Vienna.* During a rical prerogative, not constitutional power, was the

maxim of Francis the First—a sovereign whose * The dominions of the Sultan were not affected by that ideas and intellect fitted him, not for the ninecongress.

teenth century, but for the age which precedeil VOL. XIX.-NO: COXX,

that in which his grandmother, Maria Theresa, sions produced by the murder of the fairest was born.

princess of his family on a Parisian scaffold, to To other nations the Austrian Government has glut the ferocity of the monsters of the first always constituted a mystery, which few have French Revolution, haunted him during life ; and been able to unveil. The whole reign of Maria the recollection of Napoleon having twice occuTheresa was a period of national calamity and pied Schönbrün, and his soldiers Vienna, and financial embarrassment. Joseph the Second - that he was compelled to give his beloved daughter who expelled the Jesuits, abolished half of the in marriage to the conqueror, stood constantly bemonasteries and nunneries, attempted several fore his imagination as calamities which might excellent reforms for which his subjects were again befal him. The French Revolution of neither educated for nor fit to enjoy, and who 1830 rendered all his nights sleepless ; and the introduced that fallacious commercial leg slation Polish and Belgian Revolutions which followed, which has ever since afflicted the Austrian after driving him to despair, rendered him quite Government with a bankrupt treasury—revoked incapable of judging or acting with good sense or all his reforms in his last days, and restored the administrative wisdom. The power which he inprelates and priests to their former power and trusted to bis chief Minister, Prince Metternich, wealth. It was, however, under the Emperor was on all occasions conditional ; and that graceful Francis the First, that an inexorable, darkening, statesman was denied any authority in regard to bureaucratic system of centralised despotism the police, the prisons, or the internal laws of the was completely organised. It spread its myste- Empire. The new system of espionage, and of rious and awful authority like a huge and crushing political imprisonment, was presided over by the nightmare over the whole length and breadth of the monarch himself, with the assistance of his Empire. Each central bureau at Vienna was Minister of Police, a Silesian, named Sedelnitzky. indepevdent of all the others; they all centered But the penetration of Prince Metternich had in the Council of State and Conference, at which long foreseen that, unless the institutions of the the Emperor presided. From that centre, each, empire were brought into harmony with the prowhether of police, war, espionage or taxation, gress of civilisation, the existing though smothered sent forth its ramifications from the Alps to the elements of discontent would at no distant day Mediterranean and Danube, from the Lake of overwhelm the Government. In a despatch adConstance to Wallachia. Each worked respec- dressed more than thirty years ago to the Minister tively in a dark and impenetrable secrecy. Within of Baden, Baron Von Berstett, he said, "Le this bureaucratic tyranny were absorbed all the temps avance au milieu des orages; vouloir arrêter old municipal and provincial institutions; and son impétuosité, ce serait un vain effort"-meanyet so quiet was its apparent working that, while ing that the progress of mankind would advance, it seemed conducted with gentleness and without even through the midst of tempests, and that to bluster, it meddled heavily and inquisitorially attempt to retard that progress would be a vain with every public and private affair, with all occu- effort. It would have been fortunate if the Em. pations and professions.

peror had profited by the sagacity of his Ministers. Joseph the Second was born and died too early The position of Prince Metternich in Austria had for the benefit of his hereditary states and the never been understood in England—it will berehappiness of his people - Francis the First of after.

Francis the First of after. On his decease, Francis the First left beAustria was born and died too late for the spirit hind him several members of the Imperial family, and intelligence of the age. The despotism of especially the Archduke Louis, who resisted all holding a people in terror of the power of the atiempts to re-invigorate and reform the GovernCrown and the rigour of the bureaucracy was that ment, the laws, and the institutions of Austria. which had, historically and executively, been in- The ex-Emperor Ferdinand was an idiot, and the stituted, not only by the Emperors, but by every Archduke Louis and the Archduchess Sophia sovereign, great or petty, in Germany. Of this effectually baffled even the moderate improve. despotism of fear Francis of Austria was the ments attempted by Metternich, who only oblast monarchical type. Before his departure from tained by stratagem the general amnesty pubamid the sovereigns of the earth, he shuddered lished at Milan during the ceremony of the in the belief of the fulfilment of the dictum ex-Emperor's coronation at that city; nor was he of Louis the Fourteenth, “ Après moi le déluge," otherwise enabled to carry out those improvements and exclaimed in the bitterness of his anguish, in the commercial and quarantine system of “ Alles ist verloren ! alles ist verloren !”—“ All is Austria which have been found, as far as they lost ! all is lost !") He lived in terror, and he extended, very advantageous to the interests of died without kope. If it could have been possi- commerce, as well as to that of the Imperial ble, he would have politically, commercially, and Treasury. aggressively walled the Austrian empire against The amiable manners and the domestic virtues the ideas, the commodities and the people, of of Francis the First reconciled, in a remarkable every other country in the world. He had expe- degree, the Austrians to his person and governrienced greater adversity than most sovereigns. ment, and to the enslavement of his subjects. We The misfortunes of Maria Theresa, and the cannot, in order to account for the abortive termimelancholy last days of Joseph the Second, were nation of the Revolution of 1848, separate Francis deeply impressed on his mind. The sad impres- from the effects of his ill-starred policy. The atmo

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