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dren starve, and the poor mother follows them to judge by the best of all tests, the attention afforded the grave shortly after. Poets, of course, have a them by children into whose hands we have put right to exercise their imagination in any direction them, equally so for their amusement. they choose; but we do not see the use of representing as faets of home-growth things which, by the constitution of our laws, never can happen. Bren Tange, or Mercantile Mysteries, being the Con There is some powerful verse in parts of this little fessions of a Confidential Clerk. Part II. Lon drama, but the major portion of it is not above don : Groombridge and Sons. mediocrity. “Aspiranda” consists of a series of The second number of “ Bren Tange" records the short pieces of various merit, and all upon Welsh failure of a merchant through indulgence in gam. subjects. To these are added Miscellaneous Poems, bling, and a practical joke upon a tailor who, aceordwhich form the bulk of the volume. The best of ing to immemorial justice, deserves abusing, and these is a piece bearing the motto, “Ohne Hast, gets abuse, instead of payment. The reader is introohne Rast," from which we extract the following duced to a new character in the merchant's uncle. verses :

an old gentleman with the surroundings of a vir“Never basting, never resting,"

tuoso, but with no salient points about him to With a firm and joyous heart,

enable us to distinguish bim from others of his Ever onward slowly tending,

age and class. The author must wake up and Acting aye a brave man's part.

bring something striking upon the stage, or be With a bigh and holy purpose,

will find his audience diminishing instead of inDoing all thou find'st to do;

creasing. Practical jokes won't do, they have Seeking ever man's upraising With his highest end in view.

been cashiered these fifty years.
“Never hasting, never resting,"

Glad in peace and calm in strife ;
Quietly thyself preparing,
To perform thy part in life.

Reality; or, Life's Inner Circle. By Mrs. SATILE
Stumbleth he who runneth fast,

SHEPHERD. London: John Farquhar Shaw. EdinDieth he who standeth still;

burgh: J. Menzies. Dublin : J. Robertson. 1852. Nor by haste nor rest can ever

The object of this little work is professedly to imMan his destiny fulfil. “Never hasting, never resting,"

press on the youthful mind the importance of sinLegend fine, and quaint and olden,

cerity and uprightness, more especially in relation In vur thinking, in our acting,

to religious character and sentiment. The term Should be writ in letters golden.

“reality” is chosen for a title in opposition to preThere is a genial humanity breathing through tension and seeming, or, to use a harsh word, all Mr. Langford's effusions, which, more than his hypocrisy.” In the prosecution of her object, poetry, claims our good word.

the authoress says she has availed herself of such resources as are supplied by the every-day scenes

and occurrences of life, and that she has recorded English Alice. A Poem in Five Cantos. By Alex- little or nothing the prototype of which has not

ANDER John EVELYN, Esq. London : William come under her own observation. We are bound Pickering. 1852.

to believe this statement; but when viewed in conThe story told in these five cantos is based upon nexion with the revelations made in this volume, the fact of Cromwell's rescuing a British subject it must be regarded as anything but complimentfrom the fangs of the Inquisition. The lover of ary to the mass of religious professors of our day. English Alice is denounced by a priest, and awaits We certainly never imagined that the class o in a dungeon of his prison the infiction of the tor- which the Frogmores are the prototype-the class ture. Unknown to him, Alice bribes his keeper whose purses support

, and whose presence so freand procures his release, upon the condition, how- quently patronises the philanthropic and religious ever, of occupying his place. The youth escapes, movements of the age, were at bottom such heartand she next day is on the point of being haled to less and consummate hypocrites as these people the rack, when the British Consul interferes and are represented; and we would fain hope that the restores her to liberty. Thesc are but slender writer's experience in this respect has been peermaterials for a poem of several cantos; but the liar and unfortunate. Perhaps, too, her opinions author' has made the most of them. His versifi- on the subject of female education might undergo cation is occasionally too negligent, and harsh to a little modification without any damage to herself the ear from a redundance of consonants which or her pupils. It is possible there may be no sis might be weeded out by a little careful revision. in a merry dance round the family piano, even The story, upon the whole, is interesting, and there though it be followed by a prayer round the family is no want of poetic imagery in the writer's man- altar; and it may be less dangerous to allow and ner of dealing with it.

and to encourage the innocent amusements of youth than it is to inculcate the practice of religious con

versation at all hours, and the obtrusion of religious Buds and Blossoms, and Stories for Summer Day phraseology in the daily concerns of life. Reality, and Winter Nights. London : Groombridge and which in the sense of our author is but another Sons. 1852.

word for sincerity, is stifled, not fed, by the perThese are two series of cheap children's books, petual iteration of serious terms and serious subwell adapted for their instruction, and, if we are to jects. This overloading of pious parlance is the fault of the book; and it is almost as offensive in arguments of Mr. Webb carry weight, and will the excellent family of the Nugents as it is in the not be thrown away. polite and pretentious circle of the Frogmores. With this one drawback the volume has consider- The Life of Napoleon Buonaparte. By WILLIAM able merit. The various characters are characters. Hazlitt. Second Edition. “Revised by his Son. The contented, tranquil and passive Mrs. Nugent,

In four volumes. Vol. III. London: Office of the lively and gossiping Alice, the intellectual

the Illustrated Library. 1852. Edith St. Clair, the pensive and unstable Isabella, This third volume of Hazlitt's admirable biograthe manæuvring Mrs. Frogmore and her daughters, phy (we have not seen the second) embraces the the languishing Julia and sprightly Euphemia, the most eventful and interesting portion of the life honest Hazlewoods—all are distinctly individual. of Napoleon. Commencing with the establishised, and talk and act as persons of their class in- ment of the Empire in 1804, it recounts the vicvariably do. Ashley, the widow's son, and the tories of Austerlitz, Jena, and Eylau, together hope of the family, is the only failure. The plot with the war in Spain, the divorce from Joseof the story is the simplest imaginable ; and the phine, the Expedition to Russia, with the burning catastrophe which unmasks the duplicity of the of Moscow, and the tremendous reverses which Frogmores is the old stereotyped machine of a followed; and the campaign in Saxony, down to rich and aged uncle, who marries instead of dying, the Battle of Leipsic. This, in the compass of and thus ruins the expectations of the Nugents. four hundred pages, and in the language of HazThere is a good deal said about the establishment litt, makes up a volume almost unique in spiritof a Miss Shamwell

, who presides over an academy stirring interest. conducted strictly on evangelical principles, and who, we are led to conclude, though it is not stated, BOOKS RECEIVED.-NOTICES DEFERRED. takes in young ladies, and does for them, washing Voices for Progress, and other Poems. By Thomas and conversion included, at so many guineas a

Forster Ker. London: Houlston and Stoneman. Man

chester: Beresford and Galt. year. The Miss Frogmores were her pupils, and

A Narrative of the Kaffir War of 1850-51-52. Part IV. delectable specimens they are of what may be ac- London : Pelham Richardson. 1852. complished by the Shamwell superintendence. The Poetry of Childhood. A Poem. By Goodwyn

We do not consider “Reality" to be the best of Barmby... London: William Tweedie, 337, Strand. 1852. Mrs. Shepherd's productions. She can write more Reports of the Juries on the Subjects in the Thirty Classes

Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations. 1851. to the purpose on matters less exclusively religious. into which the Exhibition was divided. London : 'William

Clowes and Sons, Stamford-street and Charing-cross. 1852.

France and its Socialists, 1842 to 1852. By Basil May. Suggestions on the present Condition of Ireland, and London: Thomas Bosworth. 1852. on Government Aid for carrying out an Efficient

The Illustrated London Drawing Book ; with Three Railway System. By C. Locock. WEBB, Esq and Arranged by Robert Scott Barn, M.S.A., London: 227,

Hundred Illustrative Drawings and Diagrams. Edited London : Smith, Elder, and Co. Dublin : Hodges and Smith.

Six Songs, the Words taken from the Holy Scripture. MR. Webb is a careful and industrious statist; Composed by Henry Lahee. London: C. Lonsdale, 26, and he has in this pamphlet shown the past and Old Bond-street. 1852. present condition of Ireland with considerable Emigration : Where to Gu, and Who should Go. New fidelity. His plan to promote the prosperity of with the United

States and Canada. Canterbury and the

Zealand and Australia (as Emigration Fields) in contrast that conntry, by enlisting Government aid in the Diggings. By Charles Hursthouse, Jun. London: Tre. formation of railways, has many features com- lawny Saunders. 1852. mending it to the notice of the authorities ; at the Picturesque Sketches of London Past and Present. By same time, it is open to objections which the au- office of the National Illustrated Library.

Thomas Miller. With Numerous Engravings. London: thor has not anticipated. The subject is one de- The Illustrated London Geography. By Joseph Guy, manding the exercise of much caution; but the Jun. London : 227, Strand,


LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANIES. The General Life and Fire Assurance Company. £277,436, on the residences and furniture of their minis-At the thirteenth annual general meeting of the proprie- ters. In the life-department of the company, the premiums tors of this company, a report was made, from which we received during the past year were £21,157 2s. 3d., and take the following particulars: The directors have prose- the sums paid on account of deaths £8,640. The lifecuted the inquiries alluded to in their last report respecting policies issued have been 152 in number, of which 89 are guaranteeships, and have come to the conclusion that it is on the participating, and 63 on the non-participating scale. not at present advisable to endeavour to engraft on their Twelve of these policies, assuring £5000, are on the lives existing business the transactions of a guarantee-office. of ministers; and the gross amount of such assurances up The duty paid to Government on the fire-business of the to the 31st of last December was £155,342. The assets of company in 1851 was £10,942 6s. 3d., and the premiums the company at the close of 1851 were £170,309 Os. 3d. received were £10,343 15s. 6d. The sums paid in dis- The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor and James Pilkington, charge of fire-claims are only £5,303 49., or £3,569 18s. 5d. Esq., M.P., were elected directors. below 1850. 1,369 policies, insuring £1,303,708, have London Mutual Life and Guaranteo Society.been issued on colleges, chapels, and school-rooms, be The second annual meeting of this society was held on longing to various bodies of Dissenters; and' 935, covering | Wednesday, the 7th of July, at the society's offices, 63,

Moorgate-street. Its success proves to us that the public held on Wednesday the 30th of June, at the office in are becoming alive to the fact, that they may with security Surrey-street, the secretary read the Directors' Report

, obtain the advantages of life-assurance, and yet reap the from which we gather the following important items:-It profits arising from association. The proprietary system has been ascertained that the present available surplus is rapidly going out of favour, and will soon be numbered amounts to the large sum of £195,028 38. 8d., whereof among ihe things that were. The London Mutual origi- (after deducting one-fifth, in accordance with the provisions nated with prosperous tradesmen, who having, by skill and of the deed of settlement) the sum of £156.022 16s. lld., industry, realised a competency in their own business, being equivalent in reversion to above £250,000, will remain have applied the same qualities in the conduct of a life to be allotted to the insurers, in proportion to the preassurance office. The application of business-like qualities miums they bave severally contributed. This appropriahas produced surprising results, as will be evident from tion the directors now recommend to the general meeting, the following facts :-It

was stated that a bonus might be and in doing so they would call attention to the fact, that added to the policies of those entitled to participation in whilst on addition (amounting to from 10 to 86 per cent. profits, of 10 per cent. on policies existing two years, of 5 per upon the premiums paid since the last bonus was declared) cent. on those existing one year, and of 2 per cent. on those will be thus made to the sums assured, the full value of of six months, if the profits were to be divided now. This this addition can only be adequately appreciated when statement was backed by the authority of that most com- regard is had to the comparatively low rates of premium petent actuary, Mr. G. P. Neison. The original guaranteed charged by this society. The directors beg also to call capital of £50,000, wbich was all subscribed before the attention to the further fact, that in the mode of reluation company commenced their business, is kept intact, and adopted by them, the interests of the younger members is not likely to be needed much longer—the claims which are effectually provided for, inasmuch as the future bonuses have occurred, and which are all satisfied, having reached of the society are rendered secure, independently of the only £350.

accession of a single additional policy hereafter. At the The Oak Mutual Life Assurance and Loan same time the directors remark that the business of the Company, 49, Moorgate-street, London.— This company society has been fully sustained by the influx of new undertakes all transactions involving the contingencies of members during the past year; no less than 609 policies human life, whether they relate to the upper or middle having been issued, insuring to the aggregate amount of classes, which are now almost peculiarly the objects of £235,880 (exclusive of special contracts and annuity translife assurance, or to those in a humbler sphere—the in- actions); being an extent of new business equalled by few dustrious labourer, mechanic, or artisan. The constitution life-offices, and those only of the very first class. The of the office is upon the mutual principle, and embraces Report of the Directors was followed by one from the Acassurances upon single or joint lives and survivorsbips, tuary (J. M. Rainbow, Esq.), which was equally satisfactory. endowments, and the granting of immediate or deferred After which, W. J. N. Browne, Esq., moved " That the ss. annuities. Another important feature of this vfice is, that ciety possessing an available surplus of £156,022 10s. Ild., after the 31st December, 1859, the bonuses will be declared which, in reversionary payments, will be equal to £250,000, annually ; while for the convenience of those assurers who it is advisable ibat a bonus should not be declared, do not seek a partieipation of profits, a table of premiums conformably to the provisions of the deed of settlement." has been expressly prepared. Great care has also been The motion was seconded by H. S. Patteson, Esq., and taken in the construction of tables for the use of the work carried unanimously. ing-classes, upon strictly economical principles. Loans of City of London Life Assurance Society.-át

£20 and upwards are granted 10 assurers on approved per. an extraordinary general meeting of this society, held sonal security; but the borrower must, in every case, as a at the offices, 2, Royal Exchange-buildings, London, on condition to the transaction, have effected a policy upon Wednesday, the 16th of June, the Actuary (Mr. Farrance) his own life with the company. The following features of read the report, stating, among other things, that the this oflice are worthy of notice:-All policies indisputable, society had been in existence six years—the period which except in cases of fraud. The age of the assured, on rea- was fixed by the Deed of Settlement as the time for the .sonable proof, admitted in the policy. If the policy be first declaration and distribution of the profits of the effected within three months after the last birthday of the society. From the commencement of the society to the assured, the age is taken as of that date. No extra pre- 31st December last there were issued 1,041 policies, covermiun.s for residence in any part of Europe, the North ing assurances to the extent of £383,578 178. 4d.; and American Colonies, the United States of America, not fur- upon discontinued policies there had been received prether west than the River Missisippi, nor further south than miums to the amount of £7,003 18s. 9d. ; which sum is to the latitude of Washington, New Zealand, Australia, Bour- be set off against the sum of £9,849 paid on the fifteen bon, the Mauritius, or the Cape. No entrance-fees charged claims arisen. For further details the directors referred to assurers, and the stamp-duty on policies paid by the to the abstracts and accounts printed and laid before the office. Transfers of policies registered without charge. public. The directors called the attention of the Proprietors The medical referees of proposed assurers in all cases remu. to the principles upon which the distribution of the profits nerated by the office. Assurances effected daily, and poli- of this society is based, in accordance with which they felt cies may be completed on the day of proposal. The office themselves authorised to declare the following as the diswill purchase or make advances on life-policies on which tributable profits, viz. :three annual premiums have been paid, and will, in special 1. On the Mutual Branch—A sum equivalent to a cash cases, where the assurer is unable to continue the pay. bonus of 20 per cent. on premiums paid on policies of fire ment of the premiums, maintain the policy for the benefit years' standing and upwards, to be appropriated at the of the family of the assured, all advances so made by the option of the parties beneficially interested either in dimioffice being a debt upon the policy, upon which £5 per nution of premiums for the next three years, or as a percent. interest will be charged. This company further manent addition to the policies, giving, on an average, a grants assurances securing annuities to widows and en- bonus of six guineas per cent, as an addition to such dowments to orphans; and devotes particular attention to policies. that department, with a view of rendering their sebeme of 2. On the Proprietary Branch-An addition of £6 5s. life assurance as complete as possible.

per cent to the capital stock of the society. Norwich Union Life-Insurance Society, - At The repert was unanimously adopted. the annual general meciing of this society, which was


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The dawn of civilisation in Russia, or, rather, the formation, resources and geographical position the introduction of Russia into the European of her home dominions; to her free institutions system of commercial official intercourse, formed and to the enterprise of her people. In respect to an important epoch in the progress of the world. traditionary sympathies, and the nationality of the The recent alliance between the Czar and the Em- inhabitants, we must admit that France has the peror of Austria, the invasion of Hungary by the advantage over the United Kingdom, army of the former, demand a more particular Holland affords an example, above all other inquiry regarding the condition and power of states, of the power and importance attained by Russia than would otherwise appertain to this a united and intelligent population inhabiting a empire in reviewing the Governments of conti- very small territory. The peninsula of Spain and nental Europe. The growth of that power has Portugal is, by geographical position, and by natunot only astonished the people, but it has engaged ral conformation, soil and climate, at least as far the earnest and constant attention of the statesmen adapted for being powerful as France; yet all the and diplomatists of other nations. The acquisition superior advantages of the peninsula are cast into of territory by negotiation, by conquest, or by comparative insignificance where the people have treaty, since the accession as Czar of a semi- no traditional bonds of union, where they are barbarian, Peter the Great, has been far more ex- thinly scattered over the surface, and where they tensive than that of any previous European have for centuries been unjustly governed—bave empire. But vast territories do not constitute had their education neglected, and their morals destrength or power. A population of 30,000,000, based by superstition and intolerance—by contrawith remunerative employment, in a productive, band trade, by fiscal dishonesty, and by national compact territory, is far more powerful than a insolvency. population of 60,000,000 settled over regions ten Though not included within the governmental times as extensive as that occupied by half that policy of European states-though as a state unnumber of inhabitants. The 60,000,000 of people noticed in the system called, after the ratification are not only rendered less powerful by their scat- of the treaty of Westphalia, in 1648, the balance tered position, but they are also in a further degree of the powers of European states-yet Muscovy weakened if they consist of different races, who appears to have been, long before the age of Peter have neither traditional sympathies for, nor exist- the Great, a country of considerable power, abuning interests with, each other. Nor ought we, in dant resources, and, within her dominions, of imappreciating the force of a nation, to overlook the portant trade. The latter consisted chiefly of the difference between serfs and freemen.

commerce of interchange at the fairs, especially at The states of the Germanic Union of Customs Novogorod, and in a periodical transit trade to and and the Russian Empire stand with respect to each from oriental countries. other very nearly in the above position. France is Paffendorff, in his "Introduction to the History a country which possesses nearly all the ad- of Europe," written a short time before the Revoluvantages of a great population, with abundant tion of 1688 in England, devotes in the octavo means of productive employment, within a terri- edition only five pages to Muscovy, while å full tory compactly formed, and with a people who proportion of his book is devoted to an account of feel and know that they are, for all purposes of Poland. He informs us that the first origin of good or of evil to themselves or to their neighbours, Muscovy and the achievements of her princes one nation. Hence has arisen the great power of were uncertain and obscure, but that the country France, and the rapid renovation of prosperity was formerly divided into a great many petty and energy, after disasters, in that really great lordships, which were afterwards united in one country.

body; and that the Muscovites in 989 embraced Great Britain owes her prosperity and power to Christianity on the marriage of their Prince VOL. XIX.NO. CCXXY,


Woldomir to Anne, sister of the Greek Emperor of the Czar John Basilowitz. Between 1653 and Basilius Porphyrogenitus. In 1237 the Muscovites 1658, Alexis, the son of Michael, conquered were subdued by the Tartars, who slew the Czar Smolensko and Keov, devastated Lithuania, took George. In 1450, under John, son of blind Dorpt, and other places in Livonia. Sweden, Basilius, they became independent of the Tartars. however, compelled him to relinquish his conquests This prince also subdued the Dukes of Great in Livonia. În 1686 the Cossacks of the Ukraine Novogorod and Tiver, and in the city of Novo- acknowledged the sovereignty of Russia. gorod took a booty in gold and silver which, The reign of Alexis was distinguished for peraccording to history, loaded 300 carts. His suc- petual disturbances and bloody conflicts. By his cessor conquered Smolensko from the Poles, but he first wife, the daughter of a Boyard, he had two was soon after defeated by the Astracan Tartars, who sons: Feodor, who succeeded him in 1677, and ransacked Moscow. Basilowitz the Tyrant con- Ivan, or John; and six daughters. One of these, quered Astracan and Kazcan, and united those Sophia, became famous by her great abilities, her kingdoms in 1533 to Muscovy. His barbarities in intrigues, and the atrocity of her crimes. By his Livonia caused the inhabitants of Revel and Let- second marriage with another of his subjects he land to place themselves and their city and country had a son, afterwards Peter the Great, born in under Sweden. The remaining part of Livonia 1672. Feodor, though weak in constitution, apjoined Poland. The Poles defeated the tyrant and pears to have been a meritorious prince. The captured Plotskow and several other places. In Czars at all times exercised the prerogative of marthe beginning of the 17th century a pretender rying whom they pleased, and of bequeathing the to Muscovy appeared as a Demetrius, who was succession to the sovereignty. murdered, and who was the son of the Czar John Feodor died young, and without issue by either Basilowitz. The pretender Demetrius, who was a his first or second marriage : and as his brother young Polish monk, obtained the Czarship, but his Ivan was incapable of ruling from his imbecility, government became odious; and on the celebration his palsied speech, weak sight, and epileptic fits

, of his nuptials with a Polish bride, the daughter he left the succession on his death, in 1682, to his of the Vaivode of Sendemir, he was surprised by young half-brother, Peter, then only ten years old. a strong body of Muscovites and murdered. Others Sophia, however, resolved to seize on the sovesay that he escaped and reappeared. The Deme- reignty. By intriguing with the Strelitz, a body. trius who

reappeared has generally been considered guard instituted like the Janizaries, she formed a a second impostor; but whether he was the first, conspiracy in favour of Ivan, and proclaimed him or another pretender, he succeeded in raising a and Peter joint sovereigns under herself as the large army, recaptured the Polish bride, who ruling co-regent. It was seldom that the daughters acknowledged him for her husband, and if the of the Czar married, they were usually devoted to real heir, Basilius Zuisky, had not been succoured the obscurity of convents. She was far more amby a strong force sent by the King of Sweden, bitious : and the numerous crimes to which she, by Demetrius would probably have secured the throne her false accusations against all who stood in her of the Czars to his own family. Zuisky was suc- way, instigated the Strelitz, are not exceeded in cessful, and consequently proclaimed Czar; but atrocity and cruelty, in the annals of the Prætorian Sweden in return secured to herself the possession Guard or of the Janizaries. She at length, after of Ingermanland, the country south and west of a reign of seven years, formed a conspiracy with where St. Petersburgh now stands, and east of the her Minister, Galitzin, to remove Peter out of her Lake of Ladoga. The Poles at the same time way by assassination. This conspiracy was discoreconquered their province of Smolensko, and all vered by Peter, who was then only seventeen years Muscovy was only prevented from becoming a of age. Sophia was arrested and confined for life Polish province, according to Puffendorff, by the in a convent. This year, 1689, may be considered Muscovites deposing Zuisky, and offering the as the real commencement of the reign of Peter. crown to Vladislaus, Prince of Poland, which Ivan lived in a state of helplessness until 1690, caused some delay on the part of the Poles; and from which time the name of Peter alone is rå• by Demetrius having been strangled by his own corded in the ukases. In that year he laboured as Tartar guards, who immediately attacked the a carpenter at Saardam. In 1697 he built a frigate Polish garrison of 7000 men in the city of Mos- and despatched it to Archangel. In 1698, he

The Poles defended themselves with great worked as a carpenter at Deptford. bravery, and when compelled to abandon Moscow, * This extraordinary man, althongh certainly in set the city on fire, which consumed about 180,000 manners and in the violence of his passions a semihouses and buildings, many of the inhabitants barbarian, was a remarkable genius. He gave perishing in the flames. The Polish soldiers fought Russia a navy, arsenals, seaports on the Baltic: their way back to Poland; and the irresolution of conquered the Baltic provinces of Livonia and Esthe Polish king, Sigismund, occasioned the loss of thonia, Ingermanland to Carelia, and introduced Muscovy to the Poles. At this time, the citizens arts, sciences, literature, and civilisation from the of Novogorod having favoured the Poles, the Czar south and west of Europe, into his new but most Ivan ordered the principal inhabitants to be hewn inconveniently situated capital.* into small pieces in his presence. After these In many respects there is a striking resemblance disasters, the succession to the Czarship was established in the person of Michael Federowitz, son Deptford, whom he carried with him, and who established the

* He met Ferguson, the astronomer and mathematician, at of the Greek patriarch, who had married a daughter Marine School of Russia.


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