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in the successful efforts made by Mehemet Ali in the winter, and locks up the sea, river and lake Egypt, to those effected by Peter in Russia. Peter's navigation in icy fetters from two to seven months. ruling ambition was to make Russia a formidable Although many swampy and sandy tracts extend naval power; an ambition which has not, and we over the temperate regions of the empire, and albelieve never will be realised.
though in the northern parts grain will not ripen, The increase of the population, and of the acqui- Russia comprises vast plains and great valleys, sition of territory, is stated in a work entitled which may be considered eminently favourable to "The Progress of Russia in the East" as follows :
:- the cultivation of all kinds of green and white
crops, and to the breeding of horses, horned cattle,
sheep, goats and swine. At the accession of Peter I., in 1689 15,000,000
The numerous and great forests of Russia proAt the accession of Catherine II., in 1762 25,000,000 At her death, in 1796
duce valuable timber of different kinds. At the death of Alexander, in 1825 58,000,000 The iron and copper-mines are not only abun
dant, but the ore is of the very best quality. Gold, “Her acquisitions from Sweden are greater than silver, platina, antimony, cobalt, quicksilver, prewhat remains of that kingdom.
cious stones, marble and malachite are found“Her acquisitions from Poland are nearly equal some of which in great quantities. to the Austrian empire.
Russia has several of the largest rivers in "Her acquisitions from Turkey in Europe are of Europe and Asia flowing through her dominions ; greater extent than the Prussian dominions, exclu- and the internal navigation of the empire has been sive of the Rhenish Provinces.
unlocked, and the Caspian, Baltic and the White “ Her acquisitions from Turkey in Asia are Sea have, since the beginning of the reign of Peter nearly equal in dimensions to the whole of the the Great, been actually united by the completion smaller states of Germany.
of a vast plan of canalisation. Great variety of fish “Her acquisitions from Persia are equal in ex- abound in all these rivers and lakes. tent to England.
Russia has about thirty good seaports, but most " Her acquisitions in Tartary have an area not of them are for several months obstructed or closed inferior to that of Turkey in Europe, Greece, Italy, in by frost. and Spain.
The gigantic extent of this empire has magni"The acquisitions she has made within the last fied her power unto the utmost stretch of exaggesixty-four years are equal in extent and importance ration. In appreciating Russia, we write without to the whole empire she had in Europe before that any national bias; we state facts; we will not join time.
in slanderous personal attacks against the Emperor. “ The Russian frontier has been advanced He may greatly err in judgment, but can surely towards Berlin, Dresden, Munich, Vienna, and pursue no policy except in the belief that he is Paris, about 700 miles ; towards Constantinople, promoting the power and the welfare of his vast 500 miles ; towards Stockholm, 630 miles; towards dominions. Nor should we forget what Russia was Teheran, 1000 miles.
150 years ago, in judging of her condition at pre" It is to be borne in mind that the Russian sent. If we reason without bias, it is impossible tariff of exclusion has been extended to all those to pass over the moral and physical elements with acquisitions where formerly British merchandise which the Emperor has to act. We must therewas freely sent.”
fore bear in mind that the greater part of tha. The empire of Russia, including the greater empire (withont including the frozen region-) is part of the ancient kingdom of Poland, Finland, wilderness, thinly inhabited by a people, the noble: and the Isles of Aland, &c., which formerly be excepted, living nearly all in the serfage state; longed to Sweden ; the ancient kingdoms of As- that her widely spread dominions weaken instead tracan and Kazcan, conquered from the Tartars; of strengthen her offensive power; that her ports the Crimea, Little Tartary, Bessarabia, and a por- in the Baltic are frozen up four months of the tion of Moldavia, taken from the Ottoman empire; year, that of Archangel eight, those in Asia or the encroachments over the regions of the Cauca- North America for two or three; that, although sus on the possessions of the natives, and on the her harbours in the Black Sea are only partially dominions of Turkey and Persia ; that vast region closed by climate, her merchant shipping in that extending east from the confines of Europe to the sea, were it not for the free mercantile egress and Pacific and to Behring's Straits, and north from the ingress she has acquired through the Dardanelles, confines of Persia and Tartary to the Arctic would be locked up for a certain period every Circle; also a great, valuable and undefined extent year. of country along the north-west coast of America Her climate, with the exception of part of the --occupies altogether even a greater portion of the most southern provinces, will only ripen the comsurface of the globe than the vast but widely-spread mon productions of the north, and more than British empire.
two-thirds of the soil of her vast dominions is The natural resources, in respect to soil and occupied by rocks, swamps, pine-forests, and sterile productions, are exceedingly varied, and in many deserts; yet the resources of the remaining uneportions of the empire of very great importance. third, and of her nines, are of immense value: The severity of the climate in the most northerly and were it not for the pernicious fiscal system parts precludes cultivation; and, excepting in the and anti-commercial tariff of prohibitions and high most southerly provinces, the frost is severe during | duties--now, with the exception of that of France,
the most illiberal in the world-Russia might There is no representation of the people, either always have an ample revenue, and a commerce of in the local or the general government. A senate vast extent in supplying timber, corn, tar, pitch, is nominated by the sovereign to form and prohemp, tallow, etc., to foreign countries, in exchange mulgate ukases. The minister of finance pnblishes for manufactures, at a cheap rate: such as those an account of the condition of the bank, and a which have been attempted to be forced into exist- specious financial statement, which appears to us ence by means of the skill of foreign artisans unsatisfactory. The treasury-that is, the Empebrought into the country to employ serf labour. ror's revenue-has been so greatly enriched by the
The Russian empire may be considered as a gold-sands of Siberia, as to create a general belief confederation by compulsion of heterogeneous in Europe of the formidable wealth, and consestates, each under the immediate rule of a local quently aggressive power, of Russia. But a careabsolute government, and all held under the sway ful examination of the best accounts of Russia of military authorities, the chief of which is an will lead to a very different conclusion. Aggreshereditary absolute monarch.
sively, one irruptive campaign south into Europe This general form and principle of administra- would extract all the convertible financial resources tion is, in respect to some of the provincial and of the empire, unless it were a mere campaign to other local governments, allowed some exceptional overrun and occupy the Danubian states, now modifications.
under the titular sovereignty of the declining The geographical divisions of Europe and Asia Turkish Empire. are not regarded in the administrative divisions of Aggressively, the other states of Europe have Russia.
little to fear from the power of Russia. Within The best authorities divide the empire into the imperial dominions, in Poland, in the Asiatic forty-nine administrative governments, and twelve Astracan provinces, and on the Caucasian frontier, smaller provinces (oblasts) or dependent govern- there are abundant elements of just resistance, ments. To these we must add the kingdom of against which Russia must long be prepared to Poland, the Grand Duchy of Finland, the vassal combat, unless salutary remedies are applied to states of Georgia and Siberia, and several petty the social and political maladies of the empire. states bordering on Asia, which are, except in a The Emperor may seize on Moldavia and Wallamilitary view, perfectly independent of the general chia, and Turkey cannot prevent him. The Hungovernment.
garians, on effecting their independence, might The forty-nine administrative governments are more naturally add those principalities, as well a3 each divided into circles, or arrondissements, and Servia, Bulgaria, and also Transylvania, to the two or more of the civil governments are united kingdom of Hungary, to which those countries under one military chief. For example, Okhotsk naturally appertain. The fertile regions extending and Kamschatka are joined under the general from the borders of Lower Austria to the mouths military chieftainship of Eastern Siberia ; Tobolsk, of the Danube, and south of the Carpathians to Tomsk and Omsk, form the military government Fiume and the Balkan, would then constitute one, of Western Siberia.
if not the most important of kingdoms, if wisely The administrative governments of Courland, administered, in the world. In the probabilities Esthonia, Livonia and Pskov, form one military of the future, this arrangement is far from being chieftainship; St. Petersburg, Moscow and Fin- impossible. land, are, again, of themselves each a military According to the published statements of P. D. government.
Koeppen, and the maps of Lieutenant-General The exceptions to the whole empire being im- Schubert, the areas of the Russian dominions in mediately, as well as supremely, under military Europe comprise a surface of 4,360,358 square rule, consist chiefly in the Grand Duchy of Fin- wersts, or 91,117 German square miles, or land having a limited local constitution, in Poland 1,555,700 geographical square miles, being nearly having a senate, the members of which are nomi- ten times the area of France and sixteen times nated for life, and an elective chamber of 120 the area of the United Kingdom. In 1846 the members, sixty of whom are called nuncios, elected population of the 49 provinces of European Russia by the nobility, and sixty deputies, named by the amounted to 54,092,300; of Russian Poland to people, not serfs; and, further, in Courland, Livo- 4,857,700; of the Grand Duchy of Finland to nia, and Esthonia retaining several of their ancient 1,412,315; of the northern Asiatic provinces to privileges. The Cossacks of the Don, and on the 2,937,000; of Tiflis and the three other Transborders of the Black Sea, may also be considered Caucasian Governments to 2,648,000, and Russian within themselves as forming military republics. America to 61,000; being a total of 66,008,315
The imperial government overrules all by its inhabitants. Of these, 49,000,000 were estimated ukases or decrees. In Russia, all power emanates as belonging to the Russian Greek Church; from the authority of the Emperor. His qualifi- 7,300,000 to the Roman Catholic; 3,500,000 cation as Samoderjetz, or Antocrat, indicates that as Protestants; 2,400,000 as Mohammedans; he is only second to God alone. The mere act of 1,200,000 as Jews; about 1,000,000 as Armenians ; election in 1613 of Michael Romanoff, conferring and 600,000 as idolaters. Of the population, on him and his descendants the crown of the Tzars 16,486,834 were tenants or serfs of the Crown. or Czars, consecrated, instead of limiting, absolute The total revenue of Russia is never explicitly power; and from that period the Czars have been revealed. In 1850 the Customs yielded nearly supreme heads of the State and Church,
30,000,000 of roubles, or about £4,000,000 sterling.
The importations were valued at 96,000,000 of Russia may be said to prohibit the importation roubles, and the exportation to about the game of every material like those which can be drawn, amount; but the imports embraced no more than by the labour of her serfs, from her mines and had actually passed through the Customs, which it is forests; and of every manufactured article, in order well known does not amount to as much as the quan- that the labour of those serfs, with the aid of matity smuggled into the country by contrabandists. chinery either imported or made in the country, The public debt was set down at 392,000,000 silver and directed by skilful foreign artisans, shall be roubles, or about £52,000,000 sterling. But these made to produce articles either similar to, or that statements are considered as greatly underrated. may be substituted for, those of foreign manu
A return of the military forces divides the whole facture. of the Russian infantry, cavalry, artillery and We readily admit that this prohibitive system, engineers as follows:-17 corps d'armée, distri- so generally injurious to the empire, may be very buted over 104 military districts, and classed under profitable to the nobles of Moscow and elsewhere, 74 divisions, consist of 241} brigades, 322 regi- who are the proprietors of the cheaply and coarsely ments, 889 battalions, 3257 batteries, 1,469 squa- fed and clad serfs. drons, 4,900 companies, 18 great arsenals, 7 Russia, for the purpose of supplying and carryordnance-factories, and 50 pieces of artillery. ing on her manufactures and sciences, permits the
The navy of Russia looks formidable on paper. importation of mathematical, optical, astronomiIn 1851 the number of ships of the line were, cal, and agricultural instruments, newly-invented however, reduced by rotting or by being wrecked machinery and models of machines, mules and from 56 ships, in 1848, to 48, 24 of which were all raw materials enumerated hereafter in the stationed in the Baltic, and 24 in the Black Sea; Imperial Tariff, if required in the arts. Cotton 45 frigates, of which 25 in the Baltic and 20 in twist, still required by her, and sheep's wool, and the Black Sea. The whole number of steam-ships several other articles, are admitted at nominal duties. amounted to 32, the best and largest of which have A recent relaxation of the rigidity of her commerbeen constructed and completed either in England cial legislation has been generally promulgated as or Scotland. It was one of the mad and ambitions a return to liberal trading principles ; but, on exaprojects of Peter the first to make Russia a great mining the prohibitions abolished, we discover that naval power. It was with this view that he built they are either of no great importance, or that the a new capital upon a marsh near the Finns, and duties substituted are so high as to preclude any in the worst situation in Europe. All the Russian profitable legitimate importation into Russia of sailing-vessels have been wretchedly constructed, manufactured goods. the crews are mostly untrained sailors, the officers Before 1805, woollens, cottons, and silk goods are generally ignorant of nautical science, and both were allowed to be imported for consumption officers and sailors are miserably disciplined. In generally, on paying either fixed or ad valorem respect to the navy of Russia, Baron Custine ob- duties, varying from five to forty-five per cent. On
" that, although the present emperor per- the 19th of March that year, the ad valorem duties severes in attempting to realise the object of Peter on woollens were changed into fixed duties, and a the Great in rendering his navy powerful, he must, new tariff promulgated, admitting generally all sooner or later, acknowledge that nature is more goods for consumption. powerful still. The ice is the most terrible Prohibitions were afterwards substituted, and enemy of the Russian navy; and the idea of so manufactured articles are generally prohibited by many vessels being lost in a few winters suggested law. to my mind, not the power of a great country, but In other European countries, almost every statethe misfortune of those wretched people who were ment respecting Russia is exaggerated, and especondemned to labour to sustain the imperial ex- cially so in England and France. If we merely travagance. Lord Durham describes the fleet as take the direct legal trade between the United the 'plaything' of the Russian sovereigns. During Kingdom and Russia, the amount of the imports three months of the year, the naval pupils venture from Russia into Great Britain would appear to to Cronstadt, where they perform their nautical be about three times the declared value of the exevolutions, some as far west as Riga, and a few to ports. But, with the exception of tallow and Copenhagen, and occasionally we hear of a solitary timber, the chief articles we import from Russia ship straying into the Atlantic. To admire Russia are admitted for consumption in the United in approaching it by water, it is necessary to forget Kingdom, duty free. Hemp, wool, corn, and the approach to England by the Thames; the first bristles are the commodities we chiefly require is the image of death, as the last is of life.” from Russia : and although the importation may
On the Russian Naval List there are 63 admirals, appear large, it is known that, directly or innot more than one-third of whom have been to directly, British manufactures find their way into sea, and the others hold commissions merely to Russia to the full value of our imports from give them rank. There are 72 captains of the that empire. The articles and commodities profirst class, 80 of the second, and 211 lieutenants. hibited by the custom-louse find admission otherBy ukase, 50,000 men are decreed for the service wise, by Jew smugglers, through Germany and of the fleet, but not more than 10,000 of that num- the Danubian provinces; and the officers of the ber have ever been abroad as sailors, and both revenue, clandestinely, and participating in the officers and marines are believed to possess little gains, allow contrabandists to carry on a profitable or no knowledge in the art of gunnery.
At one time it was dreaded that the agricul- independent naval flag, and the duchies of Livonia, turists of these kingdoms would be ruined by the Courland, and Esthonia, and some few parts of importation of wheat from Russia ; and the present the Crimea, Odessa, and a few small places west head of her Majesty's Government threatened the of the Danube, it will be discovered that Russia farmers with an importation of 39,000,000 quarters has no maritime population of any importance. from the province of Tamboff alone. According to Briefly, as to the efficient manning of a fleet with Kortsakoff, the area of this province is 1,568,000 skilful, brave sailors, Norway alone is far more acres, which, if one great corn-field, would require powerful than the whole empire of the Czar. to produce twenty bushels per acre to yield Those who have visited St. Petersburgh, or who 39,000,000 of quarters. But, unfortunately for the have been present at the gorgeous reviews of assertions of the then sturdy Protectionist Lord, and cavalry in South Russia, have been dazzled with now the compromising Prime Minister, a great the splendid uniforms and the showy trappings of portion of Tamboff happens to be covered with pine- the regiments trimmed up on those occasions; but forests, swamps, heaths, marshes and water, exclu- those who have more thoroughly examined the sive of towns, roads, and buildings. We also find real material organisation and physical strength of that the corn-crops of Tamboff consist chiefly of the Russian army, and of the Russian ordnance, rye, and that the wheat produce does not, on a and more especially the Russian commissariat, yearly average, exceed 35,000 quarters.
have formed an estimate of the aggressive power In estimating the political and military power of that empire which brings us to the conclusion of Russia as bearing aggressively on the statu quo that the wise, nay, even the conservative policy of European powers, an inquiry into her financial of the cabinet of St. Petersburgh, is peace with condition is indispensable. Great stress has been all neighbouring states, internal improvements, laid on the treasures drawn from the mines of the framing of just laws, the equitable administration Ural monntains and the sands of Siberia. Reflect- of those laws, and the gradual enfranchisement, ing on the effect of gold mines on the power of instruction, amalgamation and civilisation of the Spain, we might reasonably conclude that the labouring-population of the empire. Add to this precious minerals will not tend greatly to enrich reforming policy an equitable distribution of taxa. or strengthen Russia. They may probably create tion, a prudent and intelligent system of finance, a fallacious and perhaps fatal confidence. In all and sound commercial principles for the unrecountries the true elements of power are produced stricted interchange of commodities between every by great national industry, commerce and naviga- part of the empire without preference, and in every tion. No country in Europe, taking extent of country in the world. By adopting such a course area and number of inhabitants into our calcula- of policy, the Emperor may prevent the disintetion, is so poor as Russia in those elements of gration of his dominions, maintain financial credit
, strength and durability. The exceptions are local, preserve domestic tranquillity, promote the happichiefly at St. Petersburgh, Moscow, Nigny, Novo- ness of his people, and secure the loyalty of his gorod and Archangel. As to the maritime strength subjects. By an unjust, aggressive war with any of Russia, it is notorious that, although the num- power, either for the acquisition of territory or ber of ships of war is much greater than at the subduing the liberties of mankind, the Emperor close of the reign of Peter the Great, the real and the Russians will rouse the hatred and permaritime power of the empire, especially with petuate against them the detestation of all civilised respect to seamen, has not increased since that nations. period.
We exclude Kamschatka as being Asiatic; we may, ou In fact, if we exclude Finland, which has an the same ground, exclude the Caspian.
MONEY AND MORALS.
THERE never was a time more appropriate than than the coin or the ingot—is that accumulating the present for inviting the attention of the public too? and how, and where, and by whom? These to the intimate relation subsisting between Money are questions which the author of the excellent, and Morals. Our merchants and manufacturers thoughtful, and manful volume before us does not are making money faster than ever they did before ; answer, and which no man is in a condition to our middle classes are getting their share of it; answer. But Mr. Lalor's book shows by a course and the needy, the enterprising, and the discon- of profound and practical reasoning from undetented are rushing off by thousands to the anti- niable facts, that this country onght to be in a conpodal Ophir, in the hope of digging it in solid dition, and must be in a condition, to answer them masses from the earth. But the moral principle satisfactorily, before her prosperity can be estawhich should guide and govern the use of it when blished upon a permanent basis. obtained, and which is of infinitely greater value The author declares at the outset that one object
* Money and Morals : a Book for the Times. By John Lalor. London: John Chapman, 142, Strand. 1852.
he has in view is to “overthrow one of the funda- any clear solution of our problem be gained or not, their mental principles of the reigning system of poli- time will not be wasted. tical economy. That principle is, that the accu- The problem is then stated, viz., to determine mulation of capital cannot proceed too fast, and its by what steps the new gold can find its way into governing law is supposed to be that of uniform the currency. The gold as it arrives will be in the increase, retarded only by the diminishing returns hands of persons who will either employ it as obtained from new investments in the cultivation capital or spend it as income. We must first deterof the soil. It is here attempted to show that the mine what is capital and what is income, the relatrue law is wholly different. The increase and tion that exists between them, and how far the changes of the capital, which consists of real com- increase of one is connected with the increase of modities, are entirely regulated by the fluctuations the other; and then how the influx of gold may in the quantity of that other kind of capital which affect both. Capital and income must both exist in is commonly known as money (quite a different the form of money; and therefore the first step in thing from the currency); and the law of the in- the inquiry is to determine what is money, which crease of money, where habits of thrift are so strong our author rightly defines as, “not simply gold or as they are in England, is, that it constantly tends bank-notes, but THAT, whatever it may be, which is to excess, which excess passes off periodically in money in the money-market and in the Stock some more or less delusive industrial excitement, Exchange-money with the draper, the grocer, and in the progress of which it, for a time, and only the butcher.” for a time, disappears.” So that, if we understand The second and third chapters are upon Money our author aright, railway-manias, mining-manias, and Money Capital. Money is gold, notes, and Mississippi schemes, joint-stock bubbles, and such bank-crediis ; it is not synonymous with currency like delusions, are to the rapid increase of capital in any shape, it is that which®“ closes transactions." what the wars, famines, and pestilences of Malthus Bills of exchange are not money—they never close were supposed to be to the geometrical-ratio in- transactions; they transfer banking capital, but do crease of population; and in both cases a moral not enter into income. In a crisis, bills of excheck is the only panacea. This law was first dis- change are the difficulty which has to be met by covered by Lord Overstone (Mr. Jones Lloyd), and gold, notes, and bank credit. Money capital is dis certainly the commercial experience of the last half tinct from commodities (which are specific capital), century would seem to imply that it is the true one. and has laws of its own. Exchanges among a
The volume before us is divided into three people possessing a currency do not take place parts. The first part treats of Dangers, the second according to the same laws which would prevail of Precautions, and the third points out the Path to in a state of barter. Specific capital is at a dreadful the Remedy. Some idea of what constitute the discount in times of commercial panic; then the Dangers may be gathered from the opening chap men of supreme dominion are they who have ter, which propounds the problem, “ How will the neither factories, ships, nor merchandise, but who, gold get into the currency ?" a question which, in a dingy counting-house, have a strong box full while ten or a dozen millions of unwanted bullion of short-dated bills of exchange, and who can are lying in the cellars of the Bank, it is not very deliver the proudest from the jaws of ruin by a leaf easy to answer. It has long been a question of from their cheque-book; who, according to De curious science, but it is now become one of very Quincy,“ have but to touch a spring in London to practical and urgent importance. For what, asks produce a vibration throughout the world.” The the writer,
property of these potentates, who, though scattered If that event which seems with so much reason to be through the earth, are all one body knit in close expected, should involve great changes in the distribution union, is of a nature too complex to be divested of of wealth in England, enriching some, impoverishing others, its mystery by illustrations drawn from a state of prostrating often the best, exalting others not the best,
barter. breaking up innumerable old relations and scattering disorder and destruction over many of those ancient ways in
Money-capital originated in saving—in laying which the life of England has so long loved to tread? This by a portion of the currency or paying-power. In would indeed be much ; but what if, beyond merely mate- a state of barter, the saving must have been comrial changes, there should concur with them still deeper modities, or specific capital, more or less perishable, and more important changes of a moral kind, changes in the feelings, habits, and tastes of men, which would con- and decreasing in value by accumulation. With a stitute that most awful of all events, a decay in the fibre of currency, the result of saving is directly the reverse. national character? This is indeed a question, the very Money.capital, or the paying-power, is the basis thought of which is enough to strike us pale, and to make of all commercial and industrial calculations, and this hand tremble as it writes. But such things are not impossible. The descendants of those who fought at Ma- its increase the end and aim of industrial enerrathon and Leuctra were the pliant sycophants and quacks gies. Capital goes to work to produce income. upon whom, even in the corrupter days of Rome, a Juvenal The income spent is the return-power to capital : could look down. Greater still
, those same Romans, who income saver is transformed into capital, and com. practised by a noble instinct the stoicism which the Greeks only sought--who also, true prototypes of the English, knew petes with that which previously existed. “ If the both how to conquer and how to govern—that great nation amount of capital employed, or ready for employhad for its representatives none but liars, swindlers, and ment, be greater than the amount of income decowards, in the days of Luisprand, the Lombard. I cannot voted to expenditure, some of the capital must fail pursue this strain; it is enough to show that there is or of its return. From this conclusion there can be may be here a question of far higher moment than any which divides our parties. I invite all honest men to its no escape.” Here we are led to the consideration consideration; I think I can promise them that, whether of the general glut" habitual in England. Accu