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gives it effect. France has been long undergoing journals, to which there is nothing comparable in a moral change which is not improvement. M. other countries. The defects of the journals are Comte calls it a moral decomposition, and looks for obvious, and they result from the submission of the the remedy in the positive philosophy. The remedy, journalists to the despotic reaction of public opiif found, must be sought for elsewhere.

nion--the charge of venality is absurd. The most Starting on a higher level of moral and political important view of the journals is, that they form a attainment than any other new community, the perfect mechanism, throngh which every one who Americans have made prodigious advances in has the ear of the public can act upon its moral wealth and power: but the change in their moral condition. condition has been deterioration. The character The last chapter, pointing to the grand and only

officient nomodu ia antitled “ Reconciliation of the

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TO BE COMPLETED IN TWELVE OR FIFTEEN NUMBERS.

EDINBURGH: JAMES NICHOL. LONDON : J. NISBET & co.

AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS.

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

WITNESS. “ This is a work of the deepest interest. The bullet of the French musket that ploughed through Signor Nicolini's hand, when he stood among his countrymen and compatriots on the ramparts of Rome, fighting the battle of freedom and truth, has left him (with all respect to his Roman bravery) to wield, in his pen, & weapon more pointed and powerful than his sword. Happy was it for God and freedom's cause that the Jesuits had not the direction of the ball--they would certainly have billeted it in the Signor's high and ample forehead."

“We had scored pages of Nicolini's work for extracting illustration of the character and deeds of, in many respects, the most extraordinary body of men whom the world ever saw; but we transcribe none, saying with Martin Luther, when he was to discourse on music, 'I knew not when to begin, nor when to end.' We content ourselves with honestly and earnestly recommending this work. It was a noble sight to see the portly form of Gavazzi, when, standing on an open platform in our city, he launched his thunderbolts across Europe at the head of the Pope--nor is it less interesting to watch his countryman Nicolini ag he toars assunder the well-woven robe, and exposes to our eyes the Jesuit in his true character, as the most formidable enemy alive to the Church of God, the peace of families, the stability of kingdoms, and the liberties of the human race."

SCOTTISH PRESS. " A popular history of the Jesuits has long been a desideratum.

Intimately acquainted with the principles or policy, and constitution of Jesuitism, and extensively read in authorities upon the subject, both in works written by members of the Society and by other Continental writers, the anthor has given us, so far as we can judge by the three numbers of his work that have been published, a clear and forcible idea of the subject, free alike from indiscriminate abuse and from prejudice."

“We cannot close our present notice of Signor Nicolini's very interesting work, without alluding to the fact, that its price and form are alike calculated to obtain for it a very wide circulation. At no period in our history could the extensive circulation of such a book be of inore importance."

SCOTSMAN. · He has been an eye-witness of the abuses which he recalls and describes; he has had access both in England and in Italy to many documents that explain the origin and progress of the singular sect in question; and he has been long enough resident in this country to be able fully to appreciate the advantages of civil and religious freedom, and to

aten England; a posthem, being far from

conceive a condition 3 before all things to ties of invasion would lastening, designed as iption and moral torursuit of wealih. .. 3 may not come upon islative nostrum-no ctor, for enabling evil no novel stimulant to 0, something homely,

individual cases, and CHRISTIANITY. This shole. ... withstanding an active t be described as an tical Christianity. ago, the great fact the central idea of farlyle. Both pro

great Frenchman tive Philosophy;" 1, “Hero-worship;" che true remedy is 1, eighteen hundred · human form ; and ind in the fact, that ing influence in the which is doing the en now. Numbers onclusion who will nich it leads, which ustain one form of er. All the crimi. troversy should be 1. Externally and

the Churches are eir Christian aspect ot follow the illussubject, nor go over inti-Papal Bill, the ernment, and other will see the drist of e thus imperfectly but that. What lie actical Christianity itions of Christians, exertions in a spirit is the great want of a new spirit in all would lead them to onger in each other, nergies against that e mass of moral evil

and acting with authority and effect in her inter- practice. Its fundamental principle is, that all course with foreign nations. This country cannot great changes in the social condition of a people exist without alliances. The effect of disclaiming are preceded by changes in their convictions. These foreign relations would be not only a loss of honour, are the causes that produce them. Further, that but an acquisition of contempt and a provoking of the earliest convictions are theological, implying a aggression.

belief in supernatural power. Subsequently, the Chapter IX, the last of Part II., is on the Na-I mind attaino them. tional Defencr them, of nav analogous top remarks on n force and mili rative morality

2 ing is to the p An eminent of

dread and deprecate the insidious power of a brotherhood wholly opposed to both liberty flections cast ul.

and advancement." civilians at a peai

“This work has the great advantage of being at once brief enough to be read even by war were rather c

men engrossed with other matters, and cheap enough to come within the compass of most of the Cape. Th

persons' means." by what class of

CHRISTIAN FAMILY ADVOCATE. the muskets and tinued to be, sm

“We close our remarks upon this excellent work by again recommending it to the It would hardly b

public, not only on account of its own intrinsic merit, but to erince our esteem and It is unnecessary

gratitude to those unhappy exiles—the martyrs of liberty and religion-who repay our from one of a fam

hospitality by revealing the perfidy of the Court of Rome, in a manner in which only ther the sworil, was 1

can do who have been born and educated in the bosom of the Roman Catholic Church." evaded. The ari

THE BULWARK. slaughter English plied to them by 1

“This promises to be a most interesting and instructive work. Jesuitism is just conin her Majesty's

densed Popery; and as our country swarms with the agents of this mysterious fraternity, ness. ... Very

the people of Britain cannot understand them too thoroughly. Nor can any one inform the history of a na

them better on the subject than a learned and right-hearted Italian, who knows Jesuitism deeply was the 1

in all its phases, by history, observation, and experience." slave-trade, that C

BRITISH BANNER. nearly cost bim hi chants.

“We are right glad to see this work, the first three Parts of which are now before as,

which is to be completed in twelve or fifteen numbers, and which sell, each for the trifle As a proof of

of fourpence! What with the tongue of Gavazzi on the one hand, and the pen of Nicolini army in raising

on the other, it may be doubted whether already they have not done more damage to nity, the author

Romanism than if they had been allowed to smoke their cigars in the Eternal City. Some

of our readers are aware that M. Nicolini speaks, as well as writes, the English language on board the B.

in a superior manner, and that he has acted, in Scotland, as the interpreter of Gavazzi. the law of disc

We scarcely know how this interesting refugee could better employ his period of exile, duties which we

than in weaving up a popular narrative of this great subject. We have already many hisperformed, went

tories of various merit of the Jesuits, but the subject is not only not exhausted, but for inevitable death.

popular purposes, there was abundant room for the present publication. We are not sure whether Nicolini has not advantages over any mere English writer, no matter what his

genius, or his learning, in dealing with this question. With British literati, the charac. After the abos

ter and doings of the Jesuits are very much' matters of hearsay and history. Not so with at the Dangerst

Nicolini, who has seen the baleful fruit of their pernicious labours in the ruin of his own suggested, the r

country, and of the neighbouring countries, and who is himself, at this moment, the arrive at the P:

victim of their conspiracy against the liberties of Rome. tutes the third ar

“He tells us, that when he first hinted his design to his friends, they dissuaded him, ou

account of its difficulty; but he wisely resisted the insinuation. Nicolini tells us, that what commences with

he finds his main difficulty is, to discover and delineate the true character of the Jesuit, of Social Progr

since to take him for what he appears to be, is to commit the greatest of blanders. The

Jesuit in London, and the Jesuit in Rome, are characters so different, men so unlike each terial wealth, ir

other, that were both delineated, there would be scarcely anything in common in the moral progressior

portraits. The Jesuit is a man of circumstances, despotic in Spain, constitutional in is connected with

England, republican in Paraguay, a bigot in Rome, and an idolaterin India! He assume,

and acts out, in his own person, all the different features by which men are distinguished regarded as invc

from each other. He accompanies the gay woman of the world to the theatre and shares of progress; a no

in all the revolting excesses of the debauchee! With solemn countenance Le takes his by the authority

place by the side of the religious man at church, and he revels in the tavern with the idea of a continued

glutton and the sot! He dresses in all garbs, speaks all languages, knows all customs, is

present everywhere, though not recognized, and all this for the greater glory of God' knowledge but ir

“We may just state, that Nicolini has also published the 'Life of Gavazzi, with three long-prevalent nc

of his Oratiors, delivered in Scotland, for the triple of sixpence, which we have read with corresponded to tl

great satisfaction, and which we are happy to see is already in the fifth thousand." infancy, through The idea of an ini to ns through Con little more than in spaer mu prosophical ortho- | gratification ; where are the corresponding moral

mmpuises to personal doxy of his contemporaries. The theory of M.Comte restraints? In the arıny alone exist the old disciis characterised by Mill as useless for guidance in 1 pline, the old valour, and the subordination that

kinds of progress

gives it effect. France has been long undergoing journals, to which there is nothing comparable in a moral change which is not improvement. M. other countries. The defects of the journals are Comte calls it a moral decomposition, and looks for obvious, and they result from the submission of the the remedy in the positive philosophy. The remedy, journalists to the despotic reaction of public opiif found, must be sought for elsewhere.

nion—the charge of venality is absurd. The most Starting on a higher level of moral and political important view of the journals is, that they form a attainment than any other new community, the perfect mechanism, throngh which every one who Americans have made prodigious advances in has the ear of the public can act upon its moral wealth and power: but the change in their moral condition. condition has been deterioration. The character The last chapter, pointing to the grand and only of public men has declined, and legislation has efficient remedy, is entitled “ Reconciliation of the fallen into the hands of an inferior class. The best Churches," and opens thus :minds shrink from political life; a fatal sign of moral decay. On the subject of negro slavery the sible invasion, if it be thought one of them, being far from

Great evils, then, do appear to threaten England; a posmorals of the nation have become depraved. The the greatest. Indeed, one may easily conceive a condition morals of commerce are shown by the general of society in which, to a mind looking before all things to feeling on the subject of bankruptcy, which it is man's highest welfare, even the calamities of invasion would considered not in good taste to all to in society. be accepted as a kind and fatherly chastening, designed as The pursuit of gain rages with increasing violence, por brought on by an all-engrossing pursuit of wealth. ...

a means of deliverance from the corruption and moral torintensified by the Californian discoveries, and the But what should we do that such evils may not come upon moral tone of the nation is deteriorating.

us? The remedy is plain. No legislative nostrum-10 The evil signs in England are, increased eager- ingenious device of the Socialist projector, for enabling evil ness in the pursuit of wealth, and a decline of moral hearts to carry out the Divine law-no novel stimulant to courage and frankness as appearing in public life. old and familiar, but often tried in individual cases, and

make an empty life supportable; no, something homely, One effect of the intense competition existing, is always found effectual—PBACTICAL CHRISTIANITY. This the omnipresent spectacle of quackery and puffing, is the subject-the marrow of the whole. . .. Our spewhich has grown to such an extent that at length cific malady

at this present time, notwithstanding an active success depends not upon what a person is, but aversion of the national heart to practical Christianity.

but rather noisy philanthropy, must be described as an upon what he seems. The honest are driven to quackery, to protect themselves from the dis- About five-and-twenty years ago, the great fact honest. Such things are the indications of a moral of social decomposition became the central idea of disease. The decline of moral courage among two great minds, Comte and Carlyle. Both propublic men is, however, the more serious evil. posed a remedy. That of the great Frenchman Public opinion is growing tyrannical, and those was “ Demonstration"—“Positive Philosophy;" who depend on its favour are tempted to become that of the eccentric Englishman, “ Hero-worship;" subservient. Members of inflexible honesty are and both are of no avail

. The true remedy is driven from their seats in Parliament, though pos- found in the Divine Life which, eighteen hundred sessing the very qualities that should secure them years ago, was exhibited in the human form ; and perinanently. There should be permanent seats the proof of its efficacy is found in the fact, that for tried men.

If a representative absolutely only this has been the regenerating influence in the changes his opinion, he should restore the repre- history of the world. It is this which is doing the sentative trust to those who placed it in his hands; work so far as it is done even now. Numbers but resistance to tried men, on the ground of any will concur in this practical conclusion who will question in agitation, is a dangerous working of recoil from the inference to which it leads, which the democratic principle, tending to destroy all is, that it will not serve to sustain one form of independence and high character in public men. Christian worship against another. All the crimiThus the position of Mr. Macaulay, at Edinburgh, nations and malignities of controversy should be ought never to have been disturbed, and Mr. Roe- at once and for ever abandoned. Externally and buck should have retained his seat for Bath. The in their exclusive aspect all the Churches are spirit which ejected these two members is the same repulsive. Internally and in their Christian aspect spirit which is to be found everywhere; and the all are beautiful. We need not follow the illuswant of a courageous and uncompromising resist- trations of our author on this subject, nor go over ance to it is the worst political symptom of the his masterly review of the Anti-Papal Bill, the time.

Papal question, the Papal government, and other Against these evils there are many grounds of relative matters. Our readers will see the drift of hope. Two circumstances are especially favour- his argument, which we have thus imperfectly able as counteracting influences. The first is traced to its conclusion, without that. What he the great variety of masses into which society in aims at is the inculcation of practical Cliristianity England is divided, insuring this great result—that among all sects and denominations of Christians, every prominent opinion is sure to get adequately to be carried out by personal exertions in a spirit criticised, and the just criticism will prevail in the of union. “Here,” says he, “is the great want of end. The second is, the existence of a newspaper- the present time—the rise of a new spirit in all press characterised by a high moral tone, con- the Churches ; a spirit which would lead them to summate ability, and the fulness and accuracy of see their chief antagonists no longer in each other, its records. This perfection of reported intelli- and to direct their united energies against that gence is the most important feature of the English large, menacing, and aggressive mass of moral evil

with which Christian organisation alone can effec-operation ought to be confined. There is a species tually cope."

of absolutisin which is a sacred obligation to every We have occupied more space than we intended Government, and woe to any people whose Governin the above rapid summary of the work before ment shall neglect to exercise it; the mischief us, but have yet been all too brief to enable the unfortunately is, that Governments have caused so reader to form more than a vague idea of its merits. much loss and confusion by ignorant intermeddling It is a volume which demands a careful perusal, with what they do not understand, that commercial and being written and arranged in a somewhat men dread their interference, and deprecate it with unobvious style, and appearing more discursive loathing. Men of business, however, have been than it really is, it will not bear to be hastily mistaken at times as well as their opponents ; the skimmed over. There are broached in it many working of the Ten Hours Act, a measure against doctrines at variance with the principles we are which they united all their forces, is a standing accustomed to advocate, but we are not called upon proof of their want of penetration, if not of someto controvert them. Mr. Lalor's opinions on the thing else. subject of money appear to us to exaggerate the In pointing us to practical Christianity as the importance of what is at most but one of the im- grand remedy for the evils, political and social, plements of commerce—the medium of exchanges. which affect the nation and environ it with perils, Of course, as such, exist in what shape it may, it the writer goes upon sure ground. But he does is the paying power, and rules despotically over not tell us how the world is to be made subject to commodities; but it is also itself a commodity, and the sacred law. Here is a problem for solution varies in value as commodities vary-and it shonld far greater than any to be found in the whole be of less importance than they are, as its value is range of political economy. If every man who for the most part conventional, and would be nil boasts the name of Christian would lay hold of the were there no commodities to exchange for it. remedy, and apply it to the best of his ability, The amount of it that can come into use, except there can be no doubt ihat the evils under wbich for mere gambling purposes, must always be regu- we groan, and the greater ones which already lated by the supply of materials, whatever they threaten us in the future, would rapidly diminish may be, for which it will exchange.

and disappear. But then the reception of ChrisIt is rather a novel lesson in economics to see tianity must be universal. If only those who are the pursuit of wealth decried—even in the very in a position to be benefactors turn practical Chrismodes which have hitherto been held to be most tians, and not those who are habitually the recilegitimate and praiseworthy, by the expansion of pients of charity as well, the world might be but industry, that is, and the employment of capital. little better for the change. It is the perception But Mr. Lalor's book, which, like all good books, of this, for one thing, which has given currency to suggests more than it demonstrates, sounds a note laisser faire beyond the domain of commerce. of warning on this subject which he that hath ears Ill-advised benevolence has demoralised millions, may hear. Can it be that the dogged and indomi- and extinguished the energies of more, until it has table thrift of the British people is at bottom the become a question with many whether any systeoriginating cause of the hopeless and moiling matic interference with people's miseries is admiseries of their lowest classes ? and through them visable or not; and the conclusion come to long of the classes above them? Does capital cut its ago would seem to be, that the only thing that can own throat? · If it be true that every pound that be prudently done for the wretched is to help them is saved from income comes into competition with to help themselves. But this has been found so the mass of dormant capital constantly waiting for difficult a task, and the endeavours of individuals employment, and ready to crush into the first have so much oftener failed than succeeded, that opening which promises a profit, then every pound the experiment has grown proverbially distasteful that is saved beyond the amount of capital wanted and painful; and men of the widest philanthropy to keep productions equal to demand is a burden and the purest benevolence have given up the and a curse to the producing classes. For in a attempt, or at least delegated to hirelings the task commercial market, characterised as ours is at all of carrying on “in the abodes of poverty, ignotimes by a “general glut,” new capital can only rance and sorrow that process of individual perexpect to find a return by creating new commodi- sonal communication without which nothing effecties at a cost which will enable their producers to tual is accomplished for the moral redemption of undersell those already in the market; and to do mankind." this the labourer must be ground down. How According to Mr. Lalor, and, indeed, according many industrial professions have undergone this to the experience of the last half-century at least

, process during the last thirty years the reader this country is now upon the eve of one of those probably knows. The author proposes new in- monster speculative manias which, recurring in vestments for the employment of capital under cycles of about ten years, have periodically played Government sanction and direction, with a nobler such havoc among the moderate and small capiobject than the mere realisation of a profit, though talists, and transferred the money-wealth of the securing that as well. This scheme looks like a community to different owners. All the symptoms direct attack upon the doctrine of laisser faire, of the coming eruption of the speculative volcano though it does not appear that it would interfere are rife and lowering in the atmosphere. Capital, with the practical operation of that doctrine in like the dog on the plank, is ready to plunge into commerce, to which we are inclined to think its the stream, should it catch but a glimpse of its own shadow; and a thousand busy and unprin- a profound and practical knowledge of the subject cipled heads are at work concocting delusions in as could only be acquired by the careful observathe hope of supplying an impetus to the leap. At tion and study of years. The volume is written such a period this treatise on Money and Morals throughout with elegance and ease-often with an is well timed, and we hope it will be well and eloquence and pathos not to be surpassed, and widely read. It is not an ephemeral work vamped rarely to be met with in dissertations on political up to meet the occasion, but a masterpiece of sound economy. philosophy, embodying much true wisdom, and such

THE ILLUSTRIOUS EXILES. Mrs. Tibbits lived at Coburg-crescent, one of tinne firm in that faith; but the cheesemonger those corners of London's far-spreading skirts, in had abode in it through five-and-twenty years, and, which the genius of building seems to have unac- in his case, there was something like convincing countably paused ; for it contained only eleven evidence. Mrs. Tibbits read shoals of magazines small, genteel houses, with little courts in front, and new books, could talk on all popular subjects, little flower-gardens behind, and so perfectly millinerise her own caps, sketch, crochet, and, as finished on the same pattern that they were distin- her better half was wont to say, “ play the pianner guishable only by their numbers.

like a perfect hartist.” Notwithstanding all these Of that crescent Mrs. Tibbits was queen reg- talents and accomplishments, she kept a neat, comnant; her regalia consisted of a boy in livery, a fortable house, looked well after the dinners, and diminutive phaeton, and a certain card basket, showed, in all her works and ways, a genuine conwhich, it was presumed, could furnish proof that sideration for Tibbits' pocket. Moreover, Mrs. Mrs. Tibbits kept the very first society. In these Tibbits was not of the commanding school; but matters she reigned without a rival among the gently clever, and particularly spare and pretty for eleven domiciles. As for Mr. Tibbits, nobody her time of life. She had been a prudent and thought of him, except in connexion with a cheese- kindly mother to Tibbits' girls, two some time monger's warehouse far away in Fleet-lane. There grown-up daughters, who constituted the entire his life was spent from nine in the morning till, in family, and who were commonly called Lucy and his own laconic phraseology, “the 'bus brought Cisy, though, on grand occasions, known to him home at six." That had been the course their mamma, at least, as Lucinda and Cecilia. of Mr. Tibbits'existence for five-and-twenty Pretty, refined-looking girls they were, and much wedded years, during which he had risen, by many alike; only most people remarked that Lucy had a slow but steady step, from the estate of a sales- the finest eyes, and Cisy the best complexion, man to what, in after-dinner speeches, he was wont while intimates were apt to add that Lucy was far to call his “present exalted and responsible posi- the proudest, and Cisy the most agreeable. tion,” that of managing partner in the house of Mrs. Tibbits was decided on Lucinda's being the Tibbits and Niblet. An honest, industrious and most lady-like. She had, in consequence, just a domestic man was the chief of the Tibbits house. shade of partiality for her eldest daughter; for, hold as could be found among the shops and homes though very nearly a pattern English woman, Mrs. of England. Stout, rosy and sensible, though not Tibbits loved gentility in her heart. Tongue could overburdened with heavy or light literature, Mr. not tell how deeply she venerated the fashion. It Tibbits stood by his friends and his business, knew was the faith of her domestic life. To her the no difference between his word and his bond, and West-end was Mecca, whither all the devotion of did his best to make things sure and comfortable her week-days turned, and the prophet in whom for Mrs. Tibbits and the girls.

she believed was Mrs. Thompson Lawrence. Mrs. The first lady on that list had been the daughter Thompson was related to the Tibbits somehow of a half-pay captain, who died, and left her at through the solicitor and his thirteen. In her eighteen to fulfil the double capacity of poor re- youth she had gone to Calcutta as a governess, and lation and governess in the house of an uncle with captured a commissary in the East India Comthirteen children, and a small business in the pany's service, who gathered half a lac of rupees, solicitor line. The uncle still spoke of the sacrifice he said, “ by unparalleled honesty in one of the his niece had made in marrying Tibbits. He had, many wars of the Punjaub." Mr. Thompson Lawindeed, been so candid and confidential on the rence averred that he " should have been somebody, subject, that Tibbits half believed in the offering for his mother was very nearly married to a Scotch up, though the benevolent man had given away the earl.” Further into his family history he vouchbride, presented a frock to the first baby, and safed no introduction ; but his lady was clear on patronised the firm in Fleet-lane occasionally, to her genealogy up to an Admiral of the Blue. She what profit its managing partner best knew. Tib- had, also, a private tradition that Mr. Thompson bits also knew that there was not such a wife as his was ten years her senior, though less partial befor streets round. Few husbands, they say, con- holders would have thought the pair children of

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