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Tuscan states would have extended from Leghorn | Italy was involved by implication ; but for a long to Ancona, I am persuaded that such arrange- time preceding the election of Charles V., the ments would have contributed to the peace of Emperor's authority had been growing weaker and Europe, to the progress of civilisation, and unques- weaker, and had dwindled down to the usage of a tionably to the peace, happiness, and prosperity of few feudal rights and the form of coronation in the people of Italy. Nor do I think that Austria that country, and this latter had been omitted, for would have been lowered in the scale of nations if good reasons, by the immediate predecessors of she had confined her territories to the north of the Charles—the Emperors Frederic III. and MaxiAlps; for then she would have been limited to a milian I. Charles V. was crowned Emperor and degree that at present no one can say is the case." King by the Pope ; and he was the last that was
Thus, in the summer of 1852, in the last ses- so. During the reign of that potent monarch, sion of Parliament, spoke Viscount Palmerston *- Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and Milan, were, hereno longer directing the Foreign Affairs of Great ditarily in the three first, by conquest and approBritain.
priation in the last, his personal possessions. It Five years have passed since the despatches we was decidedly the Spaniard and not the German have quoted were written to the Austrian diplo- that dominated beyond the Alps. Upon the abdimatist in London — in rebuke, we presume we cation of Charles this was marked with greater must call it, of the Italian tendencies of Lord distinctness. It was then (as everybody knows) Palmerston. In the interval, a bloody struggle that the division of the Austrian house took has taken place in those parts of “our august place—the Spanish branch forming the hereditary, master's " empire which “extend beyond the Alps." the German the elective line. To the former went The sword has been drawn for Italian independ- all the Italian possessions of Charles; and even ence,
and has been sheathed in discomfiture. The under the feeble and inefficient princes who suc“ Emperor” has resumed his sway in his portion ceeded Philip II. on the throne of Spain, it was of Northern, and, it would seem for the present, still the Spaniard's grasp that was fastened upon even increased his influence, his domination, in Italy. The Emperor's titular sovereignty, it is Central Italy. And yet, maugre this re-establish- true, remained (for the “Holy Roman Empire" ment of imperial authority in that country, maugre remained) over certain appurtevances of the the disastrous issue of Italian aspirations, here we Spanish crown in that country; but the actual edhave the same Viscount Palmerston, in his place joyment and the substantial power lay with the in Parliament—not, it is true, as a Minister, but latter; and had the interests of the two branches with all the weight of his great name and fame- not been (as they almost invariably were during uttering, in the shape of regrets for the past, that period) identical, the relations of vassal and words which we may fairly consider as embodying feudal lord would have had little influence indeed wishes, if not hopes, for the future. We share upon the action of one of the parties. those wishes: our hopes are, it is true, less clear But it is from the peace of Utrecht we proand distinct than they.
posed to take our departure ; for it is then that A vast clamour was raised among politicians of England first appears with any weight or interest a certain stamp against the renowned ex-Secretary in Italian politics. By that peace the Emperor for the line he pursued in Austro-Italian matters. obtained of the spoils of the Spanish monarchy The Ultra-Tory allies of Austria in this country in that quarter of the world, Naples, the presidii were infinitely more angry with his lordship for of Tuscany, and the Duchy of Milan; but the his patronage of Italian than of Hungarian revolt- last he did not obtain entire. During the war that ers. The comparative merits of the two insurrec- preceded that treaty, he had been forced, in order to tions we will not here enter upon. But, as one detach the Duke of Savoy from the French cause, to principal ground of attack upon Lord Palmerston confer on him certain investitures. Those grants was what his arraigners called an unprecedented had been made very reluctantly by the Emperor opposition to “ our ancient ally,” we think we can (Joseph I.), and he had even revoked them. The set that matter fairly at rest, as far as Italia treaty of Utrecht, however, con rmed the Duke questions are concerned. At the same time, we (Victor Amadeus) in those assignments—in Monbelieve that a retrospective glance at the territorial ferrat and in the districts detached from the apportionment of Italy will be interesting to our Milanese. It did more.
It gave to him that readers, and useful in enabling them to embrace famous isle of the Mediterranean," and with it the present situation, and to appreciate possible the royal dignity. King of Sicily was the first eventualities.
regal style of the Alpine duke, whose ambition, We shall not go further back, in detail, than however, pointed elsewhere. the peace of Utrecht, and for this reason : that Now, in that treaty of peace, England, we supfor some century and a half before that date pose it will be admitted, played no inferior part: the Emperors of Germany scarcely possessed for and to the patronage of that power it was that the themselves a single domain on Italian soil.f Piedmontese was indebted for his elevation in the In the imperial diguity of old the royalty of scale of dignities, and for the advantageous place
altogether which he occupied in the treaty. Eng. * Times report.
land, whilst, in order to counterbalance the access 1., it is true, but only in that war which the peace of Utrecht Bourbon on the throne of Spain, she vindicated
+ The Duchy of Mantua was seized by the Emperor Joseph sion to French power by the establishment of & terminated.
for her ally the Emperor the great bulk of the It was in this case, too, a gainer. True, it did possessions of the Spaniard in Italy, at the same some service for its gains ; but even that could not time endeavoured to secure something of a coun- render less bitter to the Empress-Queen the saterpoise to that extensive rule by the aggrandiza-crifices she was compelled to make, and she vented tion and promotion of the House of Savoy. England her bitterness upon her ally, Great Britain. may be said to have stood sponsor at its regal England had backed, if not suggested, the claims baptism, and to have rocked the cradle of its of the Piedmontese; England had taken the royalty. So distasteful, in fact, to the Emperor House of Savoy under its special patronage ; and was this undisguised favour of the British Govern- the fresh subtractions from the fair Milanese ment to Victor Amadeus, that he refused to re- at the Treaties of Worms and Aix-la-Chapelle cognise the latter as King of Sicily, and would not (1743 and 1748) were resented by the Court of accede to the stipulations of the Treaty of Utrecht. Vienpa to such a degree that there can be no It was not till the next year that he made peace doubt of their having influenced its relations to at Baden, when as some compensation (a very this country for some time afterwards, and tended moderate one certainly) for Sicily, he obtained to produce that rapprochement between Hapsburg Sardinia, which, with a topographical no less than and Bourbon, in which the rivalries of centuries historical propriety that cannot be too much ad- were forgotten, and in which the daughter of mired, the negotiators of Utrecht had assigned to Rudolph's race stooped to conquer—the Pompathat equally Mediterranean and maritime power, dour. Any one may read in the historian of the the Electorate of Bavaria !
" House of Austria" the wounded pride of Maria Two or three years afterwards Sicily was made Theresa, the soreness she took no pains to conover to the Emperor, and Sardinia given to the ceal in her intercourse with the English AmbasDuke of Savoy, by the Treaty of the Quadruple sador, and her outbreaks against this country as Alliance (1718)—an alliance formed to arrest the the cause of her mortifications. ambitious projects of Alberoni. On the same oc- The deductions from the Milanese just alluded casion the Spaniard was re-introduced into Italy—to—made at Worms and confirmed at Aix-lain but circumscribed limits, it is true—in the per- Chapelle-were the Valle di Novara (that is, the son of Don Carlos, to whom were allotted in pros. Upper Province of that name) and the Pavese. pect the Duchies of Parma and Placentia, and the This last cession completed the Sardinian territory Grand Duchy of Tuscany, then occupied by the on the side of Milan. Step by step, since the last of the Medici. We shall see presently how commencement of the century, the Piedmontese this stipulation ultimately affected Central Italy. princes had acquired all the portions of that splenBut it is the Sardinian monarchy that first con- did duchy that lay on the right bank of the Ticino. cerus us.
From this date, that river divides the sovereignties In the war of the Polish Succession (from 1733 of Hapsburg and Savoy. to 1738) the maritime powers, England and Hol- Such, then, was the territorial progress of the land, usually involved in any important European Piedmontese power in the first half of the last contest, took no part. But the Sardinian power century. We pass over all the intermediate time was a gainer. Only this time it was to an enemy until the great settlement of 1814-15, as affording, and not to an ally that the price was paid by whether in the stationary position of the monarchy, Austria—in the shape of more territorial cessions; or in its vicissitudes during the wars of the French the provinces of Tortona and Lower Novara, with Revolution, nothing that immediately touches our some smaller lordships, and the Laughes (a dis- present purpose. At the Treaties of '14 and '15, trict between Montferrat and Piedmont) to be held the kingdom of Sardinia again rears its head out as imperial fiefs.
of that vast deluge of ambition that had engulphed Next came the war of the Austrian Succession. so many a throne. It reappears, and with it the One is really weary of these wars of pure lust of patronage of England-patronage extended even aggrandisement that so crowd the eighteenth cen- to the length of dishonour to the patron; for the tury—the war of the Spanish, of the Polish, of faith of England had been pledged to the Genoese the Austrian, the only-not-war of the Bavarian for the restoration of their ancient independence Succession. Nothing but wars of Succession ! when Lord W. Bentinck appeared before their Where the contests did not bear this appellation, city. their motive was the same-mere lust of territory, We may here mention, by the bye, that the the wanton rapine of ambition. In effect, from Congress of Vienna, to which appeal is so often the great religious to the great political devasta- made, was not the sole standard of the international tion—from the Thirty Years' War in the seven relations of Europe at the epoch from which its teenth to the French Revolution at the end of the territorial distribution, so long undisturbed, is dated. eighteenth century, not a war occurred involving That Congress stands intermediately between the any principles dear to humanity, disclosing any two Treaties of Paris of May 1814 and November growing popular opinion, or embodying any great 1815. However, to take all three together, they national sentiment. Who, for instance, ever heard left at last the monarchy of the House of Savoy in or dreamed of Italian independence, Italian na. possession of its limits of 1792, with the addition tionality in those days? But this by the way. of the states of Genoa, and the so-called Imperial Let us see how the Sardinian power fared in re- fiefs, which, formerly attached to the German spect to this war of the Austrian Succession. Emperor, had been ceded to form part of the
Ligurian Republic, during its short-lived exist- same time it seems to have intended to counterpoise
imperial by Spanish influence in the Peninsula. Now, it seems to us, from this résumé of terri. With these two purposes, as regarded Italian torial transactions as regards Austria and Sardinia matters, the contracting Powers adjudged Sicily to from the beginning of the last century, that the the Austrian, but granted the eventual succession to accusation of having taken up the latter as a pet- Parma and Placentia, and to the Grand Duchy of power, and having thus departed from traditional Tuscany, to Don Carlos of Spain, with investiture British policy, is not well grounded against our by the Emperor. It is true that this arrangement late—and, we will add, great—Foreign Minister. was not definitively agreed to till some dozen From the date of the establishment of German years afterwards, nor without much opposition and Hapsburg in Italy upon the ruins of the Spanish many a shifting alliance; and it is also true that it monarchy, we perceive England aiding to promote gave occasion to the only trace we can find of in. the Piedmontese sovereigns on important occa dependence or national spirit in all these dreary sions — never opposing their pretensions. We pages of Italian chronicles. The Pope protested, perceive this country, whilst it assisted in the alleging his ancient rights over Parma. The establishment of the Austrian for the counterac- Farnese Duke refused to acknowledge any but tion of the Bourbon influence, at the same time pontifical sovereignty over bis Duchy. The last keeping a steady and vigilant eye upon the march of the Medici, not admitting even that mezzo terof the Imperial power in the Italian peninsula ; mine, asserted “divine right” in its most direct and as it advances, pace by pace, taking care to and unmitigated acceptation. rear and to encourage at its side another power, to Three years sufficed for the duration of this serve as a check to over-preponderance, and a ral- " settlement” (as used to be said of that ever unlying-point in case of need." In extending, then, settled “Eastern Question"), which had cost so her protection and patronage. to the House of much toil and trouble. It was a singular revoSavoy, England, acting by her late Foreign Secre- lution," says, justly enough, a caustic historian, "a tary, has followed a policy of tradition. But it is singular turn of things, that deprived Charles VI. said by the adversaries of Lord Palmerston that for ever of Naples and Sicily, and again enriched policy has been pushed too far; it has ceased to the King of Sardinia at his expense, because he be a mere precaution for the purpose of counter- (the Emperor) had had a hand in giving a king to balancing Austrian ascendancy in Italy ; it has the Poles."* assumed all but an aggressive character, for the The war of the Polish Succession was termi. purpose of extending that power altogether. In nated by a treaty of peace in 1738. In accordshori, it has abetted the attempts at independence; ance with its provisions, Don Carlos quitted Parma it has joined in the cry for Italian nationality. and Placentia for Naples and Sicily, conquered by But if this be so, we think it can be shown that in him during the war. The two duchies he resigned so doing it had in view the interests, not of Italy to the Emperor; and, moreover, renounced the alone, but also of Austria herself, and, in a great right—which, by the death of John Gaston, the measure, of Europe.
last of the Medici, had now become available-to First, bowever, we will just sketch for our the succession of Tuscany, reserving, however, the readers the territorial vicissitudes of those other Presidii. Tuscany was lianded over to the consort portions of Italy in question, in order to show how of that princess whose inheritance was soon to its fair sovereignties were tossed about between furnish the materials for yet another “War of Bourbons and Hapsburgs; how the “Great Powers" Succession." handled Italian provinces as mere merchandise;
Bella gerant alii; tu, felix Austria, nube ; how they resorted to that country for materials
Nam quæ Mars aliis, dat tibi regna Venus. for a system of barter to settle their own disputes. It was a duke going a-begging for a duchy--this The following brief résumé will amply bear out the truth of these assertions.
same Francis, erst of Lorraine. He had been
compelled to abdicate his duchy of that name to , as to the imperial branch of the Hapsburg House soothe the disappointment of the Posnanian Naples, Milan, and the ports of Tuscany. T. Stanislaus, and the mortified dignity of his son-inthese must be added Mantua, of which the Em. law, Louis XV. Happily, the Etruscan vacaney peror Joseph took possession during the war.
* Voltaire, “ Annales de l'Empire.” The whole passage is so Tuscany was then in possession of the Medici; much in the vein of the writer, and contains so much truth of Parma, of the Farnese; Modena (to which Miran- general, application, that we hold it worth extracting dola had lately been sold by the Emperor) of the enchâino tous les érenémens, ct se joue de la prévoyance des
Rien,” he proceeds, "ne montre mieux quelle fatalité Este. The allotment of Sardinia and Sicily, hommes. Son bonheur l'avait deux fois rendu victorieur de made under this treaty, and that of Baden (a sort 150,000 Turcs; ct Naples et Sicile lui furent enlerés par of supplement to it), has been already mentioned. 10:1900 Espagnols, en une seule cainpagne. Aurait-on imagine So it was the German that, almost exclusively, Pologne par Charles XII.; qu'ayant perdu la Pologne, il desupplanted the Spaniard. The treaty of the viendrait duc de Lorraine ; et que, pour cette raison là même, Quadruple Alliance was signed five years after that he concludes, " à tous les événemens qui ont troublé et changé of Utrecht. Its main object, undoubtedly, was to les états, on trouvera que presque rien n'est arrivé de ce que check the daring ambition and arrest the exorbitant les peuples attendaient, et de co que les politiques avaient
preparé.” Clenching conclusion ! and which may well give rojects of the Cardinal-Adventurer ; but at the us all pause.
. All parties were satisfied: that of Northern,* and succeeding the Italian in Cenis to say, all who were consulted. Is it necessary tral Italy it and the Spaniard, yet again, ousting to add, princes were the parties, not the people? the German from the principality of Northern And thus were Italian fortunes affected by a Italy. What an absurd embroglio ! equal in inquarrel for a Sarmatian throne !
tricacy to the House that Jack built-in logical Last of the changes, until the great revolu- sequence, we opine, inferior to that celebrated tionary shock which shattered many a political myth. But, on the other hand, what a sad hisedifice and displaced dynasties, native or foreign, torical spectacle! The famous sonnet of Filicaja, old or new, was the change effected by the Treaty written a century before the date we have arrived of Aix la Chapelle, in 1748. Italy' again sup- at—that maguiticent lament for a stranger-ridden plies the compensation ; for it was in consideration land and an impotent nationality—would it have of the restitutions made by France of its con- found much less cause for dropping its “ melodious quests in Flanders that Parma and Placentia were tears” over the retrospect of that half hundred we re-transferred to the Bourbons of Spain. Don have just reviewed ? Philip, brother of Carlos of Naples, and son-in- Our restricted space causes us to reserve the law to Louis XV., was installed in those duchies, observations we have further to offer in connexion to which Guastalla, lopped from the Duchy of with the subject of this paper. Having vindicated Mantua, was thrown in par dessus le marché. in some measure, we trust, the policy pursued in
Here then, in the space of less than half a Austro-Italian relations by this country under the century, we have had the German ousting the Palmerstonian régime, we propose, on another Spaniard from Northern and Southern Italy * the occasion, to consider the bearings of that policy Spaniard succeeding the Italian in a principality if carried out to such" changes in the map of of Northern, and not succeeding him in Centralt Europe," as the once mighty Minister, now become only because himself, in his turn, ousted the a presumptuous individual,” with a pencil that German from Southern Italy ;$ the German, might be mistaken for a Parthian arrow, "sketched again, ousting the Spaniard from the principality out.” * The Milanese and the two Sicilies. + Parma and Placentia. * Parma and Placentia.
+ Tuscany. | Tuscany. § Naples and Sicily.
| Parma and Placentia.
A DAY WITH A LION. A Few years ago, while residing at the Cape, I | business. I had heard of him not only as a lucky became acquainted with several of those enterpri- dealer and a daring hunter, but also as being one of sing traders who are engaged in the lucrative but the most intelligent explorers of South Africa ; rather hazardous traffic with the natives north and having been able on one occasion to render of the Orange River. These traders are some him a slight service, I obtained from him in return times absent for more than two years from the a good deal of information concerning those parts colony, moving about with their waggons and ser- of the interior with which he was faniiliar. Some vants, from one tribe to another, until their goods of his own adventures which he occasionally related, are all disposed of, when they return to Graham's in illustration of the facts thus communicated, Town or Cape Town with the cattle, hides, ivory, seemed to me to be curious and interesting enough ostrich feathers, and other valuables, into which to be worth preserving. One of them I will entheir original merchandise has been converted, deavour to repeat as nearly as possible in the usually at a profit of some four or five hundred per words in which he told it. cent. Most of those traders whom I knew in Cape It may be as well, before proceeding with the Town confined their operations to the country lying narrative, to mention briefly the circumstances along the western coast of the continent, and stretch- which drew from Mr. Hutton the account of this ing from the Orange River towards the Portuguese singular adventure. The service which I had possessions in Benguela. Some of them had ad- rendered to him consisted merely in obtaining from vanced on that side nearly to the great lake which the authorities, by proper representations, the has since been discovered by travellers proceeding liberation of a Namaqua servant, whom he had from another quarter. The existence of this lake brought to town with him from the country beyond is well known to the natives inhabiting the western the Orange River. This dusky youth was in apcoast, who have often spoken of it to their English pearance and in character a genuine Hottentot. visitors.
He had the small stature, the tawny complexion, One of the boldest and most successful of these ad- the deep-set eyes, the diminutive nose, the wide venturous traders was a Mr. Hutton, a respectable and prominent cheekbones, and the curiously English colonist, who had accumulated a small for- tufted hair which distinguish that peculiar race. tune by his excursions among the Namaquas and the He was usually silent, grave, and somewhat sullen Dammaras, and was talking of retiring from the in mood, except when he was excited by strong
liquor, of which, like most of his compatriots, he would make them out to be. I put the little fellow was immoderately fond. In this state Apollo (as in one of my waggons, and dosed him with quihe was preposterously named) became not only nine and other medicines; and in a few days he lively and boisterous, but excessively pugnacious. was running about, as well and lively as ever. He The latter quality brought him frequently into told me that his name was Tkuetkue, or some collision with some of the saucy and knowing other such crackjaw affair, with two or three clucks blacks of Cape Town, who found the same ma- in it, that I would not attempt to pronounce. So licious pleasure in teasing the poor Namaqua, that thinking it best to give him a Christian name, I town-bred youngsters in a London school evince in called him Apollo, in compliment to his good annoying any rustic new-comer. It was in con- looks. He has remained with me ever since, and sequence of an affair of this sort, that poor half- has always shown himself attached to me in his muddled Apollo, after a desperate combat with a own way. He is a real savage still. No one but gigantic Mozambique ** apprentice,” had one day myself can control him; and he generally obeys been bundled off by the police to the lock-up my orders as long as he can remember them, house; and his master, who was hardly more which is seldom more than a day. But I cannot familiar than A pollo himself with the ways of the make him a teetotaler or a man of peace, although town, came to me to ask my advice and assistance I believe I have set him a fair example in both towards getting the unlucky Namaqua released. those lines. He will drink whenever he can get There was little difficulty in accomplishing this, the liquor; and when he is excited by drink or when the circumstances were properly explained to provocation he will fight like a mad tiger. Otherthe presiding functionary; and Apollo, after a few wise he is an honest, faithful fellow, and the best hours detention in the “tronk” (or city jail), was after-rider I ever had. An after-rider, you know, restored to his master in a sober and very penitent is the name given to the Hottentot or black boy condition.
who rides with you, and carries your spare gun I was somewhat surprised by the evidences of and ammunition, and sometimes heads off the strong anxiety and even affection displayed by Mr. game, or assists you in any other way, as you Hutton for his uncouth protégé in this affair. The order him." latter bad certainly nothing in his appearance or I knew what an after-rider was, but I was ways which could be considered prepossessing. curious to hear how Apollo had been able to render He had, indeed, the grace to evince some attach- his master the great service spoken of. It seemed ment for his master; but otherwise his mental that in the first instance he had owed his owu life and moral traits did not appear to be more at- to Mr. Hutton's kindness. tractive than his physiognomy. I had heard that “ Probably he did," answered Hutton, “although Mr. Hutton, in spite of his reputation as a keen if I had not found him he might have recovered. trader and an ardent hunter, was an upright and These Namaquas and Hottentots have wonderfully kindhearted man; and I concluded that Master tough constitutions; it takes a deal of sickness or Apollo had probably been intrusted by bis parents starvation to kill them. But the other affair took to the trader, with a solemn promise that their place about four years ago ; and if you care to precious treasure should be restored to them un- hear the story, I have no objection to repeat it. scathed; and no doubt Mr. Hutton's solicitude I have told it often, for the credit of my friend proceeded from his conscientious anxiety to keep Apollo. his engagement.
"I was on my way to Dammara-land with two He called upon me that evening, to thank me for waggons and about a dozen people. Two of them my attention to his wishes. In the course of our were Mozambique blacks, whom I had brought conversation, I casually remarked that Apollo with me from Cape Town, and the remainder were must be a good servant to have inspired his mas- Hottentots and Namaquas that I had picked up ter with such a feeling of regard for him. on the way. Most of them I got at old Schmelen's
“I ought to care for him," answered Mr. Hut- missionary station, on this side of the Orange ton, “since he saved my life.”
River. The two negroes were tolerably good serThis reply led, of course, to further questioning, vants ; they had gained some knowledge of civiand finally elicited from the trader the narrative lised habits in Cape Town. The others could do which struck me as so remarkable.
little besides helping to drive the waggons ; thougla “ I picked up Apollo about ten years ago," he sometimes they were of service in following said, "on the north bank of the Orange river. “ spoor"—traces of game, you know. They knew He was then a child, not more, I should say, the country well, and by keeping a pretty sharp than ten or twelve years old; though you never eye upon them I was able to make them useful. can judge accurately of the ages of these natives. I In tracking game, as I said, they sometimes renfound him all alone, and half dead with fever, dered good service; but they were great cowards, under a little shelter of boughs and grass, where and though some of them could handle fire-arnis his people had left him, when he was taken ill. tolerably well, I never could get them to face aby They almost always desert their sick people and dangerous animal, such as a buffalo or a rhinoceros, decrepit relations in that way. It is a shocking and least of all a lion, with any steadiuess. I custom, and I think it is about the worst part of shot two or three rhinoceroses with little support their character;
for, in other respects, I must say, from any of them, except Apollo, who always stood they are not altogether so bad as some travellers by me like a Trojan, though his teeth sometimes