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chievous results of gold-hunting. It is rather his are doing battle for liberty of faith at the sword's opinion, that as the diggings have had the effect of point; and Margaret and her husband return in attracting a broad stream of self-supporting emi- peace to their native land. In the working out of gration, and have lured a better and more active this plot, some singular characters are introduced, class of labourers to the colony, the overplus, unfit whose exploits add incident and interest to the for such hard work, will supply the demand for drama. The whole story is exceedingly well told, pastoral services ; declaring that up to the present and the manners and customs of the time are detime the forebodings of the prophets of evil have lineated with much force and fidelity. not been realised: neither, by his showing, can there be any permanent want of provisions for the diggers, for

Liturgy anıl Church History. By Rev. C. H. The Australian gold-fields are within the reach of

BROMBY, M.A. London: Simpkin, Marshall and settled communities, surrounded by live beef and mutton,

Co. 1852. and by land of the best quality, which only needs the hoe We have here a series of five tracis, on the Comand the plough, roughly handled, to produce great crops mon Prayer, the Rule of Faith, the Early Church of wheat, maize, and every green vegetable.

to the Martyrdom of Saint Paul, Antiquity of the The emigrant, or intending emigrant, contem- British Church, and the Early Church to the End plating a journey to Australia, cannot do better of the Fifth Century. They are designed for the than to consult this book. By it he may test his instruction of pupis teachers and students in our suitability for the enterprise, and having resolved normal institutions, and are written with a view upon undertaking it, may learn the best mode of of commending the Church of England to the proceeding. He should make it the companion of affections of the young. They have evidently his voyage, and by stndying it well

, fit himself for been prepared with considerable care, and as brief immediate action on arriving out. The work is répertoires of important facts connected with the full of interesting matter, and will afford no small subjects of which they treat, are calculated to be share of information and amusement to the general of great use to the junior class of readers. We reader.

should personally decline, however, to endorse the

whole of the writer's creed. The Treasure-seeker's Daughter. A Tale of the Days

of James the First. By HANNAH LAWRENCE Papers for the Schoolmaster. Vol. I. 1851. LonLondon: Albert Cockshaw, 41, Ludgate-hill. 1852.

don: Simpkin, Marshall and Co. Glasgow : HaThis little volume presents us with a capital and milton. life-like picture of the social condition of old Tuese papers should be in the hands of every London in the days of the addle-headed, pedantie schoolmaster and of every person training for the and erudite numskull, the first James; when work of education in the United Kingdom. They heresy and witchcraft were capital crimes, and are, to our thinking, the best familiar code of pracscoundrels were paid by promotion and the be- tical teaching to be met with. They do for the stowal of monopolies for the persecution of honest inexperienced instructor what it is his business to men. The heroine of the tale is the daughter of do for his ignorant pupils—that is, they teach him an inoffensive enthusiast, who consumes his life in how to teach. Forty years ago, in the generality the construction of a divining-rod and some other of popular schools, children were literally taught nostrums, which he imagines will guide him to nothing, at least in England ; but being assembled the discovery of untold treasures. He is secretly together under the charge of a kind of boy-andpatronised and assisted by a mysterious being, girl herd, were supplied with books or odd dogswho, by kindness to her father, obtains an influ-eared leaves, and ordered to learn. We have ence over the mind of Margaret. He endeavours changed, or at least are changing, all that now; to obtain her co-operation in the perfection of and it is beginning to be seen that those who some cabalistic charm which he is engaged to would instruct others must not merely possess prepare for the Countess of Buckingham. Mar- knowledge, but must possess also the art of comgaret revolts at the task, and refuses her aid. Just municating it. These papers teach that great art; then her father dies, and she, on suspicion of and we can conscientiously recommend them to sorcery and proof of heresy, for she is a Puritan, all engaged in the practice of elementary tuition. is thrown into prison. Here she is overtaken by Had we room, we should like to transfer to our sickness, and exposed to the spotted fever which columns the essay on page 135, on “ Mixed Edubreaks out in the gaol

. It happens, however, that cation;" it embodies the best sense upon a subject the countess's gentleman, Tracey, has been smitten upon which the most unbearable nonsense has with her charms, and he, in conjunction with an been written again and again. old gentleman whose dead daughter she resembles, bribes the gaoler, who substitutes in her place the body of a cut-purse girl slain by the pest. Poems. By HENRY HOGg. London: Whittaker and Margaret, supposed to be dead, escapes with her Co. Nottingham : J. Howitt. 1832. lover, and follows in the track of her Puritan IF these verses be the production of a young friends, who had previously sailed in the Mayflower writer, as we suppose, there are grounds for exfor the land of promise. "Then twenty years are pecting something really good at his hands when, passed over, and everything is changed--the per- through observation and reflection, he has made secuting party are in the dust, and the Bible heroes acquaintance with human nature. His knowledge on this score is yet very much to seek. He has southern civilisation; and the book throughout is the power of versification and a feeling of the one of the most extraordinary as well as the most romantic, with as yet but very little of the creative interesting collections of strange usages and occur. faculty which marks the poet-the maker. The rences that has ever issued from the press. We best piece in the book is the story of Ellen, but make room for one brief extract illustrative of that unfortunately reminds us of a rather similar Russian justice. story in Wordsworth's “Excursion," from which

A person who has been robbed never considers his the idea appears to be taken. Mr. Hogg uses tre-chance of recovering his property so small as when the mendous liberties with grammar, for which he police have detected the thief. From the thief's hands he deserves chastisement. With him active verbs do deems it possible he may get back his own, but from the not govern the objective case; nor does the nomi- clutches of the authorities never. ... A Courland noble

man, Mr. Von H., lost some silver spoons, knives and native case go before the verb. Thus he says, or forks, stolen out of his plate-chest. Some weeks aftersings,

wards one of his servants came rejoicing to him : he had —and through the trees

found the stolen goods; they were openly exposed for sale Will fall the quivering light on thee and me, in a silversmith's shop-window. Mr. H. went to the winAnd fold us up, both thou and I, in love.

dow, recognised his property, took a police officer with him, And in another place,

and made the silversmith show them the plate. His arms

and initials were upon it; the dealer admitted he had -then broke in

bought it of a stranger, and offered to restore it to the Her at my side, and murmured, &c.

rightful owner. Mr. H. would have taken away his proAgain

perty, but the lieutenant of police forbade that, drew up a -but her from whom

formal statement of the affair, and requested Mr. H., as a proof that the plate was his, to send to the police so

some I first drank life, taught me a different creed.

other article out of the chest to which he affirmed it to These are atrocious lapses ; but some amends are belong. Mr. H. sent the whole case, with its contents, to made for them in the general harmony of the the police bureau. Ile never saw either of them again. verse, and the agreeable pictures which the author knows how to paint. We shall close our notice with one of “Sunset:"

Napoleon the Little. By Victor Hugo. (Authorised

Translation.) London: Vizetelly and Company,
There is a summer calm to-night,

135, Fleet-street. 1852.
A summer calm o'er field and fold,
A solemn stillness on the wold,

Warriors fight with the sword, tyrants with death
And on the silver lake the light

or proscription, and genius with the grey gooseOf sun-departing gold.

quill. Napoleon the Little--the man of murder And still upon yon castle walls,

and tinsel, the wholesale assassin and wholesale liar, Those grey-grown walls, the long light lies ; in the exercise of his ill-gotten power, banishes

And lo! a thousand golden eyes
Seem gazing from those windowed halls

Victor Hugo from his native country. The man
Upon the western skies.

of genius erects the mirror of history in the face And by yon stately group of elms,

of the man of crime, and avenges with a little And long lawns sloping to the lake,

inkshed the bloodshed of the Boulevards, as well The wild winds from sweet sleep awake, as his own banishment. He puts into the hands With music that my heart o'erwhelms;

of every educated man in Europe a just balance, And by yon bank and brake

in which the scoundrel of December 2 is weighed The thick mist rises to the sky,

and kicks the beam. Wanting in everything but And slowly meets the horned moon, O'er moor and mountain-top; and soon

guilt of the blackest dye, the monster is here The stars will come, and silently

dragged forth in his true colours, and held up to Lead out the night of June.

the infamy of succeeding ages. The book will do

its work. Already, printed in a form so minute Pictures from St. Petersburgh. By EDWARD JER

that a workman may conceal it in his boot, it is in

the hands of thousands of Frenchmen who cannot Translated from the original German by FREDERICK HARDMAN. (Traveller's Library). Lon. afford to purchase the manuscript copies which are don : Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans. daily manufactured in Paris by hundreds, and cir1852.

culated with little care for concealment. We are CHE author of this book is a stage-player, who crowded with matter this month, and must defer bassed three years in St. Petersburg as the mana- further notice of Vizetelly's excellent translation ger of a German company. He professes to de- to another opportunity. In the meanwhile we cribe things as he sees them with his own eyes, recommend its perusal to our readers, who will nd presents the reader with a series of pictures of find it full of the “ thoughts that breathe and {ussian society and customs differing very much words that burn." rom the delineations of preceding writers. We re in no condition to question his statements, BOOKS RECEIVED NOTICES DEFERRED. vhich appear to wear the garb of truth, strange

The Elementary Manual of Physical Geography. Elend anomalous as some of them certainly are. But mentary Catechism of the British Empire. London: Russia is the country of contradictions, and it is Groombridge and Sons, Paternoster-row. 1852. lle quarrelling with facts because we cannot re- The Travellers' Library. Parts 29 and 30. The Battle oncile them with our own notions of probability. Leipsic. By the Rev. G. R. Gleig, M.A., Chaplain

General of the Forces, and Prebendary of St. Paul's Cathevery page of this volume, almost, contains some dral. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans. tartling revelation opposed to the customs of 1862.

MANN.

Letter to the Right Hon. Joseph W. Henley, M.P., Pre- The Soul : its Sorrows and Aspirations. By F. W.Nr.de sident of the Board of Trade, regarding Life Assurance man. Third Edition. Library for the People. LoToBAssociations, dc. By Robert Christie, Esq., Edinbnrgh, J. Chapman, Strand. 1852. Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries, and Manager of the Dirge for Wellington. By Martin F. Tupper. London: Scottish Equitable Life Assurance Society. Edinburgh : T. Hatchard, 187, Piccadilly. 1852. Constable and Co. London: Hamilton, Adams and Co. An Elementary Treatise on Logic. By the Author of an Glasgow: Bryce. Dublin: J. M'Glashan.

Antidote to Infidelity, &c. London : J. Chapman, The Travellers' Library. Part 31. Memoir of the Duke Strand. 1852. of Wellington. Reprinted, by permission, from the Times Histoire des Crimes du Deur Decembre. Par V. Scol. of September 15th and 16th, 1852.

cher, Representant du Peuple. Londres: J. Chapman, Uncle Tom's Cabin ; or, Negro Life in the Slave States of Strand. 1852. America. By Harriet Beecher Stowe. London: Thomas Louis' School Days : a Story for Boys. By E. J. Mas, Bosworth, 215, Regent-street. 1852.

Second Edition. Bath: Binns and Goodwin. London: The l’illage Pearl. A Domestic Poem. By John Craw- Whittaker and Co.; Longman and Co. Edinborgh : ford Wilson. London: J. Chapman, Strand. 1852. Oliver and Boyd. Dublin : J. M'Glashan. 1852.

A Guide to the Knowledge of the Hearens. By Robert The Ethnology of the British Islands. By R. G. Latham, James Mann, M.R.C.S.E. London: Jarrold and Sons, M.D., F.R.S., &c. St. Paul's Churchyard. 1852.

The Ethnology of Europe. By R. G. Latham, M.D., &e. A Discourse of Matters pertaining to. Religion. By London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster-rox. 1852. Theodore Parker. London: J. Chapman, Strand, 1852.

LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANIES. Eaglo Insurance Company. At the annual general £120,000 to the sums assured. Adopting the actuary's meeting of proprietors, held in August last, reports from recommendation, the directors declared a bonus of fifteen the auditors and the actuary were read, from wbich we per cent. (current dividend included) payable on the fourth extract the following items. From the auditors' report it of October next. The report was agreed to unanimously. appeared, that the income of the year from new premiums British Empiro Mutual Life Assurance Society. was £5,947 49. 2d. ; from renewal premiums, £90,670 -At the fourth annual meeting of this company, the 45. 5d.; and from interest, £31,433 19s. The claims were secretary read a report, which we abbreviate as follows:£60,177 9s. 4d.; the amount allowed for surrender of as- The total of policies issued in four years is 0,766; the surances, £4,706 4s. 4d. ; the expenses, £5,683 10s. 5d. ; total of assurances effected is £2,724,120; and the total of and the total assets, £738,884 178. 11d. This statement the receipts is £10,703 173. 7d. of this amount differs in nothing very materially from those which have £8,258 3s. 7d. were premiums, and £8,445 14s. duty. been submitted during the last two or three years, save as Average new business per year, £681,030. The receipts of regards the amount of claims on decease of lives assured, the second year show an increase of £1,075 175. 7d. upon which, as compared with that of the previous year, is less the first year; the third, £1,710 5s 9d. upon the second by the sum of £23,513 12s. 5d. On the other hand, the year; the fourth, £1,719 15s. 8d. upon the third year. premiums on new assurances are greater by upwards of The ratio of increase becoming larger year by year. The £600; the amounts in the two years being, respectively, assurances in force have been carefully selected, and form £5,339, 13s. 9d. and £5,9-47 4s. 2d. From the report of a safe and profitable cless of business. The total losses the actuary, it appears that the assurances in force in the sustained during four years have amounted to £3,731 15s. 8d, Eagle Company on the 30th June, 1847, were 2,684, as- being 45% per cent. of the premiums received; and it is suring £1,827,050, and paying premiums of £58,705, believed that this ratio, satisfactory as it is, will be much whilst those added by the junction with the Protector and diminished as the operations of the society extend, and a another small Assurance Company, consisted of 1,315, less fluctuating average is consequently obtained." assuring £1,005,409, and paying premiums of £34,575. The cash account was as follows :The number effected since is 1,299, assuring £806,956, and paying premiums of £29,695. These together make a

£ total of 5,298, assuring £3,639,475, and paying premiums Balance from last Year of £122,975.' Deducting the number lapsed during the Guarantee and Loan Account five years by decease of the lives assured, and other Premiums (nett) causes, there remained in force on the 30th June last, 3,914,

Duty ... assuring £2,723,512, and paying premiums of £92,759. Tabular statements were then read, showing that after

Total making allowance for every ascertained claim, and for every possible liability and contingency, there remains a gross surplus of £213,709 4s. 9d.; and of this sum the actuary recommended that £60,670 be appropriated to the purposes

Working Expenses of the present division, the remaining £153,039 4s. 9a. Duty and Stamps being left, with its accumulations, to go in aid of the fund

Losses for future additions or reductions of premiums, &c.

Re-assurance,

&c. The allotment of this portion of the surplus entitles the Interest proprietors to a bonus of 10 per cent., or ten shillings per Balance at Bankers and in Agents' hands ... 2,121 10 3 share, making with the dividend now falling due, fifteen per cent., or fifteen shillings per share. The policy-holders,

Total on the other hand, will get in present value the sum of On the motion of Mr. Jones, seconded by Mr. Barton, £48,536, about equivalent to a reversionary addition of the report was unanimously adopted.

RECEIPTS.

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LONDIX : SALISŁURY AND CO., PRINTERS, FOUVERIE-STRELT AND PRIX ROSE-DTIL, FI IET-STRIIT.

TAIT'S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE.

NOVEMBER, 1852.

THE POETRY OF

MARTIAL ENTHUSIASM.

Two very dissimilar scenes, at one time con- revolting horrors of multitudinous slaughter ; they trasted in our mind, moved us to certain anxieties, exhibited, from historical examples, the uselessness, inducing the present reflections. In the Parisian the political inexpediency, of warlike operations ; field of Mars, a multitude of admiring gazers saw and calculated, in money and wasted labour, their the magnificent array of military France. Ac- ruinous cost. With sarcastic ridicule, they declaiming shouts and thunder of cannon announced preciated the delusive renown of military prowess, the possessor of that splendour and force, to whose and protested against having society demoralised name an idolatrous nation had again devoted itself. by a process ich, mould the mechanical serHe rode far down the close and rigid lines of vility of the soldier, crushes the virtue of the gleaming bayonets; he turned to gallop past the citizen. They unanimously adopted the report of squadrons of warrior horsemen, and crossed the the committee, and expressed a hopeful confidence iron range of destructive engines, terrible and that, in a future age, war shall be altogether mute, significant of sudden, overwhelming death. abolished. Holding up the Roman eagle, associated with We have faith in that anticipation. The author superb designs of European sway, he spoke of the of our race has pledged his universe to the fulfilexciting “glory" of conquest, and of the imposing ment of that promise. The prayer for the speedy "order" of a camp. Receiving in fond exultation securing of final peace is echoed in the hearts of this familiar banner, a hundred captains swore to all just men, as it is incessantly repeated from all combat under it. Religion-such religion as may places of the lamenting earth. The violence be “in a rich gold-embroidered cope and mitre”. done by man to man affects us with a sorrow that imparted to the army an ostensible sanction in the craves immeasurable utterance; it would count the Latin offices of pliant Catholicism, and in the pros- dropping blood with its own tears. On us, citizens tituted word of God. Voluptuous festivities were of England, who have in community the power preparing, and the gay city swelled in sumptuous of partially directing the state, is set the duty of intoxication. The pomp of the world, the vigour exerting, for the prohibition of war, an influence of the flesh, and the pride of life were at their never before wielded by any nation of freemen in • highest. There was little memory of the unburied the modern world. Britain should maintain an corpses on the plain of Borodino, of the starving attitude, noble as her public spirit, declaring the men who were stiffened in the Russian frost, or truth, denouncing tyranny, standing alone in genethose who rotted in the Egyptian fever. The per- rosity, with the courage that dares to go unarmed, ception of the truth was made dim by the dazzling but holding back in wary vigilance the resources parade of war.

of formidable strength. Let it be known to despots The description of this came to us, in busy and and to courtiers, while in Europe a perjured and pacific Manchester. After a few hours, we sat cringing treachery licks the cruel hand of triumphat evening within the plain white walls of a quiet ant barbarism, that, though we do not prepare to building, a customary place of the silent worship contend with it, no timidity, nor indifference of of Friends. A few score of people-placid matrons, comfortable case, causes the abstinence, but parespectable elders, and earnest youth-were calmly tient, humane wisdom. It is known, as the dis. meeting for a testimony against war. Some per- tinction of our country, that our Government cansons, whose character and services to mankind are not originate or provoke a war, except by the such as to obtain our reverence, in turn addressed popular will. We are to endeavour, by all methods them. With speech impressive because of the great of discussion, through the press and in the sacred interests it involved, the more convincing through appeals of Christian exhortation, through contheir grave sincerity, they demanded the recogni- stitutional assemblies and petition, and the occation, in national policy, of the Christian spirit, the sional congress of foreign deputations, to infuse Christian law of mutual love. They laid bare the l into the public sentiment a disgust with martial

VOL. XIX-XO. CCXXVII.

2 T

achievements, and so to prevent the people from say that the State, corporately invested with the ever consenting to their repetition.

direction of our physical resources, for the chief But the advocates of this principle, contradict- and primary purpose of protecting its members, ing the vulgar opinion, announcing a law to which is to hold in readiness, if need were, the bayonet the world has hitherto been strange, need to use a and the cannon, to support effectively the staff of discreet and delicate tact. They are not, indeed, police. We say there is between the principles of to pare and clip the truth into conformity with individual and political morality no discord. As existing prejudices; but they must avoid the it is the duty of a man to spare neither his own scandal of exaggerating it. They should not nor a murderer's life, where such homicide may be hazard the too positive unqualified assertion of a needed for the safety of helpless innocence, so is rule, which, like other ethical principles, is to be it the duty of a Government, of an entire people, construed with reference to the presumed general where the safety of all may be invaded by anarrelations of men towards each other; and which chical force of foreign or domestic aggressors, to is liable, in the possible case of those relations spare not ten thousand lives of the citizen or of being reversed, to be superseded by the new special the enemy. The rule of mercy to all mankind is duty of the emergency. Whether it be right or subjected in this case to no breach, but to a special no for one suddenly attacked by a murderous observance; it takes the form, peculiar to the assailant to yield his own life permissive emergency, of the defence of those nearest and suicide, rather than disable his aggressor by killing dearest. This is the dictate of nature, confirmed him, we leave to keener casnists. Some men are by all personal and historical experience, and by capable of this self-devotion, no doubt, and in numerous examples of the Bible record; anisuch snbmission to a sense of Christian obligation mating us in any such peril with the call of him, we recognise a sublime virtue; although it is a the statesman and prophet, who rebuilt the walls questionable beneficence to deprive one's neigh- of Jerusalem: "Be ye not afraid of them ; rebours of one's own upright and useful life for the member the Lord, who is great and terrible, and sake of letting a murderer, probably, escape upon fight for your brethren, your sons and daughters, the world. But this superstition of the absolute your wives and your houses." inviolability of man's bodily existence, may be The partisans in this peace controversy must, tested by another situation, in which its application therefore, looking forward to the application of would be absolutely immoral. Imagine oneself their principles in the diversity of human affairs, alone the protector of a weaker person, of a child, beware of implicating it in an unforeseen fallacy. or of a woman, shrinking under the imminent They must not damage a cause, in its true propordanger of a violent death or of a worse outrage, tions so beautiful and so rational, by extravagant the perpetration of which can only be stopped by distortions, disowned by the common sense and striking a deadly blow; is there any Christian, the common heart of humanity. We have been whose bosom is ardent with tender compassion, made ashamed and sorry by some notorions who would hesitate to strike? Is there any re- escapades of this erring zeal. What judicious morse due for such an act ? is it not an obedience person, hating the practices and the system of war. to the divine law, a charity done to one's neighbour? fare, did not grieve, during the recent debate on That such situations are possible, cannot be dis- the Militia Bill, when the contemptible absurdity puted; and if the family affections be ordained of of an anonymous writer gave a noble lord the God, to manhood He has intrusted the stern opportunity of raising the inane clamours of Parobligation of defending them even to the death. liamentary derision, to counteract the high-toned

We say more-that such situations are to be counsels and the practical warnings of those who provided for. They may often and everywhere were opposing, not a prudent and patriotic measure occur, so long as men abuse their strength in the of preparedness, but a vain panic and a mischievous bestial fury of lust and rage. Every day, every job? How far has the moral influence of the hour, in some spot or other of this world, the advocates of peace been discredited by the expofeeble and the lonely are writhing in tortured sure of similar inconsequential assertions! We despair beneath the injuries of brutal force. would not have them discouraged, but go on Because the groans of the slain, the shrieks of the directing with a more sure aim all the instrumentormented, the low wailings of violated shame, tality of reason, of satire, of clear argument, facts that go up continually to the sky, do not reach our stated, and eloquent persuasion, the commands of own ears except at intervals, shall we deny the Christian and the testimony of human wisdom, to existence of violent wrong? shall we deny to the eradicate the prolific source of military contests, protecting arm the authority and the weapon to the vulgar admiration of warlike exploits. prevent it? In every land where the passions of For à contribution to this work the present men have been loosed by prevailing war, in every essay is designed. Comparing the splendid exhicountry where the law is not feared, where its bition of martial state, “ the pomp and circumministers bear the sword of justice in vain, atro- stance of glorious war," displayed in the spectacle cities beyond conception are openly committed. at Paris, with the modest agency of retiring beIn England, peaceful, decent, honest as the nation nevolence, the quiet protest of which it happened is, there is a power of wickedness, held down by to us then to witness, no method of opposition to legal terrors and by the common resolution to the war-spirit seemed likely to be more effective keep order and enforce the punishment of offenders, than a fair criticism of its ästhetic aspect. It is huge enongh to drown us all in dire dismay. We to strip off the meretricious finery in which the

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