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exception of the monkey of Gibraltar—an importation from Northern Africa—and the Japanese ape, no apes occur in this region. The bats are not markedly peculiar, but the whole of the mole family, save one American and two Oriental species, is included within its limits. Of carnivora it has a fair share, although the larger beasts of prey are well-nigh absent. There are numerous lynxes ; wolves, foxes, and bears are plentiful but not peculiar ; the badgers occur typically here, whilst Japan has a peculiar dog (Nyctereutes) and a special otter (Lutronectes). The Ungulates, or hoofed animals, include the camels, which are typical tenants of the Palæarctic Region ; there are six genera of deer peculiar to the region, along with seven peculiar genera of the ox family (chiefly antelopes), such as the chamois and saiga. This region may be described as the head. quarters of the sheep and goats, since but two species (one American and one Indian) exist without its bounds. The Rodentia, or "gnawers,” are well represented likewise. Twenty-seven rodents occur nowhere else, and those genera occurring in other regionssuch as the voles, pikas, and dormice-still possess representatives in the Palæarctic territory. The birds of this region, like the quadrupeds, present us with many well-known genera and species. The true pheasants are wholly limited to this region, if we except one species found in Formosa ; the corncrake, the great bustard, and the sand-grouse, are specially Palæarctic. Of smaller birds this region has likewise its typical representatives. The grasshopper-warblers (Locustella), the true warblers (including the robins), the bearded titmouse, the wrynecks, the magpies, choughs, and nutcrackers are characteristic of this region. The reptiles and amphibians are relatively few. There are, however, at least two genera of snakes, seven genera of lizards, eight frogs and toads, and eight newts and salamanders which the region claims as its own. The fresh-water fishes peculiar to this territory, it may be added, number about twenty genera. The sub-regions number four. Of these, Central and Northern Europe, with their peculiar Desman-rat and chamois, form one. The Mediterranean borders constitute another, and contain as peculiar animals the fallow-deer, the elephant shrews, the hyæna, the porcupine, and the coney. The Siberian sub-region forms a third, and is the special home of the yak, or hairy bison of Thibet, the Thibetan antelopes, and a peculiar mole ; whilst in the fourth subregion, formed by Japan and Northern China, we find special forms of monkeys, moles, and other quadrupeds, the most notable being a carnivorous animal, the Æluropus.

Turning next to the Ethiopian region, we discover this latter province to include Africa south of the desert, whilst the island of Madagascar forms a notable sub-region. In Ethiopia there are many characteristic quadrupeds and peculiar birds which do not

occur outside the limits of the region. On the west coast occur two of the four genera of anthropoid apes—the gorilla and chimpanzee. Here also are found the baboons ; and the lemurs, having their head-quarters in Madagascar, also occur on

the mainland. The lion FIG. 3. THE LEMUR,

possesses the continent as ruler of the carnivora ; the spotted hyæna is found here alone; the hyæna-dog and aard wolf are likewise typically Ethiopian. No less special to this territory are the zebras, giraffe, hippopotamus; whilst the region has likewise its own species of rhinoceroses. More than seventy species of antelopes (Fig. 7) attest the fact that the race finds its home in this territory; and the African elephant is a peculiar genus and species. But the deficiencies in the quadruped-population of Ethiopia are likewise interesting; and we thus detect the absence of the deer, bears, and oxen, so conspicuous in other regions. The birds of the region are numerous. Limited to Ethiopia are the plantain-eaters, ground hornbills, colies, secretary bird, whydah-finches, ox-peckers, guinea fowls, and the ostriches; we look in vain for the wrens, creepers, nuthatches, pheasants, and jungle-fowl in the lists of Ethiopian fauna. The reptiles, amphibians, and fishes at present include three families of snakes, one family of lizards, one of toads, and three of fresh-water fishes, as absolutely peculiar to the region. The puff-adders and chameleons represent reptiles peculiar to the province under consideration. Whilst the Palæarctic Region possesses 35 genera of mammals peculiar to itself as well as 57 genera of birds, the Ethiopian boasts of go peculiar quadruped genera, and 179 genera of land birds absolutely confined within its limits.

The Ethiopian sub-regions number four-being named the East, West, and South African, and Malagasay or Madagascar provinces respectively. Of these the Madagascar sub-region alone demands a passing notice. Including, besides the great island from which it derives its name, the Mauritius, Bourbon, Rodriguez, and the Seychelles and Comoro Islands, the Madagascar sub-region becomes


notable in zoological eyes from its forming the head-quarters of the lemurs or lower apes, and of the Insectivora. In addition to these quadrupeds, Madagascar possesses a few special carnivora (e.g. Cryptoprocta) of small size ; but in this island the apes, lions, leopards, antelopes, and other familiar quadrupeds of Africa are entirely wanting. In Madagascar there are represented 12 families, 27 genera, and 65 species of quadrupeds. Of these three families and 20 genera are exclusively found in the island, and all the species of these families and genera are similarly peculiar, except perhaps a few of the bats. Extremely peculiar it is to find the lemurs so typical (including two families and 34 species) of Madagascar; these animals being represented on the west coast by two forms, and in Africa by one group, whilst they flourish elsewhere in numbers only in the Eastern Archipelago and in Southern India. As regards its bird-population, Madagascar owns in species of land birds, of which only 12 are identical with species inhabiting the adjacent continents. Thirtythree genera of birds are peculiar to the island, these genera including fifty species. Of Madagascar Mr. Wallace remarks, in speaking of its quadruped-fauna, "the assemblage of animals abovenoted is remarkable, and seems to indicate a very ancient connection with the southern portion of Africa, before the apes, ungulates, and felines had entered it. The lemurs, which are here so largely developed, are represented by a single group in Africa, with two forms on the west coast. They also reappear under peculiar and isolated forms in Southern India and Malaya, and are evidently but the remains of a once wide-spread group, since in Eocene times they inhabited North America and Europe, and very probably the whole northern hemisphere." Again, remarking of the birds of Madagascar, Mr. Wallace says: “So many perfectly isolated and remarkable groups are certainly nowhere else to be found; and they fitly associate with the wonderful aye-aye (Chiromys), the insectivorous Centetidæ, and carnivorous Cryptoprocta among the mammalia. They speak to us plainly of enormous antiquity, of long-continued isolation ; and not less plainly of a lost continent or continental island in which so many, and various, and highly organised creatures could have been gradually developed in a connected fauna of which we have here but the fragmentary remains."

The Oriental region, formerly known as the “Indian” region, possesses boundaries of highly interesting nature. Comprising Asia south of the Palæarctic region, it includes India, the eastern peninsula, and the Malay archipelago as far as Borneo, Java, and the Philippines. Its southern or lower boundary is marked by a special line

“Wallace's line"-which passes through a narrow but extremely deep channel—the Straits of Lombok-running between the little islands of Bali and Lombok (Fig. 1), and extending northward and eastward, leaves on its Australian side Lombok, Celebes, and adjoining islands. No fact of distribution, as has been already remarked, is more noteworthy than the sharp demarcation of the Oriental from the Australian region. In the Oriental province itself are found all the conditions for a rich development of life. There is variety in its physical contour; it is broken up into islands and peninsulas; it has its alternations of high mountain and valley, of hill and plain ; its river-systems are many and extensive ; its temperature is that of the equatorial zone, and its vegetation is in consequence varied and profuse.

Peculiar to the Indian region are at least three families of quadrupeds, that of the flying-lemurs, that of the Tarsiers, or spectrelemurs, and that of the Tupaias, or squirrel-shrews. There are also many genera confined to this province, although possessing family representatives elsewhere. Thus there are monkeys of the genus Presbyter, and the special genera of true lemurs in this region; twelve peculiar civet cats find a home here; whilst three species of antelopes, five rhinoceroses, and the flying-squirrels (Pteromys) are typically Oriental in their distribution. Nor must we neglect the species which are limited to this province. The orang-outans and gibbons, two of the four kinds of highest apes, are included amongst its denizens; the tiger, the Indian elephant, sun-bears and honey-bears, the tapir, and the chevrotains or mouse-deer, lend their presence to aid in forming a diverse fauna of the most interesting kind.

Conspicuous among its birds are the tailor-birds, which are peculiar to the region, as also are the laughing thrushes. There are peculiar genera of woodpeckers, cuckoos, and hornbills. The minivets and grass-green fruit-thrushes are also characteristic Oriental birds. The sun-birds are represented by three genera ; bee-eaters and kingfishers are likewise included in the Oriental aviary; and goatsuckers and whiskered swifts also fall to be enumerated. Only two parrot-genera are Oriental in distribution; the pigeons of the province being the fruit-eating Treron and Carpophaga. It is in this region that the races of "poultry” find their original home. The true jungle fowl, from one species of which all our domestic fowls have sprung, occurs widespread in this region. The peacocks, argus pheasants, and fire-backed pheasants, are also typical denizens of the Oriental province, and may fitly close the list of its bird inhabitants.

The reptiles of the Indian region are numerous, but there are

only some three small families of snakes which are peculiar and limited to the region. The reptile population, apart from its speci. fically distinct character, is varied enough, however. It includes a whole host of snakes ; amongst lizards it numbers the water-lizards (or Varanide), the skinks, the geckos, and the iguanas (Iguanida). The crocodiles are numerous, and fresh-water tortoises, amongst other genera, abound. The tree frogs and true frogs are well represented, and in its fresh-water fishes this region is peculiar. Oriental province, to sum up, possesses at least twelve families of vertebrates peculiar to itself. Of the 118 genera of quadrupeds, 54 are confined to this province; and whilst 342 genera of land birds inhabit the region, 165 are absolutely confined to it. There are some four sub-regions included in the Oriental region. These do not demand special mention here, but it may be remarked that the Malayan sub-region—including the Eastern Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and the Philippines—is to be accounted the most typical area of the Oriental region. It is in the Malayan sub-region that we see the features of the Oriental province in their most typical development in most varied array.

Selecting as our fourth region the Australian province, the striking characters of this region have already been commented upon. Crossing “Wallace's line," we enter upon a biological territory marked by more peculiar features and by more divergent lines than those which separate the flora and fauna of any other two regions from one another. In Australia and New Guinea—as was to be expected from the fact of these islands presenting the chief areas of the region—the specialised character of its animals and plants is best seen. In Celebes this character is still preserved, although the denizens of that island do not present the special features of Australia, whilst the influence of Oriental migrations is clearly traceable. of the life of New Zealand, which along with Polynesia falls within the Australian region, a more pronounced opinion may be expressed. The animals and plants of the New Zealand islands are in many respects so peculiar that, as we have seen, it has been proposed to include these areas in a special region. But, as we shall hereafter note, there exist other considerations which, whilst explanatory of the divergence of New Zealand from the Australian types, nevertheless show its fundamental alliance therewith. Thus New Zealand comes, logically enough, to form a part of the Australian region.

Primarily, then, in the Australian region we find at once striking likenesses to, and differences from, the New Zealand flora. VOL. COLIIT. 1819.



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