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maller aperture with them, and, instead of swelling the voice in the middle of the mouth, bringing it as forward as possible to the lips.
40. Y final in try is formed like i : and w final in novo, like the oo, which has just been described.
In this view of the organic formation of the vowels we find that a, e, and o, are the only simple or pure vowels: that i is a diphthong, and that u is a semi-consonant. If we were inclined to contrira a scale for measuring the breadth or narrowness, or, as others term it, the openness or closeness or the vowels, we might begin with e open, as Mr. Elphinston calls it, and which he announces to be the closest of all the vocal powers. In the pronunciation of this letter we find the aperture of the mouth extended on each side; the lips almost closed, and the sound issuing horizontally. Th slender a in waste opens the mouth a little wider. The u in father opens the mouth still more withou contracting the corners. The German a heard in wall, not only opens the mouth wider than th former a, but contracts the corners of the mouth so as to make the aperture approach nearer to circle, while the o opens the mouth still more, and contracts the corners so as to make it the os rotun. dum, a picture of the letter it sounds. If, therefore, the other vowels were, like o, to take their forms from the aperture of the mouth in pronouncing them, the German a ought necessarily to have a figure as nearly approaching the o in form as it does in sound ; that is, it ought to have that elliptical forin which approaches nearest to the circle ; as thc a of the Italians, and that of the English in father, ought to form ovals, in exact proportion to the breadth of their sounds ; the English a in waste ought to have a narrower oval; the e in the ought to have the curve of a parabola, and the squeezed sound of ee in seen a right line; or to reduce these lines to solids, the o would be a perfect globe, the Jerman a an oblate spheroid like the figure of the earth, the Italian a like an egg, the English slender a Dutch skittle, the e a rolling-pid, and the double e a cylioder.
Organic Formation of the Consonants. 41. The best method of showing the organic formation of the consonants will be to class them into* such pairs as they naturally fall into, and then, by describing one, we shall nearly describe its fellow; by which means the labour will be lessened, and the nature of the consonants better perceived. Tho onsonants that fall into pairs are the following:
j jail. 42. Holder, who wrote the most elaborately and philosophically upon this subject, tells us, in hts Elements of Speech, that when we only whisper we cannot distinguish the first rank of these letters from the second. It is certain the difference between them is very nice; the upper letters seeming to bave only a smarter, brisker appulse of the organs than tbe lower; which may not improperly be distinguished by sharp and ffat. *The most marking distinction between them will be found to be a sort of guttural murmur, which precedes the latter letters when we wish to pronounce them forci. biy, but not the former. Thus if we close the lips, and put the fingers on them to keep them shut, and strive to pronource the p, no sound at all will be heard : but in striving to pronounce the b we shal tind a murinuring sound from the throat, which seems the commencement of the letter; and if w do but stop the breath by the appulse of the organs, in order to pronounce with greater force, th same may be observed of the rest of the letters.
43. This difference in the formation of these consonants may be more distinctly perceived in the rand : than in any other of the letters ; the former is sounded by the simple issue of the breath between the teeth, without any vibration of it in the throat, and may be called a hissing sound; while the latter cannot be formed without generating a sound in the throat, which may be called a vocal sound. The upper rank of letters, therefore, may be called breathing consonants; and the lower, vocal ones
44. These observations premised, we may proceed to describe the organic formation of each letter
45. P and B are formed by closing the lips till the breath is collected, and then letting it issue by forming the vowel e.
46. F and V are formed by pressing the upper teeth upon the under lip, and sounding the vowel . before the former and after the latter of these letters.
47. T and D are formed by pressing the tip of the tonguo to the gums of the upper teeth, and then separating them, by pronouncing the vowel e
43. S and Z are formed iy piacing the tongue in the same position as in T and D, but not so close to the gums, as to stop the breath: a space is left between the tongue and the palate for the breath to issue, which forms the hissing and buzzing sound of these letters.
49. SH heard in mission, and zh in evision, are formed in the same seat of sound as s and z; but in the former, the tongue is drawn a little inwards, and at a somewhat greater distance from the palate, which occasions u fuller effusion of breath from the hollow of the mouth, than in the latter, which are formed nearer to the teeth.
50. TA in think, and the same letters in thui, are formed by protruding the tongue between the lore teeth, pressing it against the upper teeth, and at the same time endeavouring to sound the s or r; the former
letter to sound th in think, and the latter to sound th in that. 51. K and G hard are formed by pressing the middle of the tongue to the roof of the mouth near the throat, and separating them a little sınartly to form the first, and more gently to form the last of these letters.
52. CH in chair, and J in jail, are formed by pressing ! to sh, and d to zh.
8. N is formed by resting the tongue in the same position as in T or D, and breathing through th nose, with the mouth open.
55. L is formed by nearly the same position of the organs as t and d, but more with the tip of the tongrie, which is brought a little forwarder to the teeth, while the breath issues from the mouth.
58. Ř is forined by placing the tongue nearly in the position of t, but at such a distance from the palate as suffers it to jar ugainst it, when the breath is propelled from the throat to the mouth.
57. NG in ring, sing, &c. is formed in the same seat of sound as hard g; but while the middle of the tongue presses the roof of the mouth, as in G, the voice passes principally through the nose, as
68. Y consonant is formed by placing the organs in the position of e, and squeezing the longue against the roof of the inouth, which produces ee, which is equivalent to initial y. (36.)
M. W consonant is formed by placing the organs in the position of oo, described under de and
closing the lips a little more, in order to propel the breath upon the succeeding owel which it articulates.
60. In this sketch of the formation and distribution on the consonants, it is curious to observe on how few radical principles, the alinust infinite variety of coinbination in lang'iage depends. It is with some degree of wonder we perceive that the slightest aspiration, the almost insensible inflec tion of nearly similar sounds, often generate the most different and opposite meanings. In this view of nature, as in every other, we find uniformity and variety very conspicuous. The single fiat, at first impressed on the chaos, seems to operate on languages; which, from the simplici*y and pau. city of their principles, and the extent and power of their combinations, prove the goodness, wis. dom, and omnipotence of their origin.
61. This analogical association of sounds is not only curious, but useful : it gives us a comprehensive view of the powers of the letters; and, from the small mumber that are radically different, enables us to see the rules on which their varicties depend: it discovers thus the genius a.id propensities of se veral languages and dialects, and, when authority is silent, enables us to decide agreeably to analogy
62. The vowels, diphthongs, and consonants, thus enumerated and defined, before we proceed to ascertain their different powers, as they are dificrently associated with cach other, it may be necessary to give some account of those distinctions of sound in the same vowels which express their quantity as long or short, or their quality as open or close, or slender and broad. This will appear the more necessary, as these distinctions so frequently occur in describing the sounds of the vowels, and as they are not unfrequently used with too litue precision by most writers on the subject.
Of the Quantity and Quality of the Vinels. 63. The first distinction of sound that seems to obtrudle itself upon us when we utter the vowels, is a long and a short sound according to the greater or less duration of tiine taken up in pronounce ing them. This distinction is so obvious as to have been adopted in all languages, and is that to which we annex clearer ideas than to any other; and though the short sounds of some vowels have not in our language been classed with sufficient accuracy with their parent long ones, yet this has bred but little confusion, as vowels long and short are always sufficiently distinguishable; and the vice appropriation of short sounds to their specific long ones is not necessary to our conveying wha. sound we mean, when the letter to which we apply these sounds is known, and its power agreed upon.
64 The next distinction of vowels into their specific sounds, which seems to be the most generaly adopted, is that which arises from the different apertures of the mouth in forming them. It is certainly very natural, when we have so many more simp!e sounds than we have characters by which to express them, to distinguish them by that which seems their organic definition; and we accordingly find vowels denominated by the French, outerl and fermé ; by the Italians, aperlo and chiuzo ; and by the English open and shut.
65. But whatever propriety there may be in the use of these terms in other languages, it is certain they must be used with caution in English for fear of confounding them with long and short. Dr. Johnson and other grammarians call the a in father the open a : which may, indeed, distinguish it from the slender a in paper ; but not from the broad a in water, which is still inoru open. Each of these letters has a short sound, which may be called a slut sound; but the long sounds cannot be to properly denominated open as more or less broad; that is, the a in paper, the slender sound; the a in faiher, the broadish or middle sound; and the á in water, the broad sound. The same may be observed of the o. This letter has three long sounds, heard in more, note, nor; which graduate from slender to broadish, anıl broad like the a. The i also in mine may be called the broad i, and that in machine the slender i ; though each of them is equally long; and though these vowels that are loug may be said to be more or less open according to the different apertures of the inouth in forming them, yet the short vowels cannot be said to be more or less shut; for as short always implies shut (except in verse,) though long does not always imply open, we must be careful not to confound long and open, and close and shut, when we speak of the quantity and quality of the vowels. The truth or it is, all vowels either terminate a syllable, or are united with a consonant. In the first case, if the accent be on the syllable, the vowel is long, though it may not be open in the second case, where a syllable is terminated by a consonant, except that consonant be r, whether the accent be on the syllable or not, the vowel has its short sound, which, compared with its long one, may be called shut; but as no vowel can be said to be shut that is not joined to a consonant, all vowels tha'. end syllables may be said to be open, whether the accent be on thein or not. (550) (551.)
66. But though the terms long and short, as applied to vowels, are pretty generally understood, m accurate ear will easily perceive that these terms do not asl, uy's mean the long and short sounds of the respective vowels to which they are applied; for if we choose to be directed by the car in de. nominating vowels, long or short, we must certainly give these appellations to those sounds only which have exactly the same radical tone, and differ only in the long or short emission of that tone. Thus measuring the sounds of the vowels by this scale, ive shall find that the long I and y have pro. perly no short sounds but such as seem essentially distinct froin their long ones; and that the short sound of these vowels is no other than the short suund of e, which is the latter letter in the coinposition of these diphthongs. (37.)
67. The same want of correspondence in classing the long and short vowels we find in 6, e, o, and ¥; for as the e in theme does not find its short sound in the same letter in them, but in the i in him ; so the e in them must desceud a step luwer into the province of a for its long sound in tame. The a in arry is not the short sound of the a in care, but of that in car, fulher, &c. as the short broad sound of the a in uni is the true abbreviation of that in wall. The sound of o in don, gone, &c. is exactly correspondent to the a in swan, and finds its long sound in the a in wall, or the diphthong au, in dawn, kon, &c.; while the short sound of the o in tone is nearly that of the same letter in ton, (a weight,) and corresponding with what is generally called the short sound of u in tun, gum, &c. as the long sound of u in puie must find its short sound in the u in pull, bull, &c.; foi this vowel, like the i and 3, being a diphthong, its short sound is formed from the latter part of the let er equivalent to double o, us die word puie, if spelled according to the sound, might be written peoole.
68. Another observation preparatory to a consideration of the various sounds of the vowels and cousonants seems to be the influence of the accent; as the accent or stress which is laid upon cer. tain syilables has so obvious an efiect upon the sounds of the letters, that unless we take accent into the account, it will be impossible to reason rightly upon the proper pronunciation of the Eloments of Speech
10 OP THE INFLUENCE OF ACCENI ON THE SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.
Of the Infuence of Accent on the Sounds of the 1 stters. 69. It may be first observed, that the exertion of the organs of speech necessary to produce the accent or stress, has an obvious tendency to preserve the letters in their pure and uniform sound, while the relaxation or feebleness which succeeds the accent as naturally suffers the letters to slido into a somewhat different sound a little easier to the organs of pronunciation. Thus the first a in cabbage is pronounced distinctly with the true sound of that letter, while the second a goes into an obscure sound bordering on the i short, the slenderest of all sounds; so that cabbage and village have the a in the last syllable scarcely distinguishable from the e and'i in the last syllables of cat kge and vestige.
70. In the same manner thea, e, i, o, and y, coming before r in a final unaccented syllable, go into an obscure sound so nearly approaching to the short il, that is the accent were carefully kept upon th first syllables of liar, lier, elixir, major, martır, &c. these words, without any perceptible change in the sound of their last syllables, migiit all be written and pronounced, liur, liur, elirur, mayur, martur, &c.
71. The consonants also are no less altered in their sound by the position of the accent than tho vowels. The k and s in the composition of x, when the accent is on them, in exercise, erecide, &c. preserve their strong pure sound; but wlien the accent is on the second syllable, in exact, eronerate, &c. these letters slide into the duller and weaker sounds of g and 2, which are easier
to the organs of pronunciation. Hence not only the soft c and the s go into sh, but even the t before a diphthong slides into the same letters when the stress is on the preceding syllable. Thus in society and satiety the c and e preserve their pure sound, because the syllables ci and ti have the accent on them, but in social and satiate, these syllables come after the stress, and from the feebloness of their situation naturally fall into the shorter and casier sound, as if written soshial and sashiate. See the word SATIETY.
72. A has three long sounds and two short ones. 73. The first sound of the first letter in our alphabet is that which among the English is its namo. (See the letter A at the beginning of the Dictionary.) This is what is called by most grammarians its slender sound (35) (65;) we find it in the words lade, spude, trade, &c. In the diphthong ai we have exactly the same sound of this letter, as in pain, gairi, stain, &c. and sometimes in the diphthong eda as bear, swear, pear &c.; nay, twice we find it, contrary to every rule of pronunciation, in the vords where and there, and once in the anomalous diphthong ao in gaol. It exactly corresponds to che sound of the French e in the beginning of the words être and tête.
74. The long slender a is generally produced by a silcate at the end of the syllable, which enot only keeps one single intervening consonant from shortening the preceding vowel, but sometimes two thus we find the mute e makes of rug, rage, and very improperly keeps the a open even in range, change, &c. (See CHANGE ;) hal, with the mate e, becomes hate, and the a continues open, and, per haps, somewhat longer in haste, wasle, paste, &c. though it must be confessed this seems the privi
ege only of a; for the other vowels contract before the consonants ng in revenge, cringe, plunge; anb the sle in our language is pieceded by no other voucl but this. Every consonant but a shortens every vowel but å, when soft g and e silent succced; as bilge, badge, hinge, spunge, &c.
75. Hence we may establish this general rule: A has the iong, open, slender sound, when follow od by a single consonant, and e mute, as lude, mude, fude, &c. The only exceptions seem to be, have, are, gape, and bade, the past tiine of to bid.
16. A has the same sound, when ending an accented syllable, as pa-per, l-per, spec-ta-tor. The only exceptions are fa-lher, ma-ster, iru-ler.
77. As the short sound of the long slender a is not found under the same character, but in the Bhorte (as may be perceived by comparing mate and inet) (67,) we proceed to delineate the second sound of this vowel, which is that heard in futher, and is called by some the open sound (34 ;) but this can never distinguish it from the deeper sound of the a in all, ball, &c. which is still more open: by some it is styled the middle sound of a, as between the a in pule, and that in wall : it answers nearly to the Italian a in Toscano, Romana, &c. or to the final u in the naturalized Greek words, papa and mamma; and in baa; the world adopted in almost all languages to express the cry of sheep We seldom find the long soumd of this leiter in our language, except in monosyllables ending with r; as far, lat, mar, &c, and in the word fuher. There are certain vords from the Latin, Italian, and Spanish languages, such as limbago, brmudo, tornado, curisadlo, furrago,, &c. which are sometimes heard with this sound of a; but except in bravo, head chiefly at the Theatres, the English sound of a is preferable in all these words.
78. The long sound of the middle or Italian a is always found before r in monosyllables, as car, far, mar, &c. before the liquids lm; whether the latter only be pronounced, as in psalm, or both, as in psalmist; sometimes before it, and lre, as calf, hull, culve, halve, salre, &c.; and, lastly, before the sharp aspirated dental th in bathi, pain, lath, &c. and in the word father : this sound of the a was for. merly more than at present found before the nasal liquid », especially when succeeded by c, i, or d, as dance, glance, lance, France, chance, prance, grant, plurl, sluni, slonder, &c.
79. The hissing consonants was likewise a sign of this sound of the a, whether doubled, as in glass, grass, lass, &c. or accompanied by t, as in lust, Just, rast, &c.; but this pronunciation of a seems to have been for some years advancing ío the short sound of this letter, as heard in hand, land, grand, &c, and pronouncing the a in after, unswer, besket, plant, mast, &c. as long as in half, calf, &c borders very closely on vulgarity. It must be observed, however, that the a before n in monosyllables, and at the end of words, was anciently written with u after it, and so probably pronounced as broad as the German a ; for Dr. Johnson observes, "many words pronounced with a broad were * anciently written with au, as finut, manlt; and we still write fault, vault. This was probably the “Saxon sound, for it is yet retained in the northern dialects, and in the rustic pronunciation, as * mann for man, huund for hand.” But since the u has vanished, the a has been gradually pronounced slenderer and shorter, till now almost every vestige of the ancient orthography seems lost; though the terinination mand in cummund, demand, &c. formerly written commaund, demand, &c. still retains the long sound inviolably.*
Biace the first publication of this Dictionary the public bar e heen savoured with some very elaborate and Judielona Aer va show on Engiislo pronunciation, by Dir. Smith, in a Schenre of a French and English Dictionary. In this
80. As the mure l in calm, psalm, call, half, "&c. seems lu lengthen the sound of thila letter, so the abbreviation of some words hy apostrophe seems 10 have the same effect. Thus when, by impa rience, that grand corrupter of manners, as well as language, the no is cut out of the word cannak and the two syilables recluced to one, we find the a lengthened to the Italian or middle , as carino runt ; hare not, han't ; shall not, sha'n't ; &c. This is no more than what the Latin language is sub ject to; it being a known rule in that tongue, that when, hy composition or otherwise, two short syllables become one, that syilable is almost always .ong, as alius has the penultimate long because it comes from aliius, and the two short vowels in cougo become one long vowel in cogo, &c.
81. The short sound of the middle or Italian a, which is generally confounded with the shor! ound of the slender «, is the sound of this vowel in man, pail, lun, nial, hut, &c.: we generaliy find this sound before any two successive consonants (those excepted in the foregoing, remarks,) and even when it comes before an r, if a sowel follow, or the r be doubled; for if this consonant be doubled, in order to produce another syllable, the long sound becomes é:ort, as mar, marry, car, Cartul, &c. where we find the monosyllable has the long, and the dissyllable the short sounds but if a come before r, followed by another consonant, it has its long sound, as in part, purtial, &c.
82. The only exception to this rule is in adjectives derived from substantives ending in r; for in this case the a continues long, as in the priinitive. Thus the a in slarry, or full of stars, is as long as in siar : and the a in the adjective tarrij, or besmeared with tar, is as long as in the substantive har, though short in the word larry, (!o stay.)
83. The third long sound of a is that which we niore immediately derive from our maternal lan. guage the Saxon, but which at present we use less than any other: this is the a in full, bull, gall, (33 :) we find a correspondent sound to this a in the diphthongs an and au, as laud, lau, saw, &c. though it must here be noted, that we have improved uposi our German parent, by giving a broauler sound to this letter in these words than the Germans themselves would do, were they to pronounce them.
84. The long sound of the deep broad German c is produced by Il after it, as in all, wall, call; or in-leed by one l, and any other consonant, except the inute labials p, b, s, and v, as sall, bald, fulse, falchion, falcon, &c. The exceptions to this rule are generally words from the Arabic and Latin lan guages, as Alps, Albion, asphaltic, falcated, salre, calculate, amalgamate, Alcoran, and Aifred, &c.; the two last of which may be considered as ancient proper names which have been frequently latinized, and ly this means have acquired a slenderer souu: of a. This rule, however, must be understood of such syllables only as have the accent ou them; for when al, followed by a consonant, is in the first syllable of a word, having the accent on the second, it is then pronounced as in the first syllables of al-lei, rul-ley, &c. as alternale, balsamic, falcaie, falcalion, &c. Our modern orthography, which has done its ntmost to perplex pronunciation, has made it' vecessary to observe, that every Ford compounded of a monosyllable with ll, as albeií, also, almost, dononful, &c. must be pronounced as if the two liquids were still remaining, notwithstanding our word menders have wisely taken one away, to the destruction both of sound and etymology ; for, as Mr. Elphinston shrewdly obServes, Every reader, young and old, must now be so sagacious an analyst as to discern at once
pot only what are compounds and what their simples, but that al in composition is equal to all out * of it; or in other words, that it is both what it is, and what it is not." "Prin. Eng Langnage, vol • rage GO. Sec
No. 404. 85. The te has a peculiar qualiey of broadening this letter, even when prepositive : this is always the effect, except when the vowel is closed by the sharp or Mat guttural k or , t, ng, nk, or the sharp labial f, as wur, rcall, thirruck, iwany, 'wak : thus we pronounce the a broad, though short in tid, win, want, wus, w'al, &c. and though other letters suffer the a to alter its sound before ll, when one of these letters goes to the formation of the latter syllable, as tall, lul-lovo; hull, hal-icw; call, cal-tour, &c.; yet we see w preserve the sound of this vowel before a siugle ccr.sorant, es wal.lmo, stal-lov, &c.
6. The q including the scnnd of tie 10, and being no more than this letter preceded by k, ought, according io analogy, to broaden every a it goes before like the w; thus yuantity ought to be pronomced as if written kuontity, and quality should rhyme with joklity ; instead of which we frequently hear the rr robbed of its rights in its proxy; and quality so pronounced as to rbome with legality, while to rhyme quantity, according to this affected mode of prononncing it, we nuSE LCIC sucn words Es positity and consonantity. The a in Qiwver and Equum is an exception to this rule, from the preponderancy of another which requires a, ending a syllable under the accent, to have the slender bourd of that letter; to which rule, futher, master, and water, and perhaps, quadrant, are the only exceptions.
67. The short sound of this broad a is heard when it is preceded by w, and succeeded by a single consona:it in the same syllable, as wal-low, swal-lour, &c. or by two consonants in the same syllable as wint, uusi, wasp, &c. but when I or r is one ns the conso.ants, the a l,ccomes long, as walk, swarm, fic
Irregular and unuccenleu Sounds. 68. Rat besides the long and short sounds common to all the vowels, there is a certain transient indistinct pronunciation of some of thein, when they are not accented, that cannot be so easily seitied. When the accent is not upon it, no vowel is more apt to run into this imperfect sound than the a; thus the particle a before parti iplcs, in the phrases a-going, a-walking, a-shooting, &c stems, says Dr. Lowth, to be the true and genuine preposition on a little disguised by familiar use and quick pronunciation: the same indistinctness, from rapidity and coincidence of sound, has confounded the pronunciation of this mutilated preposition to the ear, in the different questions that's o'clock, when we would know the hour, and ichi's a clock, when we would have the descrip. tion of that horary machine; and if the accent be kept strongly on the first syllable of the word derable, as it always ought to be, we find se arcely any distinguishable difference to the ear, if we ubstitute u oro instead of a in the penultimate syllable. Thus tolerable, tolerobe, and toleruble, are exactly the sapı.. word to the ear, if pronounced without premeditation or transposing the accent, for work he departs frequently fronı my judgment, and particularly in the pronunciation of the letter a when succeeded by Hist, or 1, and another consonani, as pass, last, chance, &c. to which he annexes the long sourd of a in father. That this was the sound formerly, is highly probable from its being still the sound given it by the vulgar, who are generally die last to alter the common propunciation ; but that the short a in these words is now the general pronunciatiou of trile and learned world, seeing to be candidly acknowledged by Mr. Smith himself; and as every correct ear won'd be disgusted at giving the a in these words the full long sound of tlie a in father, any middle sound oaght to be die Ornanceil, as tending to render the prontınciation of a language obscure and indefinite. (163.)
Ben Lancon in Sis Grammier classes salt, malt, balm, and calm, as having the same sound of a, and event, us having the Barme diplochougal sound us audience, author, law, saw, draw, dua
the real purpose of distinction; and inwards, oulwards, &c. might, with respect to sound, be spell invourds, outlourds, &c. Thus the word man, when not under the accent, might be written mens in nobleman, husbrrdman, woman ; and tertion and qurtan, tertiun and quartun, &c. The same observation will hold good in almost every final syllabie where a is not accented. as medal, dial, giant, bias, &c. defiance, temperance, &c.; but when the final syllable ends in age, ote, or ace, the a gocs into Á somewhat different sound. See 90 and 91.
89. There is a corrupt, but a received pronunciation of this letter in the words om, many, Thames, where the a sounds like short e, as if written enny, menny, Tems. Catch, among Londoners, seems to have aegenerated into Ketch ; and says, the third person of the verb to say, has, arrong all ranks of people, and in every part of the united Kingdoms, degenerated into sez, rhyming with Fez.
90. The a goes into a sound apprvaching the short i, in the pumerous termination in age, when the accent is not on it, as cabbuge, village, courage, &c. and are pronounced nearly as if written catbige, willige, courige, &c. The exceptions to this rule are chiefly among words of three syllables, with the accent on the first; these seem to be the following. Ådage, presage, sculage, hemitrhage, vassalage, carcelage, guidage, prucelage, mucilage, curtilage, pupiluge, orphanage, vilionage, appanage, concubinage, barmage, patrouge, pursonage, personage, equipage, ossifrage, sarifrage, umpirage, embassage hermitage, heriluge, parentage, patronage.
91. The a in the numerous termination ate, when the accent is not on it, is pronounced somewhat differently in different worls. If the word be a substantive, or an adjective, the a seems to be shorter than when it is a verb: thus a good ear will discover a difference in the quantity of this letter, in delicate and dedicale; in climate, primate, and ultimote; and the verbs to calculate, io regulate, and to speculule, where we find the nouns and adjectives l.ave the a considerably shorter than the verbs Innate, however, preserves the d as long as if the accent were on it: but the unaccented termina tions in ace, whether nouns or verbs, havc the a so short and obscare as to be nearly similar to the u in us ; thus palace, soluce, menace, pinnure, populace, might, without any great departure from their commou sound, be written pallus, sollus, &c. while fursusce almost changes the a into i, and might be written furniss.
92. When the a is preceded by the gutturals, hard g or c, it is, in polite pronunciation, softened by the intervention of a sound like e, so that card, car!, grd, regard, are pronounced like ke-ard, ghe-ard, re-ghe-ard. When the a is pronounced short, as in the first syllables of candle, gender, &c. the interposition of the e is very perceptiole, and indeed unavoidable: for though we can pronounce guard and cart without interposing the e, it is impossible to pronounce garrison and carriage in the same manner. This sound of the u is taken notice of in Steele's Grammar, page 49, which proves it is not the offspring of the present day (160;) and I have the satisfaction to find Mr. Smith, a very accurate
aquirer into the subject, entirely of my cpinion. But the sound of the a, which I have found the nost difficult to appreciate, is that where it ends the syllable, either inmediately before or after the accent. We cannot give it any of its three open sounds without hurting the ear: thus in pronouncing the worels abonned and diudem, ay-hounil, ah-bonu!, and aw-bound ; di-ay-dem, di-ah-dem and li-aw-lem, are all improper; but giving the a the second or Italian sound, as ah-bound, and di-ah-dem, eems the least so. For which reason I have, like Mr. Sheridan, adopted the short sound of this letter to mark this unaccented a: but if the unaccented a be inal, which is not the case in any word purely English, it ther. seems to approach still nearer to the Italian a in the last syllable of papa, and to the a in father ; as may be heard in the deliberate pronunciation of the words idea, Afrion, Delta, &c.(88.) See the Ictter at the beginning of the Dictionary.
E. 93. The first sound of e is that which it has when lengthened by the mute e final, as in glebe, theme, lic. or when it ends a syllable with the accent upon it, as se-cre-tion, ad-he-sion, &c. (36.)
94. The exceptions to this rule are, the words where and there; in which the first e is pronounced like a, as if written whare, thare ; and the auxiliary verb were, where the e has its short sound, as if written wer, rhyming with the last syllable of pre-fer, and ere, (before,) which sounds like air. When there is in composition in the word therefore, the < is generally shortened, as in were, but in my opinion improperly.
95. The short sound of e is that heard in bedl, fed, red, rced, &c.; this souud before r is apt to slide into short u; and we sometimes hear mercy sounded as if written murcy: but this, though very near is not the exact sound.
Irregular and unaccented Sprunds. 96. The e at the end of the monosyllables he, he, me, ine, is pronounced ce, as if written Dee, hee, &c It is silent at the end of words purely English, but is pronounced distinctly at the end of some words from the learned languages, as epitome, simile, calustrophe, apostrophe, &c.
97. The first e in the poetic contractions, e'er and ne'er, is pronounced like a, as if written air and nair.
98. The e in her is pronounced nearly like short u; and as we hear it in the unaccented terminations of writer, reader, &c. pronounced as if written writur, readur, where we may observe that the r being only on a jar, and not a definite and distinct articulation 'like the other consonants, instead of stopping the vocal eflux of voice, lets it imperfectly pass, and so corrupts and alters the true where the e is sounded as if it were placed before the r, as in lucre, mangre, theatre, &c. pronounced backener, mangur, theatur, &c. See No. 418. It may be remarked, that though we ought cautiously to avoid pronouncing the e like u when under the accent, it would be nimis Attice, and border too much on affectation of accuracy to preserve this sound of e in unaccented syllables before r; and though terrible, where e has the accent, should never be pronounced as if written turrible, it is impossiblo without pedantry to make any difference in the sound of the last syllable of splendorir and terider, srib. pheer and suffer, or martyr and garter. But there is a small deviation from rule when this letter beging A word, and is foliowed by a double consonant with the accent on the second syllable: in this caso we find the vowel lengthen as if the consonant were single. See EFFACE, DESPATCA, EMBALM.
99. This vowel, in a final unaccented syllable, is api to slide into the short i: thus faces, ranges, praises, are pronounced as if written fæciz, rangis, prairiz ; poel, covel, linen, duel, &c. as if written poil, covil, linin, dicit, fec.. Where we may observe, that though the e goes into the short sound of in It is exactly that sound which corresponds to the long sound of e See Port Royal Gramming Latin,