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100. There be a remarkable exception to the common sound of this letter in the words clerk, morfemenin and a few others, where we find the e pronounced like the a in dark and margin. But this exception, I imagine, was, till within these few years, the general rule of sounding this letter before r, followed oy another consouant. Sce Merchant. Thirty years ago every one pronounced the first syllable of merchant like the monosyllable march, and as it was anciently written marchant. Service and servan are still heard among the lower order of speakers, as if written sarvice and survant; and even among the better sort, we hear sometimes the salutation, Sir, your sariant: though this pro nunciation of the word singly would be looked upon as a mark of the lowest vulgarity. The propor names, Derby and Berkeleu, still retain the old sound as if written Darby and Barkeley: but even these, in polite usage, are getting into the common sound, nearly as if written Durby and Burkeley. As this modern pronunciation of the e has a tendency to simplify the language by lessening the number os exceptions, it ought certainly to be indulged.
101. This letter falls into an irregular sound, but still a sound which is its nearest relation, in the words, England, yes, and pretty, where the e is heard like short i. Vulgar speakers are guilty of the same irregularity in engine, as if written ingine; but this cannot be too carefully avoided.
102. The vowel e before i and n in the final unaccented syllable, by its being sometimes suppressed and sometimes not, forms one of the most puzzling difficulties in pronunciation. When any of the liquids precede these letters, the e is heard distinctiv, as woollen, Nannel, women, syren ; but when any of the other consonants come bedre these letters, the e is sometimes heard, as in novel, sudden; and sometimes not, as in swirel, rucen, &c. As no other rule can be given for this variety of pronuncia. tion, perhaps the best way will be to draw the line between those words where e is pronounced, and those where it is not; and this, by the heip of the Rhyming Dictionary, I am luckily enabled to do. In the first place, then, it may be observed, the e before 1, in a final unaccented syllable, must always de pronounced distinctly, except in the following words: Shekel, weasel, ousel, nousel, (better written muzzle,) nared, ravel, snivel, rivel, dricel, shrivel, shovel, grorel, hazel, drazel, nozel. These words are pro. nounced as if the e were ominted by an apostrophe, as shek'l, weas'l, orus'l, &c. or rather as if written sheckle, weazle, ouzle, &c.; but as these are the only words of this termination that are so pronounced, great care must be taken that we do not pronounce travel, gravel, rebel (the substantive,) parcel, chapel, and vessel, in the same manner; a fault to which many are very prone.
103. E before n in a final unaccented syllable, and not preceded by a liquid, must always be sup pressed in the verbal terminations in en, us to loosen, to hearken, and in other words, except the fol. lowing: Sudden, mynchen, kitchen, hüphen, chicken, licken (better written ticking,), Jerken, aspen, platen, paten, niarten, lullen, pallen, learen or leven, sioven, mitiens. In these words the e is beard distinctly, con trary to the geperal rule which suppresses the e in these syllables, when preceded by a mute, as harden, heathen, heaven, as if written hard'n, leath'rt, heure'n, &c.; nay, even when preceded by a liquid in the words fallen and stolen, where the e is suppressed, as if they were written falln and stolln: gar den and burden, therefore, are very analogically pronounced gard'n and burd'n, and this pronuncia tion ought the rather to be indulged, as we always hear the e suppressed in gardener and burdensome as if written gard'ner, and lurd'nsone. See No. 412.
104. This diversity in the pronunciation of these terminations ought the more carefully to be ata tended to, as nothing is so vulgar and childish as to hear svirel and heaven pronounced with the e distinctly, or norel and chicken with the e suppressed. But the most general suppression of this letter is in the preferits of verbs, and in participles ending in od: here, when the e is not preceded by dorl, the e is almost universally sunk (362,) and the two final consonants are pronounced in ono syllable: thus loved, lived, burred, marred, are pronounced as if written lord, livd, bard, mard. The same may be observed of this letter when silent in the singulars of nours, or the first persons of verbs, as theme, make, &c. which form themes in the plural, and makes in the third person, &c. where the last e is silent, and the words are pronounced in one syllable. When the noun or first person of the verb ends in y, with the accent on it, the e is likewise suppressed, as a reply, two replies, he replies, &c. When words of this form have the accent on the preceding syllables, the e is suppressed and tpe y pronounced like short i, as cherries, murries, carries, &c. pronounced cherriz, marriz, carriz, &c. In the same manner, carried, married, embodied, &c. are pronounced as if written carrid, marrid, mm. boetid, &c. (282.) But it nunst be carefully noted, that there is a remarkable exception to many or these contractions when we are pronouncing the language of Scripture: here every participial es ought to make a distinct syllable, where it is not preceded by a vowel : thus, “Who hath believed our
report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed ?" Here the participles are both pronounced in three syllables; but in the following passage, "Whoin he did predestinate, them he also called : and whom he called, them he also justified; and whom he justified, them he also glorired;" called preserves the e, and is pronounced in two syllables; and justised and glorificil suppress the e, and are pronounced in three.
1. 105. This letter is a perfect diphthong, composed of the sounds of a in fother, and e in he, pronoun, ced as closely together as possible (37.). When these sounds are openly pronounced, they produce the familiar assent ay: which, by the old English dramatic writers, was oftea expressed by 1: hence we may observe, that unless our ancestors pronounced the rowel I like the o in oil, the present pro nunciation of the word ay in the House of Commons, in the phrase the Ayes hare it, is contrary to ancient as well as to present usage: such a pronunciation of this word is now coarse and rustic. This sound is heard when the letter is lengthened by finale, as time, thine, or ending a syllable with the
ccent upon it, as ti-lle, di-al; in monosyllables ending with nd, as bind, find, mind, &c.; in three words ending with li, as child, mild, wild; and in one very irregularly ending with ni, as pine. (37.),
106. There is one instance where this letter, though succeeded by finale, does not go into the broad English sound like the noun eye, but into the slender foreign sound like . This is in the word shire, pronounced as if written seer, both when single, as a knight of the shire; or in composition, as in Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, &c. Tnis is the sound Dr. Lowth gives it in his Grammar, page 4: and it is highly probable that the simple shire acquired this slender sound from its tendency to beda come slender in the compounds, where it is at a distance from the accent, and where all thé vowels haze a natural tendency to become short and obscure. See SHIRE.
107. The short sound of this letter is heard in him, thin, &c. and when en ding an unaccented sylla. bie, as run-i ty, qual-i-ty, &c. where, though it cannot be properly said to be shon, as it is not closed by a consonant, yet it lias but hall its diphthongal sound. This sound is the sound of e, the last lol. ter of the diphthong that forms the long I; and it is not a little surprising that Dr. Johnson should say that the short i was a sound wholly different from the long ona. (551)
108. When this letter s succeeded by , and another consonant not in a final syllable, it has exact by the sound of e in vermin, vernal, &c. as virtue, virgin, &c. which approaches to the sound of sliorta, but when it comes before r, followed by another consonant in a final syllable, it acquires the sound of u exactly, as bird, dirt, shirt, squirt, &c. Mirth, birth, gird, girt, skich, girl, whirl and irm, are the only exceptions to this rule, where i is pronounced like e, and as if the words were written, merth, berch, And
ferm. 109. The letter r, in this case, seems to have the same infuence on this vowel, as it evidently has on a and o. When these vowels come before double r, or singler, followed by a vowel, as in arabla carty, marry, oralor, horrid, forage, &r. they are considerably shorter than when the r is the final leta ter of the word, or when it is succeeded by another consonant, as in arbour, car, mar, or, nor, for. In the same manncr the i, coming before either double r, or singler, followed by a vowel, preserves its pure, short sound, as in irritale, spiril, conspiracy, &c.; but when r is not followed by another consonant, or is the final letter of a word with the accent upon it, the i goes into a deeper and broader sound, equivalent to short e, as heard in virgin, virtue, &c. So fir, a trec, is perfectly similar to the first syllable of ferment, though often corruptly pronounced like fur, a skin. Sir and stir are exactly pronounced as if written sur and stur. It seems, says Mr. Nares, that our ancestors distinguished ihese sounds more correctly. Bishop Gardiner, in his first letter to Cheke, mentions a witticism of Nicholas Rowley, a fellow Cantab with him, to this effect: “Let handsome girls be called virgins, “plain ones vurgins."
“Si pulchra est, rirro, sin turpis, curgo vocetur."
“Sweet virgin can alone the fair express,
Engross the homage of a Nujor Sturgeon' 110. The sound of i, in this situation, onght to be the more carefully attended to, as letting it fall in. to the sound of u, where it should have the sound of e, has a grossness in it approaching to vulgarity. Perhaps the only exception to this rule is, when the succeeding vowel is u; for this letter being a semi-consonant, has some influence on the preceding i, though not so much as a perfect consonan;
would have. This makes Mr. Sheridan's pronunciation of the iin virulent and its compounds, like that in virgin, less exceptionable than I a: first thought it; but since we cannot give a semi-sound of short i to correspond to the semi-consonant sound of u, I have preferred the pure sound which i think the most agreeable to polite usage. See Alr. Garrick's Epigrain upon the sound of this letter under the word VIRTUE.
foregular and unaccented Sounds. 111. There is an irregular pronumciation of this letter which has grcatly multiplied winnin these ter years, and that is, the slender sound heard in ee. This sound is chiefly found in words derived frou the French and Italian languages; and we think we show our breeding by a knowledge of those ongues, and an ignorance of our own :
“Report of fashions in proud Italy,
Shakspeare, Richard 11
“Dreading ev'n fools, by flatterers besieg'd,
But it was so far from having generally obtained, that Lord Chesterfield strictly enjoins his son to avoid this pronunciativn as affected. In a few years, however, it became so general, that none but the lowest vulgar ever pronounced it in the English manner; but, upon the publication of this nobleman's letters, which was aboul twenty years after he wrote them, his authority lias had so much in: fluence with the polite world as to bid fair for restoring the i, in this word, to its original rights; and we not unfrequently hear it now pronounced with the broad English i, in those circies where, a few years ago, it would have been an infallible mark of vulgarity. Mr. Sheridan, W. Johnston, and Mr. Barclay, give ooth sounds, but place the sound of oblige first. Mr. Scott gives both, but places obleego first. Dr. Kenrick and Buchanan give only oblige; and Mr. Elphinston, Mr. Perry, and Fenning, give only whlerge ; but though this sound has lost ground so much, yet Mr. Nares, who wrote about eighteen years ago, says, " oblige still, I think, retains the sound of long e, notwithstanding the pro “scription of that pronunciation by the late Lord Chesterfield."
'12. The words that have preserved the foreign sound of i, like ee, are the following: Ambergris rirdegris, untique, benfico, bombasin, bruzil, capvi, capuchin, colbertine, chioppine, or chopin, cuprice, che grin, cheraut-de-frise, critique, (for criticism,) festucine, frize, gabardore, haberdine, sordine, rugirie, trephine, quirantine, routine, suscine, fatigue, intrigue, ylocis, invaliil
, machine, magazine, marine, palunguin, rique, police, profile, recitative, man-via-rine, lubourine, Limbourine, tontine, transmarine, ultrumarine. In all these words, if for the last we substitute ee, we shall have the true pronunciation. In signior the first i iş thus pronounced. Mr. Sheridan pronouces vertigo and serpigo with the accent on the second sylla. bie, and the i long as in tie and pie. Dr. Kenrick gives inese words the same accent, but sounds the i as e in tea and pea. The latter is, in my opinion, the general pronunciation; though Mr. Sheridan's is supported by a very general rule, which is that all words adopted whole from the Latin preserve re Latin accent. (503, 1.) But if the Englisu ear were unbiassed by the long i in Latin, which fixes
accent on the second syllable, and could free itself from the slavish imitation of the Freuch and
Italians, there is little doubt but these words would have the accent on the first syllable, and that the I would be pronounced regularly like the short e, as in Indigo and Portico. See VERTIGO.
113. There is a remarkable alteration in the sound of this vowel, in certain situations, where it changes to a sound equivalent to initial y. The situation that occasions this change is, when the 6 precedes another vowel in an unaccented syllable, and is not preceded by any of the dentals : thus we hear ivry in mil-iury, bil-iary, &c. pronounced as if written mil-yary, bil-yary, &c. Minion and fin-ion as if written min-yon and pin-yon. In these words the i is so totally aliered to y, that pronouncing the ia and io in separate syllables would be an error the most palpable; but where the other quids or mutes precede the i in this situation, the coalition is not so necessary : for though the two latter syllables of conviviul, participial, &c. are extremely prone to unite into one, they may, however be separated, provided the separation be not too distant. The same observations hold good of e, as malleible, pronounced mal-ya-ble.
114. But the sound of the i, the most difficult to reduce to rule, is when it ends a syllable immediately before the acrent. When either the primary or secondary accent is on this letter, it is invaria. bly pronourreed either as the long i in title, the short i in tuttle, or the French i in magazine; and when it ends a syllable after the accent, it is always sounded like e, as sen-si-ble, ru-li-ty, &c. But when it ends a syllable, immediately before the accent, it is sometimes pronounced 100g, as in vi-ta-li-ly, where the first syllable is exactly like the first of ri-al; and sometimes short, as in di-yest, where the i is pronounced as if the word were written de-gest. The sound of the i, in this situation, is so little reducible to ruie, that none of our writers on the subject have attempted it; and the only method to give some idea of it, seems to be the very laborious one of classing such words together as have the i proncunced in the same manner, and riserving the different coinbinations of other letters that may possibly be the cause of the different sounds of this.
115. In the first place, where the i is the only letter in the first syllable, and the accent is on tho second, beginning with a consonant, the vowel has its long diphthongal sound, as in iden, identity, idolatry, idoneous, irascible, ironical, isosceles, itinerant, ilinerary. Imagine and its compounds seem din only exceptions. But to give the inspector some idea of general usage; I have subjoined examples of these words as they stand in our different Pronouncing Dictionaries :
Sheridan, Scott, Buchanan, W. Johnston, Kenrick.
Perry. identity. Sheridan, Scott, Buchanan, W. Johnston, Kenrick. Identity. Perry. idolatry. Sheridan, Scott, Buchanan, IV. Johnston, Kenrick. Idolatry. Perry. inioneous. Sheridan, Kenrick. trascible. Sheridan, Scott, W. Johnston, Kenrick irusrite. Perry: isosceles. Sheridan, Scott, Perry. ilinerary. Sheridan, Scott, W. Johnston, Kenrick, tinerary. Perry. tirerani. Sheridan, Scott, W. Jolinston, Nares. kinerant. Buchanan, Perry.
116. When i ends the first syllable, and the accent is on the second, coinmencing with a vowel, in generally preserves its long open diphthongal sound. Thus in di-ameier, di-urrul, &c. the first syllabıle is equivalent to the verb to die. A corrupt, foreign manner of pronouncing these words, may sometimes mince the i into e, as if the words were written de-ameter, de-urnal, &c.; but this is disgusting to every just English ear, and contrary to the whole current of analogy. Besides, the vowel that ends and the vower that begins a syllable are, by pronouncing the i long, kept more distinct, and not suffered to coalesce, as they ar. apt to do if i has its slender sound." This proneness of the , which is exactly the slender sound of i, to coalesce with the succeeding vowel, has produced sucli monsters in pronunciation as joggraphy and jonmetry, for geography and geometry, and ju gics for georgics. The latter of these words is fixed in this absurd pronunciation without remedy; but the two former seem recovering their right to four syllables ; though Mr. Sheridan has endeavoured to deprive them of il, by spelling them with three. Hence we may observe, that those who wish to pro. nounce correctly, and according to analogy, ought to pronounce the first syllable of biography, as the verb to bry, and not as if written be-ography,
117. When i ends an initial syllable without the accent, and the succeedling syllable begins with a consonant, the i is generally slender, as if written e. But the exceptions of this rule are so nune rous, that nothing but a catalogue will give a tolerable idea of the state un pronunciation in this point.
118. When the prepositive bi, derived from bis (twice,) ends a syllable immediately before the accent, the i is long and broad, in order to convey niore precisely the specific meaning of the syllable. Thus bi-capsular, bi-cipilul, bi-cipitous, bi-cornous, bi-corporal, bi-riental, bi-fariinis, biofureuied, bi-linguous, binocular, bi-pennaled, bi-pelalous, bi-quadrale, have the i long. But the first syllable of the words. Bi tumen and Bituminous having no such signification, ought to be pronounced with the i shart. This is the sound Buchanan has given it; but Sheridan, Kenrick, and W. Johnston, make the long, as iu Bible.
119. The same may be observed of words beginning with tri, having the accent on the second syllable. Thus tri-bunal, ti-corporul, tri-chotomy, tri-gintals, liave the i ending tbe first svllable long, as in trial. To this class ought to be added, di-pelulous and di-lemany, though the i iu the first syllable of the last word is pronounced like e, and as is written de-leima, by Wr. Scott and Mr. Perry, but long by Mr. Sheridan, Dr. Kenrick, and Buchanan; and both ways by W.Johnston, but placing the short first. And hence we may conclude, that the verb to In-sect, and the noun bi sertion, ought to have the hat the end of the first syllable pronounced like bry, as Mr. Scott and Dr Kenrick bave inarked it, though otherwise niarked by Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Pcrry, and Buchanan.
120. When the first syllable is chi, with the accent in the second, the i is generally long, as chi nigrical, chu-rurgic, chi-rurgeon, chi-rographist, chi-royruphrer, chi-rography Chi-mers and chi-merical bave thie i most frequently short, as pronounced by Buciasian und Perry, though otherwise inarked by Sheridan, Scott, W. Johnston, and Kenrick; and, indeed, the short sound secins now estabiisbed Cricane and chicanery, from the Frer.ch, have the i always short; or more properly slender.
12). Ci before the accent hus the i generally short, as ci-vilian, ci-vility, and, i think, ci-licious and ci-penuaal, though otherwise marked by Mr. Sheridani. Ci-burious and ci-iolion have the i løng.
122. Chi before the accent has the i long, as cli-macter ; but when the accent is on the third syllable, as in climacteric, the i is shortened by the secondary accent. See 530.
123. Cri before the accent has the i generally long, as cri-nigerous, cri terion; though we some times bear the latter as if written cre-terion, but I think improperly.
194. Di before the accented syllable, beginning with a consonant, has the i almost always short os digest, digestion, digress, digression, dilute, dilution, diluvian, dimension, dimensive, dimidiation, diminish, diminuive, diploma, direct, direction, diversify, dirersification,
diversion, diversity, divers, divertisement, diver tive, divest, divesture, divide, dividable, dividant, divine, divinity, divisible, divisibility, divorce, divulge... To these, I think, may be added, dicacity, didutić, dilacerate, diluceration, dilaniate, dilapidution, dilate, dilata ble, dilatability, dilection, dilucid, dilucidate, dilucidation, dinetical, dinumeration, diverge, divergent, divan, though Mr. Sheridan has marked the first i in all these words long; some of them may undoubtedly be pronounced either way; but why he should make the i in diploma long, and W. Johnston should give it both ways, is unaccountable; as Mr. Scott, Buchanan, Dr. Kenrick, Mr. Perry, and the gen. erat usage, is against them. Diæresis and dioptrics have the i long, according to the general rule (116,) though the last is absurdly made short by Dr. Kenrick, and the diphthong is made long in the first by Mr. Sheridan, contrary to one of the most prevailing idioms in pronunciation; which is, the shortening, power of the antepenltimate accent, (503.) Let it not be said that the diphthong must be always long, since Casarea and Dædalus have the æ always short
125. The long i in words of this form, seems confined to the following: Digladiation, dijudication, dinumeration, divaricate, direplion, diruption.' Both Johnson and Sheridan, in my opinion, place the accent of the word didascalić improperly upon the second syllable; it should seem more agreeable to analogy to class it with the numerous terminations in ic, and place the accent on the penultimate syllable (509;) and, in this case, the i in the first will be shortened by the secondary accent, and thn syllable pronounced like did. (527.) The first i in dimissory, marked long by Mr. Sheridan, and with the accent on the second syllable, contrary to Dr. Johnson, are equally erroneous. The accent ought to be on the first syllable, and the i short, as on the adjective dim. See PossessORY.
126. Fi before the accent ough always to be short: this is the sound we generally give to the i in the first syllable of h-delity ; and why we should give the long sound to the i in fiducial and fiduciary, as marked by Mr. Sheridan, I know not: he is certainly erroneous in marking the first i in frigidity, long, and equally so in placing the accent upon the last syllable of finite. Finance has the i shori universally. 127. Gigantic has the i in the first syllable always long.
128. Li has the i generally long, as ci-balion, li-brarian, li-bration, li-centious, li-pothymy, li-quescent, i-lhography, li-thotomy. Litigious has the i in the first syllable always short. The same may be obé erved of libidinous, though otherwise marked by Mr Sheridan. 129. Mi has the i generally short, as in minority, militia, mimographer, minacious, minacity, miraculous ;
nough the four last are marked with the long i by Mr. Sheridan; and what is still more strango, he parks the i which has the accent on it long in minotory; though the same word, in the compound omminatory, where the i is always short, might have shown him his error. The word mimetic, which, though in very good use, is neither in Johnson nor Sheridan, ought to be pronounced with the firse
short, as if written misn-e-ic. The i is generally long in micrometer, micography, and migration. 130. Ni has the i long in nigrescent
. The first i in nigrification, though marked long by Mr. Sheri dan, is shorte.ied by the secondary accent (527,) and ought to be pronounced as if divided into nigo ri-fi-cation.
131. Phi has the i generally short, as in philanthropy, philippic, philosopher, philosophy, philosophizt; to which we may certainly add, philologer, philologist, philology, philological, notwithstanding Mr. Sheridan has marked the i in these last words long.
132. Pi and pli have the i generally short, as pilaster, pituitous, pilosity, plication. Piaster, and piazau, being Italian words, have the i short before the vowel, contrary to the analogy of words of this Form (116,) where the i is long, as in pi-acular, pri-ority, &c. Piracical has the i marked long by Mr Sheridan, and short by Dr. Kenrick. The former is, in my opinion, more agreeable both to customs and analogy, as the sound of the i before the accent is often determined by the sound of that letter in the primitive word.
133. Pri has the i generally long, as in primeral, primevous, primitial, primero, primordial, privado, Privation, privative, but always short in primitive, and primer.
134. Rihas the i short, as in ridiculous. Rigidity is marked with the i long by Mr. Sheridan, and short by Dr. Kenrick : the latter is undoubtedly right. Rivality has the i long in the first syllable, ir. compliment to rival, as piratical has the i long, because derived from pirate. Rhinoceros has the a long in Sheridan, Scott, Kenrick, W. Johnston, and Buchanan; and short in Perry,
135. Si has the i generally short, as similitude, siriasis, and ought certainly to be short in silicions, (better written cilicious,), though marked long by Mr. Sheridan. Simultaneous having the secondary accent on the first syllable, does not come under
this head, but retains the i long, notwithstanding the shortening power of the accent it is under. (527.)
136. Tí has the i short, as in limidity.
138. Vi has the i so unsettled as to puzzle the correctest speakers. The i is generally long in vica rious, notwithstanding the short i in vicar. · It is long in ribration, from its relation to vibrate. Vitality has the i long, like vilul. In vivific, rivificate, and virimrous, the first i is long, to avoid tuo great á sameness vith the second. Viracious and vivacity have the i almost as often long as short; Mr. Sher idan, Mr. Scott, and Dr. Kenrick, make the i in viracious long, and Mr. Perry and Buchanan short Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, and W. Johnston make the i in the first of virucity long, and Perry and Buchanan short: but the short sound scemo less formal and most agreeable to polite-usage. Vicino ity, vicinal, vicissitude, vituperate, vimineous, and virago, seeni to prefer the short i, though Mr. Sheridan has marked the three last words with the first rowel long. But the diversity will be best seen by giving the authorities for all these words Vicinity. Dr. Kenrick. Vicinity. Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, Bucharian, W. Johnston, and Perry. Vicinul. Mr. Sheridan. Vicissitude. Mr. Sheridan, Dr. Kenrick, W. Johnston, Buchanan, and Perry Vituperate. Mr. Sheridan, Dr. Kenrick, w. Johnston. "perude. Mr. Perry.
I have classed ricinal here as a word with the accent on the second syllable, as it sta ndo in Sherkdan's Dictionary, but think it ought to have the accent on the first. See MEDICINAL,
139. The same diversity and uncertainty in the sound of this letter seem to reign in those final un accented syllables which are terminated with the mute ... Perhaps the best way to give some tolers ble idea of the analogy of the language in this point, will be, to show the general rule, and mark the exceptions; though ihese are sometimes so numerous as to make us doubt of the rulc itself; therefore the best way will be to give a catalogue of both.
140. There is one rule of very great extent, in words of this termination, which have the accent og the penultimate syllable, and that is, that the i in the final syllable of these words is short : thus ser cile, hostile, ririle, respile, deposite, adamaniine, amethystine, &c. are pronounced as if written servil, hostil espil, deposit, &c. The only exceptions in this numerous class of words seem to be the following Erile, senie, edilt, empire, iempire, rampire, finite, seline, ferine, archives ; the substantives confine and me pire : while the adjectives saline and contrile have sometimes the accent on the first, and sometimes on the last syllable; but in either case the i is long. Quagmire and pismire have the i long also; like wise has the i long, but otherwise has it more frequently, though very improperly, short. Myrrhine, cuisine, and gentile, though marked with the i long by Mr. Sheridan, ought, in my opinion, to conform to the general rule, and be pronounced with the i short. Vulpine, with the i long, is adopted by Mr. Scott; and W. Johnston, Mr. Scott, and Buchanan, agree with Mr. Sheridan in the last syliable of gentile; and this seems agreeable to general usage, though not to analogy. See the word.
141. But whea the accent is on the last syllable but two in words of this terinination, the length of the vowel is not so easily ascertained.
142. Those ending in ice have the i short, except sacrifce and cockalrice.
143. Those ending in ile have the i long, notwithstanding we sometimes hear suicide absurdly pro nounceil, as if written suicil.
144. Those ending in ise have the i long, except house-wife, pronounced huzzwiss, according to the general rule, notwithstanding the i in wife is always long. Viducife is sometimes shortened in the same manner by the vulgar; and se'nnight for serennight is gone irrevocably into the same analogy ; though fortnigli for fourteenthniglu is more frequently pronounced with the i long.
145. Those ending in ile have the i short, except reconcile, chamomile, estipile. Juvenile, mercantilen and puerile, have the i long in Sheridan's Dictionary, and short in Kenrick's. In my opinion the lat ter is the much more prevalent and polite pronunciation ; but infantile, though pronounceable both ways, seems inclinable to lengthen the i in the last syllable. See JUVENILE.
146. In the termination ime, printomime has the i long, rhyming with time, and maritime has the short, as if written nuritim.
147. Words in ine, that have the accent higher than the penultimate, have the quantity of i se un certain, that the ony method to give an idea of it will be to exhibit a catalogue of words where it pronounced diferently.
148. But first it may not be iinproper to see the different sounds given to this letter in some of the same words by ditlerent orthöepists:
Columbine. Sheridan, Nares, W. Jolinston.
Uterine. Kenrick, Scott, Perry. 149. In these words I do not hesitate to pronounce, that the general rule inclines evidently to the long 1, which, in doubtful cases, ought alivays to be followed; and for which reason I shall enumerate those words arst where I judge the i ought to be pronounced long: Cannubine, carrabine, colum bure, brzantine, & elatine, lequine, ozyrrholine, concubine, muscadine, incarnadine, celandine, ulmandine, secur dine, amygdaline, crystalline, viluline, calumine, asinine, saturnine, saccharine, adulrrine, viperine, werine, la. imentine, armentine, serpentine, turpentine, vesperline, belluine, porcupine, countermine, leonine, sapphirine, and bicialline.
150. The words of this termination, where the i is short, are the following: Jacobine, medicine, dis. cipline, masculine, jessamine, feminine, heroine, nectarine, libertine, gerunine, hyuline, pulutine. To these, I think, ought to be added, alkaline, aquiline, coralline, briga:vtine, eglantine : and io this pronunciation of the i, the proper names, Vulenline and Constuntine, scem strongly to incline; and on the stage, Cymbelire, has entirely adopted it. Thus we see how little infuence the Latin language bas on tho quantity of the i in the final syllable of these words. It is a rule in that language, that adjectives ending in ilis or inus, derived from animated beings or proper names, to the exception of very lew, have this i pronounced long. It were to be wished this distinction could be adopted in English words from the Latin, as in that case we might be able in time to regularize this very irregular part of uur tongue; but this alteration would be almost impossible in adjectives ending in ine, as relalice, racotite, sugilire, &c. bave the i unisorinly short in English, and long in the Latin relwivus, rocativus, fugiticus, &c.
151. The only word ending in ire, with the accent on the antepenultimate syllable, is acrospire, with the i long, the last syllable sounding like the spire of a church.
152. Words ending in ise have the i short, when the accent is on the last syllable but one, as fran hise, except the coinpounds ending in wise, as likewise, lengthwise, &c. as marked by Mr. Scout, Mr. Perry, and Buchanan: but even among these words we sometimes hear otherwise pronounced aher wiz, as marked by Mr. Sheridan and W. Johnston; but, I think, improperly.
163. When the accent is on the last syllable out two in these words, they are invariably pronoun. ced with the i long, as criticise, equalise.
154. In the termination ile, when the accent is on it, the i is always long, as requiile. When the aco cent is on the last syllable but one, it is always shurt, as respite (140,) pronounced as if written respit, except contrile; but when the accent is on the last syllable but iwo, the i is generally long: the ex. ceptions however, are so many, that a catalogue of both will be the best rule.
155 The i is lons in expedite, recorulilo incondite, herungpkrodilo, Carmelite, theodolila cosmopolito chyrso