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on the vowel a, but in the English pronunciation the consonant this taken into the first syllable, As thus, rather, which makes the difference. " Whenever a consonant follows the rowel a in the same syllable, and the accent is on the consa

nant, ihe vowel a has always its fourth sound, as håt, man; as also the sanie sound lengthened " when it precedes the letter r, as får, bảr, though the accent be on the vowel; as likewise wheu in prce acedes (m, as bålm, psalm. The Irish, ignorant of wis latter exceptian, pronounce all words of that structure as if they were written haum, psaum, quoum, cum, &c. In the third sound of a, marked by

different combinations of vowels or consonants, such as au, in Paul; ano, in law; all, in call; alde "in bald; alk, in talk, &c. the Irish make no mistake, except in that of lm, as before mentioned

« The sccord vowel, e, is for the most part sounded ee by the English, when the accent is upon it; " whilst the Irish in most words give it the sound of slender á, as in hole. This sound of e feeling

marked by different combinations of vowels, such as a moc final mnte, ee, and ie. In the two la "combinations of ee and ie, the Irish never mistake; turn as ila meel, serm, field, belime, &c.; but in

all the others, they almost universally change the vund of è into à. Thus in the combination ea, they pronounce the words ten, sel, please, as if they were spelt lay, say, plays; instead of bee,

plecse. The English constantly give this sound to ei whenever the accent is on the vowel e, es *cept in the following words, greul, a pear, a beur, to hear, to forhear, to swear, to lear, to sxear. Iu all * which the has the sound ord in håte. For want of knowing these exceptions, the gent!c men of ** Ireland, after some time of residence in Lordon, are apt to fall into the general rule, and pro

nounce these words as is spelt greet, beer, sweer, &c.

" Ei is also sounded ee by the Englisli, and as å by the Irish ; thus the word deceil, receive, are pro. "nounced by then as if written desale, resare. Ei is always sounded 4, except when a g follows it ** as in the words reign, feign, drigu, &c.; as also in the words rein (of a bridle,) rein-deer, rein, drein, * veil, heir, which are pronounced like rain, rain, orain, vuil, uir.

“ The tinal mute e, makes the preceding e in the same syllable, unen accented, have the sound of er, as in the words supréine, sinerre, replėte. This rule is almost universally broken throngh lay.

the Irish, who pronounce all such worils as if written supráme, sinsdre. replace, &c. There are • but two exceptions to this rule in the English pronunciation, which are the words there, wkere.

"In the way of marking this sound, by a double e, as thus ce, as the Irish never inuke any mistake ; es the best meihod for all who want to acquire the right pronunciation of these several combinations " is, to suppose that ea, ei, and e; atkended by a final inite e, are all spelt with a double e, or el "Ey is always sounded like å by the English when the accent is upon it; as in the words prey, come.

rey, pronounced, pral, corra. Is this there are but two cxceprions, in the words key and ley, • sounded kee, lee. The Irish, in attempting to pronounce like the English, often give the same sound

to ey as usually belongs to di; thus for prey, convey, they say pree, cmwee.

"A strict observation of these few rules, with a due attention to the very few exceptions enume. "rated above, will crable De well-educated natives of Ireland to pronounce their words exactly in " the same way as the more polished part of the inhabitants of England do, so far as the vowels ar « concerned. The diphthongs they commit no fault in, except in the sound of I, which hue heen al

ready taken notice of in the Grammar:" Where; likerise, the only difference in pronouncing ang of the conscrants has been pointed out; which is the thickering the sounds of d and e, in certaii i situations; and an easy method proposed of correcting this habiki

" In order to complete the wisic, I shall now give a list of such detached words that do not come un “ der any of the above rules, as are pronomead difcrendy in Ireland frola what they are ju England Irish prommcision. English pronunciation, Irish prommciation.

English pronunchucion che arful cher'fui ténth (length

lénku fearful tēr'ful

strove d'adr dore drův (drone

drom foar Nore tén'ure

tè'mun gåpe gát:c ten'able

té nahin géih'or (gather) päih'er


wråtk Beard

wrath (irroth)

wroth bởil bill là rewel

fårwel båsh


ród půsk pash stroule

stråd påll


shon pål'pit pulpit shism (schism)

sizm cali cals we'refore

whér fora kêrch (catch) cisch therefore

thér'lore côarsc (course) còars. breth (breadth)

bredth course (cınırse) course cowki (cold).

cold court CÓLUNK bowld (Sold)

cold male'cions inalishus corter

corer pådrling pudding enda'avour

endēv'ur quosh (quash) quash fût (fout)

får 1e zh'ur (beisure) Idhur nische'evoun

mis'chivoue c!a mour clåminuir in'ion (onion)

dn'nyun Me'kil (Miclul) Mikel



siri (strove,

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** Vide po II wher, we true manner of pronowucing die diphthong i is pointed out; the Irish pronouncing * much a in the sanie manner as the French." *** The letter d has always the same sout;d by those who pronounce English well; but the Provincials, particularly

line Iri:L. Scotch, and niny wunis thicken the sound by a inixture of breath. Thus, turgh they sound the *d right in the positive loud and brecit, in the comparative degree tey ihicken it by an aspiration, and sound it u u were written loud het, borcadwi, This vieirus produeixiation is produced by pushing the tongue forward su u to touch "De teeth in forming van sound and the way to curentis easy; for as they can pronounce the properly in the wurdiul " let them rest a little on that syllable, keeping the congue in the position of forming d, and then let them separatori * tort tr. the position nf soundling at the end of the syllable loud, is necessarily in the position of fornaing Wie manie *in ofering the last syllable, assess it makes a new Fiorenienia na in the case of protrulling it so as to unch the lett "Ilus eller is, thouthut often. quiescerit, as in the words handkerchief handsome, handsel.

on tona.omg the letter i the Irislı amul other i'ruimials thucken the sound, as was before mentinnnd with mngard to tel; for litter, they sat butcher; for etter. ulther; and so on in all words of that structure. This faulty in UNEI urines from the same cause i'lat was mentivaet us allecting the sound of tile d; I mean the protruding of the roagro

4711 lembah juatie waly 9 die same way."

fish mumuntiation English pronunciation Irish proramciation. English premagalaton
drðin (dronght)
rétsh (reach)

särch (search)

squidruin sabree (scnsce) sorce vaa'lous

zellus onshion ciishion 7.a lot

zel'iut Armuth (strongth) strenkih

These, after the closest attention, are all the words, not included in the rules before laid doma that I have tren able to collect, in which the well-educated natives of Ireland differ from those Englaml."

I shal: make no observations on the accuracy of this list, but desire my reader to observe, that the strongest characteristics of the pronunciation of Ireland is the rough jarring pronunciation of the letter R, and the aspiration or rough breathing before ail the acceried vowels. (For the true sound of R, siy: that lettes in the Principles, No. 419.) And for the rough breathing or aspiration of the yourls, tire pupil should be told not to bring the voice suddenly from the breast, but to speak, as į were, from the month only.

It may be observed too, that the natives of Ireland pronounce rm at the end of a word ko distinctly as to forin two separate syllables. Thus storm und form seem sounded by them us if written star-rum, fa-rom; while the English sound the r so soft and so close to them, that it seems pro Gounced nearly as is written slaucm, fuam.

Narly the same observations are applicable to lm. When these imters er.d a word, they are, in {reane', prone moed #t such a distance, that heim and realm sound as if written hel-un and real-to.. but in England ineland in are pronounced its close as possible, and so as to form but one syllabile To remedy tiis, it will be necessary for the pupil to make a collection of words terminatiog with. these consovanis, and to practise them over till a true ; ronunciation is acquired,

Rutes to be observed by tie Patires of Scotland, for attaining a just Pronuncition of English. THAT pronurciation which distinguishes the inhabitants of Scotland is of a very different kind from that of Ireand, and may be divided into the quantity, quality, and accentuation of the vowels. With respect to quantity, it may be obscrveci, shat the Scotch pronounce almost all their accented sours long. Thus, if I am not mistaker, they would pronounce habil, luay-irit ; lepid, tee-pid ; sinner, sre-uer; conscions, conie-sluus ; and subject, sooh-jert :* it is not pretended, however, that every accented rowel is su pirovounced, but at such a pronunciation is very general, and particularly of the i. This vowel is short in English pronunciation, where the other vowels are long; thus, erasion, adhesimi, emotion, confusion, have the, 2,0, and in, long; and in these instances the Scotch would pronounce them like the English ; but in risim, decisio, &c. where the Englisi: pronounce the i short, the Scorch langthen this letter by pronouncing it like me, as if the words were written ree-sion, des CFP-xion, dr, and this peculiarity is universal. The best way, therefore, to correct thic, will be to makr a collection of the mosi visual words which have tlic vowels short, and to pronounce hen daily till a liabit is formed. Ste Principles, No. 507.

With respect to the quality of the vowels, it may be observed, that the inhabitants of Scotland are apt to pronounce the a like air, where the English give it the slender sound : tiuz Solon., is pros. nounce Sawan, and futai, jiulul. It may be remarked too, that the Scotch give this sound to the s preceded by 20, according to the general rule, without attending to the exceptions, Principles, No. E8; and thiis, instead of making wur, wall, and tag, rhyme with tax, shal, and hang, they pronounce then so as to vlıyme with box, soft

, and song. The slúrt e in bed, jed, red, &c. borders too much upon the English sound of a, in buil, lud, wad, &c. and the short i in bid, lidl, rid, too much on the English sounds of e in bed, led, red. To correct ihis error, it would be seful to collect the long and short sound of these vowels, and to pronounce the long ones first, and to shorten thein by de. pises till they are perfrctly short; at the same time preserving the rar'ical soud of the vowel in both. Thus the correspondant long sounits to the e in bed, feil, red, are biule, fuur, rale ; and that of the short in bil, lid, rid, are not leau, resul; and the former of these classes will naturally lead the ear to the true sound of the latter, the nnly difference lying in the quantity. The short o in nol, lodge, gul, &c. ix apo to slide into the short it

, as if the words were writeen witt, ludge, god, &c. To reriily this, it should be remembered, that this o is the short soul of aw, and ought to have the radical sound of the deep a in ball. Thus the radical sound corresponding to the o in noi, col, 801, is found in naug!!, cught, south, &c.; and t:exe long sounds, like the former, shonld be abbreviated into the short ones. But what will tend greatly to clear the difficulty will, to reinember that only those words which are collected in the Principles, l'o. 165, have slic o sounded like short u when the accent is upon it: and with respect to the u in bull, full. null, &c. it may be observed, that the pro nunciation peculiar to the linglish is only found in the words enumerated, Principles, No. 174.

In addition to what lias been said, it may be observes, that ca in food, inood, moon, soon, &c. which ought always to have a long sound, is generally shortened in Scotland to that middle sound of the u in bull: and it must be remembered, that wool, wood, good, hood, stood. jsol, are the only words where this sound of oo ought to take place.

The accentuation, both in Scotland and Ireland, (if by accentcation we mean the stresa, and not the kind of stress,) is so much the same as that of England, that I cannot recollect many words in which they differ. Indeed, if it were not so, the versification of each country would be different:

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* That this is the general mude of pronouncing these words in Scotland is indisputable: and it is highly probable Lat tee Scotch bave preserved 1110 old Englislı piroqunciation, from which the English theinselves bave insensible de nariat For Himos perd long non haiho Srnirli saronised in their language much nore than the English; and it is srarrey to be doubled data situation siearer to the voluerit, aud - greater commercial intercourse with other 02.wuns, made blir English aumit of nursberless changes which never extended to scouaix About the reigo of Queen Elizabeth, when the Greek and Latin languages were onltivated, and the pertantry of showing an acquajolance with Hein became fashiunalule, it is not improbable that an alteration in the quantity of many wortis took place for as ic Larin simost ptary vowel before a single consonant is shot, so in English alonot every vowel in die sanie situation wn Spugui 10 le ung, or onr ancestors would not tavs doubled the consonant in the participles of verds, to prevent the preceding vowel rone lengthening. But when once this affectation of Latinity has adople, it is in wonder 't sluulo PULPUT beyond its firinciples, and storien several vowels in English, because they were short in tue original Latia; and im lleis napner, perhaps, miglit the diversity between the quantity of the English and the Scouch pronunciation wise 512) (849.) See Drama


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for - English verse is formed by accent or stress, įf this accent or stress were upon diferent sylta. bles in different countries, what is rerse in England would not be verse in Scotland or Ireland; and this suficiently shows how very indefinitely the word accent is generally used.

Mr Elphinston, who musi be allowed to be a competent julge in this case, tells us, that in Scot iand they pronounce silence, lins, camáss, sentence, triimpih, comfort, sniace, constrie, rescise, resprite, govern, Jurass, ransáck, cances, with the accent on the last syllable instead of the first. To this lisi nay be added the word menace, which they pronounce as if written meness ; and though they place me accent on the last syllablo'nf canal, like the English, they broaden the a in the last syllable, as it the word were spelt canaul. It may be farther observed, that they place an accent on the compara tive ad"erb as, in the plırases as much, as little, as many, us greul, &c. while the English, except in some very partic:Iar einphatical cases, lay no stress on this word, but pronounce these phrases liko words of two or three syllables without any accent on the first.

But besides the mispronunciation of single words, there is a tone of volcc with which these words are accompanied, that distinguishes a native of Ireland or Scotiand, as much as ar improper some of the letters. This is vulgarly, and, if it does not mean stress only, but the kind or stress, I think, not improperly called the accent. For though there is an asperity in the Irish dialect, and a drawl in the Scotch, indepenrient of the slides or infiections they make use of, yet It may, with confidence be aflirmed, that inuch of the peculiarity which distinguishes these dialects may be reduced to a predominant use of one of these slides. Let any one who has sufficiently studied the speaking voice to distinguish the slides, observe the pronunciation of an Irishman and a Scotchanan, who have much of the dialect of their country, and he will find that the former abounds with the falling, and the latter with the rising infectior;) and if this is the case, a ccacher, if he under. stands these slides, ought to girect his instruction so as to remedy the imperfection. But as avoiding the wrong, and seizing the right at the same instan, is, perhaps, 100 great a task for human powers, I would advise a native of Ireland, who lias much of the accent, to pronomice almost all his words, and end all his sentences, with the rising slide; and a Scotchman in the same manner, to use the talling infection : this will, in some measure, counteract the natural propensity, and bids faires for bringing the pupil to that nearly equal mixture of both slides which distinguishes the English speaker, ihan endeavouring at first to catch the agreeable variery. For this purpose the Teacher ought to pronounce all the single words in the lesson with the falling inflection to a 'Scotch man, and with the rising to an Irishman, and should frequently give the patises in a sentence the same inflections to cacli of these pupils, where he would vary ihein to a native of England. But while the hunan voice remains unstudied, there is little expectation that this distinction of the slides should be applied to these useful purposes.

Besides a peculiarity of inflection, which I iake to be a ialling mircumflex, directly orposite to that of the Scotch, the Welsh pronounce the sharp consonants am aspiration instead of the fat. (Ser Principles, No.29, 41.) Thus for big they say pick; for Wool, plocr ; end for good, coot stead of rirtue and ricy, they say firtue and fce, instead of red and praise, they say seal anri prace ; instead of these and those, ihey say thece and thoce; and instead of azure and osier, they say Jysler and (sher; and for jail, chuil. Thus there are nine distinct consonant sounds which, to the Welsh, are entirely itseless. To speak with propriety, therefore, the Welsh ought for some time to pro nounce the flat consonants and aspirations only; that is, they ought not only to pronounce then whero the letters require the dat sound, but even where tiey require the sharp sound: this will be the best way to acquire a liabil; and when this is once done, a distinction will be casily made, and a just pronunciation more readily acquired.

There is scarre!«rny part of Englaud remote from the capital where a different system of pro nu...He's test prevais. As in Wales they pronounce the sharp consonants for the Rat, so in Sonersetshire they pronounce many of the flat insund of the sharp: thus for Somerselshire, they say Zomerse'snire ; for father, rallier ; for think, tuink, and for shure, sline.

There are dialects peculiar to Cornwall, Lancashire, Yorkshire, and cvery distant county in England: but as a consideration of these would lead to a detail too mimte for the present occasion, I shall conclude these remarks with a few observations on the pecul arities of my cuun:rymen. the Cockneys; who, as thev are the models of promnciation to the distant provinces, oughị 1o lod the more scrupulously correct.

First Fault OP THE LONDONERS.-Pronouncing s indistinctly after st. The letter s after şl, from the very difficulty of its pronunciation, is often sounded inarticulately. The inhabitants of London, of the lower order, cut the knot, and pronounce it in a distinct sylla. ble, as if e were before it ; but this is to be nvoided as the greatest blemish in speaking; the three last letters in posts, fists, misis, &c. must all be distinctly heard in one syllable, and without permitting the letters to coxlesce. For the acquiring of this sound, it will be proper to select nouns thal end in st or ste; to form then into plurals, and pronounce them forcibly and distinctly every day. The same may be alsserved of tte third person of verbs ending in sls or sles, as persists, waslas, hasles, &c.

Second Fault. -- Pronouncing w for v, and intersely. The pronunciation o!' z for u, and more frequently of w for i, among ile inhabitants of London and those not always of the lower order, is a blenzish of the first magu.tude. The difficulty of remedying this defect is the greater, as the cure of one of these mistakes bas a tendency to pro mote the other.

Thus, if you are very careful to make a pupil pronounce real and vinegar, not as if writien weal and rrinegur, you willing him very apt to pronounce cine and wind, as if written vine and vind. The only.cethod of rectifying this halit scems to be this: Let the pupil select from * Dictionary, not only all the words that begin with ", but as many as he can of those that havr, this letter in any oth:r part. Let him le tole & bite his indler iip while he is sounding the v in those words, and to practise this every day till be pronounces the i properly at first sight: then, and not till then, let bin pursue the same method with the w; which he must be directed to pronounce by a pontirgout of the life without sufering them to touch the teeth. Thus by giving all the attention to only one of these letters at a time, and fixing by habit the true sound of that, we zitall at last find both of them rednced to their proper pronunciation, 'in a shorfer me than by endeavoaring to rectify them both at ouce.

* See this dore fully exemplised in Elements of Elocution, Vol. II. page 13.
* Or rabe the rising circumfles. Foi un explanation of this indecion, see Rhetorical Grammar, tlrd edidon
Ser WC WORD Chenge,

ge 78


The other diphthongal vowel si composed of the French y pronounced a closely w pogaible te their diphthong oi, or the English de and , perfectly equivalent to the sound

the French would give to the letters yon, and which is cxactly the sound the English give to the plural of the second personal pronoun.

The diphthong oi or my is composed of the French & and i; thus loy and boy would be exactly expressed to a Frenchman by writing them ai, bai.

The diphthongs u and on, whensounded like ou, are composed of the French å and the diphthong by; and the English sounds of thcu and wo may be expressed to a Frenchman by spelling them thảon and mou,

Il' is no more than the French dphthong mu; thus West is equivalent to Orisl, and wall to mull.

V is perfectly equivalent to the Frenchletter of that name, and may be supplied by i; thus yoke you, but I consonant, muse hoce pronounced hy prefixing d to the French j: thus jaw, joy, &c. sound to * Frenchman as if spelled dié, djai, be. Tany dificulty he found in "forming this combination of sounds, it will be removed by pronouncing the d, ed, and spelling these words edjé, edjai, &c.

Ch, in English words pot derived fron the Greek, Latin, or French, is pronounced as if I were prefixel; thus the sound of cluir, cheese, hain, &c. woull be understood by a Frenchman as if the words were written tchére, Ichize, ichene.

Sh in English is expressed by chia Frach; thus shame, share, &c. would be spelled by a Frenchman chéme, there, &c.

The ringing sound ng in long, song, tc mar be perfectly conceived by a pupil who can pronounce the French word Encore, as the frst syllable of this word is exacily correspondent to the sound in those English words; and for the formation of it, see Principles, No. 57; also the word ENCORE.

But the grcatest difficulty every foreiger finds in pronouncing English, is the lisping consonant th. This, it may be observed, häs, like he other consonants, a sharp and fat sound; sharp as in thin, bath; flat as in that, rrith. To acquire the true pronunciation of this difficult contbination, it njay be proper to begin with those words where it is initial : anal first, lue the pupil protrude his tongue a little way beyond the teeth, and press i between them as if going to bite the tip of it; while this is doing, if he wishes to pionouce thin, lethim hiss as if to sound the letter s: and after the hiss, let him draw back his tongue witain his teen, and pronounce the preposition in, and thus will the word thin be perfectly pron junced lt' he could pronounce thuu, let him place the longue beoween the teeth as before, and while he 8 hissing as if to sound the letter äg let him withdraw iis congue into his mouth, and imniediately pronounce the proposition al. To pronounce this.cumliwtion when final in baih, let him pronounce bo, and protrude ihe tongue beyond the teeth, prezeır. tic tongue with them, and hissing as if to sound :; if he would pronounce with, let him first fir.o vi, put the tongue in die

same position as before, ind hiss as if to soundz It will be proper so wake the pups dweli some time with the tongie beyonl the teeth in order to form a habit, and la pronounce daily some words out ota Dictionaly begining and ending with these letters.

These directions, it is presumed, if properly attended to, will be sufficient to give such foreigners Rs understand French, anul luve not necess to a master, a competent knowledge of English pronun ciation; but to render the sounds of tic vowels marked by figures in this Dictionary still more easi ly to it comprehended, with 'hose English words which exemplify the sounds of the vo vels, I have associated suci. French words &s lavi vowels exactly corresponding to them, and which immediate ly convey the true English pronuncidion. These should be committed to memory, or written down and held in his hand while the pupil s inspecting the Dictionary.

Perhaps the greatest advantage to foreigners and provincials will be derived from the classifica tic? of vords of a sinilar sound, anddrawing the line between ihe general ruie and the exception. This has been an arduous task; bu ir is hoped the benefit arising from it will amply repay it. When the numerous varieties of sounds annexed to vowels, diphthongs, and consonants, ie scattered without bounds, a learner is bewildered and discouraged from attempting to distinguish them; but when mey are all classed, arrangei, and enumerated, the variety seems less, the number smaller and the distinction easier. What in inextricable labyrinth do the cliphthongs ea and ou form as they lie locse in the language! bnt clased and arranged as we find them, No. 226, &c. and 31.3, &c. thi confusion vanishes, they become much less formidable, and at earuer has it in his power, by repeat ing them daily, to become mastcrof them all in a very litile time.

The English accent is often an insurmountable obstacle to foreigners, as the rules for it are so carous, and the exceptions so mumerous; but let the inspector consuli the article Accent in the Principles, particularly No. 492, 505, 506, &c. and he will soon perceive liow much of our language is regularly accented, and how nuch that which is irregular is facilitated by an enumeration of the greater nuinber of exceptions.

But scarcely any method wil be so useful for gaining the English accent as the reading of verse Tlus will naturally lead the earto the right accentuationi ; and though a disterent position of the ac cent is frequently to be met with in the beginning of a verse, there is a sufficient regularity to render the pronouncing of verse no powerful ineans of obtaining such a distinction of force and feebleness as is cominonly called the accent: for it may be sbserved, that a foreigner is no less distinguishinbile by placing an accent upon certain words to which the English give no stress, than loy placing the stress upon a wrong syllable. Thus ii a foreigner, when he calls for bread at tarie, by saying, girx me some bread, lays an equal stress upon every word, though every word should be pronounced with its exact sound, we immediately perceive he is not a native. An Engiishman would prouounce these four words like two, with the accent on the first syllable of the first, and on the last syllable of the last, as if written gireme somebred; or rather, girme sumbréd; or more commonly, though vulgarly, gimine somelréd. Perse may sometimes induce a foreigner, as it does sometimes injudiciuus datives, to lay the accent on a syllable in long words which ought to have gone, as in a couplet of Pope's Essay on Criticism :

“ False eloquence, like the prismatic glass,

" Its gaudy colours spreads on every place." Here a foreigner would be apt to place an accrnt on the last syllable of cinquence as well as the first, which would be certainly wrong, but this fault is so triding, when compared with that of laying the accent on the secout syllable, that it almost vanishes from olsservation; and this misaccentuk. f10n, verse will generally guarri him from. The reading of verse, therefore will, if I am uor inistar kon, be found a powerfw regulator, but of accent and emphasis.

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