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incapable of completing the work,
the business was entirely committed to “ JAMES BRINDLEY was born Brindley; who not only executed the at Tunsted in the parish of Wormhill, original plan in a masterly manner, Derbyshire, in 1716. His father was a but made the addition of many curi. small' treeholder, who diffipated his ous and valuable improvements
, as property in company, and field-amule- well in the construction of the enments, and neglected his family. In gine itself, as in the method of consequence, young Brindley was lett making the wheels and pinions bedestitute of even ihe common rudi- longing to it. About this time, too, ments of education, and till the age of the mills for grinding Aints in the seventeen was casually employed in Staffordfhire poiteries received various rustic labours. At that period he useful improvements from his inbound hinself apprentice to one Ben- genuity. net, a mill-wright, at Macclesfield, “ In the year 1956 he undertook in Cheshire, where his mechanical to erect a steam-engine upon a new genius presently developed itself. The plan at Newcastle-under-Line; and he mafter being frequently absent, the was for a time very intent upon a apprentice was often left for weeks variety of contrivances for improving together to finith pieces of works con- this useful piece of mechanism. But cerning which he had received no in- from thele designs he was, happily for struction; and Bennet, on his return, the public, called away to iake the was often greatly aftonished to see lead in what the event has proved improvements in various parts of to be a national concern of capital mechanism, of which he had no pre importance the projecting the fyftem vious conception. It was not long of canal navigation. The Duke of before the millers discovered Brindo Bridgewater, who had formed his ley's merits, and preferred him in design of carrying a canal from his the execution of their orders to the coal-works at Worley to Manchester, master or any other workman. At was induced by the reputation of Mr. the expiration of his servitude, Bennet Brindley to consult hin on the execubeing grown into years, he took the tion of it; and having the fagacity management of the business upon to perceive, and strength of mind to "himself, and by his skill and industry confide in, the original and command.
contributed to support his old mastering abilities of this self-taught genius, and his familyin a comfortable manner. he committed to him the management
“ In process of time Brindley set of the arduous undertaking. The 11p as a mill-wright on his own nature and progress of this enter:rccount, and by a number of new prise have already been described ; it anu' ingenious contrivances, greatly is enough here to mention, that Mr. improved that branch of mechanics, Brindley, from the very first, adopted and acquired
high reputation in the those leading principles, in the projet neighbour hood. His fame extending ting of thefe works, which he ever to a wider circle, he was employed in after adhered to, and in which he has 3752 to erect a water-engine at Clif- been imitated by all succeeding artifts
. fon, in Lancashire, for the purpose of To preserve as much as poslīble the draining some coal-mines.
Here he level of his canals, and to avoid the gave an essay of his abilities in a mixture and interference of all natu. kind of work' for which he was after- ral streams, were objects at which he wards so much distinguished, driving constantly aimed. To accomplich a tunnel under ground through a rock these, no labour and expense was nearly 600 yards in length, by which spared; and his genius seemed to de. water was brought out of the Irwell light in overcoming all obstacles to for the purpose of turning a wheel them by the discovery of new and fixed thirty feet below the fur- . extraordinary contrivances. face of the earth. In 1755 he was “ The most experienced engineers employed to execute the larger wheels upon former systems were amazed and for it lilk mill at Congleton; and an- confounded at his projects of aqueother person, who was engaged to duct bridges over navigable rivers
, make other parts of the machinery, mounds across deep vallies, and suband to superintend the whole, proving terraneous tunnels; nor could they
believe in the practicability of fome to his management, and was finished of these schemes till they saw them in 1772. He also executed a canal effected. In the execution, the ideas from Droitwich to the Severn ; and he followed were all his own; and he planned the Coventry Canal, and the minuteft, as 'well as the greatest, for some time fuperintended its ese. of the expedients he employed, bore cution, but on account of some dif. the stamp of originality. Every man ference in opinion he resigned that ofof genius is an enthusiast. Mr. fice. The Chetterfield Canal was the Brindley was an enthusiast in favour last undertaking of the kind which he of the superiority of canal navigations conducted, but he only lived to finish above those of rivers ; and this fome miles of it. There was, how. triumph of art over nature led him ever, scarcely any design of canal-nato view with a sort of contempt the vigation set on foot in the kingdom, winding stream, in which the lover of during the latter years of his life, in rural beauty so much delights. This which he was not contulted, and the sentiment he is said to have expressed plan of which he did not either en. in a striking manner at an examination tirely form, or revise and improve. All before a Committee of the House of these it is needless to enumerate ; but Commons, when, on being asked, as an instance of the valiness of his after having made some contemptuous ideas, it may be mentioned, that on remarks relative to rivers, what he planning a canal from Liverpool to conceived they were created for, he join that of the Duke of Bridgewater answered, to feed navigable canals.' at Runcorn, it was part of his intenA direct rivalry with the navigation tion to carry it by an aqueduct bridge of the Irwell and Mersey, was the across the Merley, at Runcorn Gap, bold enterprize of his first great canal; a place where a ride sometimes riting and fince the success of that design, it fourteen feet rushes with great rapihas become common all over the dity through a sudden contraction of kingdom to fee canals accompanying the channel. As a mechanic and en. with insulting parallel the course of gineer, he was likewise consulted on navigable rivers.
other occafions; as with relect to “ After the successful execution of the draining of the low lands in dif. the Duke of Bridgewater's canal 10 ferent parts of Lincolnshire and the the Mersey, Mr. Brindley was em ide of Ely, and to the cleansing of ployed in the revived design of carry- the docks of Liverpool from mud. ing a canal from that river to the He pointed out a method, which has Trent, through the counties of Chester been fuccessfully practised, of tu.!d. and Stafford. This undertaking com- ing sea-walls without mortar; and he menced in the year 1766 ; and from was the author of a very ingenious the great ideas ít opened to the mind improvement of the machine for of its conductor, of a scheme of inland drawing water out of mines by the navigation which mould connect all contrivance of a losing and a gaining the internal parts of England with bucket. each other, and with the principal “ The intensity of application which sea-ports, by meaus of branches from all his various and complicated einthis main stem, he gave it the empha- ployments required, probably thort. tical name of the Grand Trunk. In ened his days; as the number of his executing this, he was called upon to undertakings, in some degree, im. employ all the resources of his in, paired his usefulness. He rell into a vention, on account of the inequality kind of chronic fever, which, atter and various nature of the ground to continuing some years, with little in. be cut through: in particular, the termission, at length wore out his frame, hill of Harecastle, which was only to and put a period to his life on Septembe passed by a tunnel of great length, ber 27th, 1972, in the 56th year of his bored through ftrata of different con age. He died at Turnhurit, in staf. litency, and some of them mere quick fordshire, and was buried at New Chafand, proved to be a most difficult as pel in the same county. well as expensive obstacle, which, “ In appearance and manners, as however, he completely surmounted. well as in acquirements, Mr. Brindley While this was carrying on, a branch was a mere peasant. Únléttered, and from the Grand Trunk to join the rude of speech, it was easier for hiin Severn near Bewdley was committed to devise means for executing a design,
or at least a saving to government Outlines of an Attempt to establish a Plan, &c. than to communicate his ideas concern were, however, highly respectable
. ing it to others. Formed by nature He was far above envy and jealousy, for the profession he assumed, it was and freely communicated his improve. there alone that he was in his proper ments to persons capable of receiving element; and so occupied was his and executing them: taking a liberal mind with his business, that he was fatisfaction in forming a new genera. incapable of relaxing in any of the tion of engineers able to proceed with common amusements of life. As he the great plans in the success of which had not the ideas of other men to af. he was so deeply interested. His in. Uit him, whenever a point of diffi. tegrity and regard to the advantage culty in contrivance occurred, it was his of his employers were unimpeachacultom to retire to his bed, where in ble. In fine, the nine of Brindly perfect solitude he would lie for one, will ever keep a place anong that small two, or three days, pondering the number of mankind who form eras in matter in his mind, till the requisite the art or science to which they devote expedient had presented itself. This themselves, by a large and durable ex. is that true inspiration which poets have tension of their limits." almost exclusively arrogated to them. felves, but which men of original genius in every walk are actuated by, when from the operation of the mind LXXXVI, Outlines of an Attempt 10. acting upon itself, without the intru
establish a Plan for a juft and Lon of foreign notions, they create and invent. A remarkably retentive
regular Equivalent for the Labeur
and Support of the Poor; and to memory was one of the essential qua. lities which Mr. Brindley brought to
reconcile the Weights of the King. his mental operations. Í his enabled
dom to one Standard, by conhim to execute all the parts of the necting them with the Copper most complex machine in due order, Coinage. 8vo. sewed. 2s. pp. 68. without any help of models or draw Woodfall, Debrett. ings, provided he had once accurately settled the whole plan in his mind. In
PART THE FIRST kis calculations of the powers of maChines, he followed a plan peculiar to OF, this publication contains cure
sory remarks and suggeltions could follow without instruction in the respecting the amended Bill for the rules of art. He would work the better Support and Maintenance of question fome time in his head, and
the Poor. then set down the result in figures. Then taking it up in this stage, he would again proceed by a mental ope
PART THE SECOND. ritɔn to another result; and thus he would go on by stages till the whole
Outlines of an attempt to effect was finished, only making use of figures the following national benefits by to mark the several results of his ope- reconciling the weights to one standrations. But though, by the wonder- ard, and connecting them with a new ful powers of native genius, he was thus enabled to get over his want of
« First. Relief of the poor of artificial method to a certain degree, “ Great Britain, by the suppression yet there is no doubt that when his concerns became extremely compli
“ of false weights and base coin. cated, with accounts of various kinds “ Secondly. Establishment of ons to keep, and calculations of all sorts “ general standard for weights. to forni, he could not avoid that per “ Thirdly. Obtaining a revenue, plexity and einbarrassment which a readiness in the procesies carried on “ of the expense of a new filver by pen and paper can alone obviate.
“ and copper coinage.” His estimates of expense have fenerally proved wide of reality; and he feenis to have been better qualified to
THE WORK be the contriver, than the manager, of a great design. His moral qualities Also contains three tables compa.
Tative of the existing and proposed the basis of my inquiries and concluKandard weights and new copper fions; and this is to ftrongly marked coinage of Great Britain--confe. by actions of moti decisive quality, as quent regulations, &c. are proposed and fair statement, no poflible diver
to admit, I should suppose, on a full for the observation of the plans laid fity of sentence with rational and disdow'n; and the book concludes with passionate inquirers. “ Extracts from the New British
" In one word, Sir! to launch at “ Encyclopedia, and from Two once into the middle of my subject, “ Reports to the House of Com. you stand impeached at the bar of
mons in the Years 1758 and Religion, Reafon, and Humanity, of “ 1759, suggesting further improve long, and uniform, and ardent fup
that high crime and misdemeanour-a “ ments of this plan if its principle port, in your political capacity, of “ hould be approved by the legisla. William Pitt! Here pause a mo“ ture, as it would carry ftill far ment, I beseech you! you, who love "ther the affinity between money the Gospel; you, who glory in a cru6 and weights, which has been found cified Redeemer! Endeavour to frame, “ so useful in most parts of Asia.”
before we proceed, fome conceptson of the diretul pregnancy, the prodi. gious comprehenliveness, of thai short
and simple proposition. You will ob. LXXXVII. A Letter to William tain mercy, I truit; because you have
Wilberforce, Esq. on the Subject acted ignorantly, in unbelief: (1 Tim. i. of his late Publication. By Gil. 13.) You are not, you cannot be, BERT WAKEFIELD, B. A. late perfectly aware, I am persuaded, of Fellow of Jesus College, Cam- the immeafurable enormities comprised bridge. 8vo. 2s. pp. 71. Kearsley. ration with such a minifter.” P. 38.
in that zealous and powerful co-opeMR:
R. Wakefield opposes the te
nor of Mr. Wilberforce's book “For my own part, whether from by appealing to his political conduct a singular propensity of penetration and opinions. It is allerted by the into human character with some fucauthor of this Letter, that a parti- cess, or from fuperior opportunities of fan of Mr. Pitt's ministry cannot be experimental oblervation, I never
found myself at any period of my a disciple of Chrift-and upon this life mistaken in my judgment of thác principle the whole argument turns, His disdainful alpect, and fu. and what is meant as a comic compa- percilious demeanor, when a contemrison is drawn between Mr. Wilber- porary youth at Cambridge; the selfforce's attachment to government and opiniated dictatorial complexion of his definition of " LOOKING UNTO
his first speeches in public life; the JESUS."
prematurity of his oratorical exhibi. We shall instance the above ob. tions; all these triking peculiarities
were sufficient indications, to my mind servations by the following brief
at least, that “all was fille and hol.
“ low;" a gaudy structure, destitute EXTRACTS.
of foundation and liability; the blos. “ IN relation to your private cha- foms of wisdom and of virtue, with. racter and social manners, I have had
out the root: and, because they had no no opportunities of experimental know root, they are withered away. ledge. I feel myself, however, en Quafi folftitialis herba, paullisper fuit: tirely disposed to believe it as irre. Repente exortus eft, repentino occidit. proachable and praise.worthy as the egregious puerility of your religious Ye sons of Cam! in whose hearts this, fancies will allow. Your public cha- golden ido! (but a mere wooden logo raćter alone, abundantly conspicuous to me) has been long set up and wors from the elevation of your position to thipped; your eyes have often seen a the whole community, will constitute fit emblem of this object of your proVOL. 1.-No. V.
fane adoration on the bosom of that “ Agriculture, of the various Conwizard stream which washes the hal. “ nunications which it has received, lowed feet of our Alma Mater!
“ respecting some of the many im(O! name for ever sad, for ever dear!)
“ portant subjects to which its at
“ tention has been directed, it may Your eyes have noticed a plant, ex
“ uot be improper briefly to explain panding its broad foliage and sately “ the design of the work, and the flower on the surface of the waters; « circumstances which have led to but have found, on closer inspection, " its publication. that “ the stem, by which it receives “The first object of the Board “ nourishment and support, was Nen
“ undoubtedly was to ascertain the “ der as a thread."
- real situation of the country, and “ This, Sir! is the man, the grand
" the means of its improvement: exemplar of systematical corruption, and the sworn foe to all reformation
“ with that view, the County Re- ) whatsoever;
ports were originally set on foot ; -quantum mutatus ab illo
“ and as soon as they are completed He&tore !
“ in a corrected form, the Board whose measures you have promoted
“ will be enabled to lay before Parwith cordial concurrence, with a con
“ liament a General View of the fidence unlimited, and with all the " Agricultural State of the King. influence of your reputation, amidst
“ dom. It is not improbable that a an inconlistency of conduct to which it special Report of that nature, fo seems impollible for any intellect above “ far as regards Scotland alone, may the mere imbecility of idiotism to
“ soon be ready have been the dupe: you have ad
“ In addition, however, to those mired, loved, and revered this mi.
“ local or general Reports, it was nister, with the mark of the beast, with all the unequivocal characters of apos extremely desirable that the raft taly and perfidy, deeply engraven on
u mass of information and experihis forehead. But this, I suppose, is “ mental knowledge which exists in one of your extraordinary methods “ this country, on all agricultural of
“ fubje&ts, fhould be collected, and LOOKING UNTO Jesus!”
brought into some regular fyftem : " though that system could not be " at once complete, yet it would
" lead to perfection. When the LXXXVIII. Communications to the “ foundation of a digested fyftem is
Board of Agriculture, on Subjects" once laid, the accumulation of relative to the Husbandry and In “ improvement is rapid. But it is ternal Improvement of the Coun “ neceffary to ascertain what is altry. Vol. 1. containing Parts I.
“ ready known, before it is poflible and II. 4to. boards. pp. 117, and" to judge what it wanting. It is, 82 pages of Appendixes. il. is. “ therefore, proposed to print togeNicol, Robinson, Sewell, Cadell " ther, in one paper, any commuand Davies, London ; Creecb, E. " nications sent to the Board, on dinburgh; and Archer, Dublin.
“ each particular subject; from the
“ consideration of which, a Com. ADVERTISEMENT.
u mittee of its Members may be "THIS being the first Specimen; enabled to form the whole into a
" printed by the Board of “ regular syften.
Were all the information which now exists in Great Britain, on agricul. tural subjects, collected and systematized, there is every reason to believe that it would approach very near to perfection; some questions regarding manures alone excepted, which the inquiries now going forward, and the experiments recommended by Dr. Fordyce, now about to be tried, will go a great way to determine,