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the mountains, which enabled Mr. Troubadours, and ancient writers of Macpherson to collect the poetry of that description. We must likewise the celebrated Ofian.

take notice that all historians, after “ The bards, after having long describing the druids as prieits inuch been the principal instructors and fuperior to those of all other nations, historians of their country, descended agree in giving the druids of England from these high functions to becoine a superiority over all others. They the Aatterers of those who protecled excol those of the college of Charıres, them, or the Nanderers of those whom those of the forett of Marseilles, those they regarded as their enemies. in the environs of Thouloure, but

• Little paflions have always the they all add, that when any in these pernicious property of misleading, and colleges were found to potless great even extinguishing genius.

talents, they were fent' to finish their The bards, in forgetting the noble instruction among the druids of Bri: inspirations of their predeceffors, re tain. The result of ihese observations tained no other power than that of is, that from the most distant periods, amuling or flattering the vain. They the inhabitants of Great Britain have Soon lost all their importance with ever excited the admiration of fur. the great, and the inultitude alone rounding nations, by their wisdon, deigned to receive them favourably. learning and courage:

No longer possessed of the talent which renders virtue engaging, they invented fables of enchanted calles,

$RELIGIOUS OPINIONS of dwarfs, giants, &c. The fober

FIRST INHABITANTS OF GREAT fruths of history gave place to the

BRITAIN. marvellous fictions of romance. The IT appears certain that the abuse of this talent brought the bards original Britons erected no temple to into contempt; the people themselves the Divinity. Nay, we find in the grew weary of them, and they dil poems of Oslian, that sublime bard appeared. The warlike hero, how- expresling his contempt for the temever, was not forgetful of his valour, ples and worship of Odin, god of the he would not renounce the flattering Scandinavians, whom he calls Loda. advantage of hearing the celebration Oflian represents these people as inof his exploits. Courage, and the voking their god round a ftatue, which noble desire of succouring the oppreff- he calls the stone of power. He reed, and redresling their wrongs, pro- probates this worship, and conliders it duced that spirit of chivalry which as impious. The druids, bards, and gave birth to prodigies of heroism. the people whom they instructed, reIllustrious actions awakened the genius garded all nature as the temple of the of a class of men who came to re Diviniiy. That they had notions of place the bards, under the name of a Supreme Being cannot be doubled, Troubadours. This appears to be

since they believed in the immortality the period from which we must of the soul, and in the rewards and date the commencement of those punishments of a future life. Their books of chivalry, so extraordinary, opinion was, that the clouds were the and yet so full of charins, that even habitation of souls after their fep.ra. now they excite our admiration. In tion from the body. The brave and reading them it is necessary to recol- virtuous were received with joy into lect, that to please they must poliess the aerial palaces of their fathers, probability, for it is only by imitating whilst the wicked, the cowardly, and nature that art can please. What the cruel, were excluded the abode of idea then ought we to entertain of heroes, and condemned to wander, those knights they werc intended to the sport of every wind. There were describeIn the romance of the different manlions in the palaces of the Round Table, of St. Greal, of Ama- clouds; the principal of which were dis, &c. reason will ever teach us to alligned to merit and courage; and rescind what appears to be merely this idea was a great incitement to the marvellous, but the noble and the emulation of their warriors. The brave will never call in question the foul always preserved the fame passions prodigies archieved by valour. It is which it possessed during life; these remarkable that England is generally aerial palaces offered no other enjoymade the theatre of chivalry by the ment than what they had preferred VOL. I.-No. VI.

M in m



when living. They supposed that were graceful, and the gentle noile winds and storms were under the of their approach had something in it direction of departed spirits, but their pleasing and encouraging. At the power never extended over man.' A moment of executing any great enhero could not be admitted into the terprise, they imagined thai the fouls palace of his fathers, unless the bards of their fathers descended from the had sung his funeral hymn. This clouds to foretel their good or ill hymn appears to have been the only success: and when they did not apessential ceremony of their funerals.

pear, gave them notice at least by some The body was extended on a bed of

Every man thought he had clay, at the bottom of a grave lix his tutelar fhade, who always attended or eight feet deep. At the head of a him. When death approached, this warrior they placed his sword and guardian fpirit showed itself to him twelve arrows; the corpse was cover in the position in which he was to ed with a second body of clay, and die, and fent forth plaintive cries of upon this they laid the horns of a fag, forrow. On the death of a great peror some other wild beaft. Sometimes sonage, they were persuaded that the they killed his favourite dog, to lay souis of departed bards fung round on this second body of clay; the his phantom during three whole whole was then covered with fine nights. It was a received opinion mould, and four stones marked the among them, that the moment a extent of the tomb.

warrior ceased to exift, the arms in “ None but a bard could open the his house were covered with blood; gates of the aerial palaces, which he that his spectre went to visit the place did by chanting the funeral hymn, of his birth, and that it appeared to Neglect of this ceremony left the soul his dogs, which set up dismal yells at in the exhalations of the lake Lego, the sight of it. or some other, and to these unhappy “ It was to these spirits they atSouls they attributed the disorders tributed the major part of natural arising from the vapour of lakes or effects. If echo ftruck the ear, it marshes, which are so frequent and was the spirit of the mountain they Sometimes even mortal. We may heard. The hollow sound of the fee with what care the druids encou. tempelt, was the roaring of the spirit riged opinions which rendered their of the hill. Did the harp of a bard ministry so consoling and so necessary. receive a vibration from the wind, Death was not supposed to have the it was the shades, who by this gentle power of dissolving the ties of blood. touch announced the death of some The Mades of the dead took part in distinguished character. No king nor the happy or unfortunate events of chief resigned his breath, but this protheir friends. No nation had so im- phetic sound was rendered by the harps plicit a belief in apparitions. The of the bards belonging to his family. mountaineers, in particular, feening We feel how consoling it must have apto take pleasure in their gloomy peared to people all nature with the ideas, frequently pailed whole nights Shades of their friends and ancestors, upon a leath; the whistling of the by whom they supposed themselves wind, or the noise of torrents, made constantly surrounded. Notwithstandthem imagine they heard the voice of ing all the melancholy which must acthe dead, and if surprised by Neep in company such an idea, we are sensible the midst of these reveries, they re how interesting and pleasing it mutt 'garded their dreams as certain pro- have been. gnostics of futurity. Good and bad “ It was sufficient to engage and spirits did not appear in the same fill the imagination; and it is manner, the good lowed themselves doubtedly to this cause we must to their friends during the day in re. attribute the small number of divini. tired pleasant vallies, the bad were ties which were honoured among the never seen but at night in the midst ancient Britons; it appears even cer. of winds and tempests. Neither did tain that they only acquired a knowdeath deltroy the charms of the fair. ledge of Elus, Dis, Pluto, Samothes, The shades of these preserved their Teutates, and other deities, by means original form and beauty. No' terror of their intercourse with foreign na. accompanied them; when they tra- tions. The Piets and Saxons intro. versed the air, all their motions duced among them their Andate,


goddels of victory. The Romans like. " Parents will find many interestwise made them acquainted with fome

“ ing hints or' ideas proper for the of their divinities.

“ establishment or employment of “ We are assured by Tacitus and Dion Caflius, that the Gauls first brought

young men just entering into life into England the horrid custom of la

“ (and who prefer respectable purcrificing human victims. By extend.

“ fuits to an idle life), whether ing our researches farther, we might

" their turn of mind may lead discover likewise vestiges of the Phe “ them to the cultivation of literanician worship; for every thing leads ture, or to merchandize or trade. us to conclude, that in the earliest ages “ Many of the matters disclosed of the world thele first of navigators“ in the following pages would known brought their merchandize into Britain, which they exchanged for

“ highly benefit the industrious pur. tin. But we shall enter no farther into

" fuer of thein-some of them particulars concerning those religious

“ would be attended with very little ceremonies which they derived from trouble--- many of them would foreign nations, fince every history, “ bring to the mind an amusement tradition, and custom, proves, in the “ most pure and tranquil. They most convincing manner, that the re “ all tend to the welfare, the bene. ligion of the Druids alone was uni. versally adopted.” P. 487.

“ fits, or the blessings of society-
“ to the advancement of literature
66 —or to the honest extension of

“ trade and commerce." CVIII. Valuable and Interesting

Communications. 4to. pp. 27:-7s.6d. sewed. Macpherson, Mar

As the Communications, amounta fon, Gurney, Walker, Hamilton,

ing in number to seventy-one, nes ceffarily include a greater variety of

subjects than we have room to a. HE following disclosures con

bridge, we shall present some of the THE fist of a variety of different

most particular as characteristic 66 matters. They are adapted to

EXTRACTS. “ the ingenious--the learned the “ industrious. No rank or situation 9. I DO not see why English“ in life (however exalted, or how

men could not establith, or rather re. ever depressed) but might avail commend or propose the establishing, “ themselves of or pursue some of tutions similar to those which reflect

in many of the European cities, infti. " them.

such credit on this country--(and by They would peculiarly suit lie that means benefit theinfelves (if they terary minds-m

men of genius– are fo inclined) by being appointed és artists-classical scholars-ihe cler- secretaries (or managing officers) – “ gy-students at our universities, viz. the Asylum, or Houfe of Ke

or public feminaries-gentlemen fuge, for the reception of Friendless 66 of educated minds, though of no

and Deserted Orphan Girls, who s profession or trade-or any one

' are daily sheltered and protected

froin vice and want, supplied with “ fond of literary pursuits. They • food and raiment, and prevented “ might be pursued in the secludeil

• being exposed to the miseries of “ retirement of a village-or in I want, to the folicitations of the via “ the tumult of a cominercial city, "cious, and to all the dreadful con

" They are equally calculated for ' sequences of early reduction'--the “ merchants or commercial men

Philanthropic Society--the Magdalen for enterprising naval persons-- --the Lying-In Hospital—the Found6 for those devoted to the arts and some of our general dispensaries, and

ling--and establishments fimilar to “ fciences-.for manufacturers or to our county infirmaries. any one employed in trade.

certain the late Empreis of Rutiia M m m 2



I am

would generously have attended to and fancy. See a book called Delete proposals of this kind. She en- fortunis Literorum; it is worth perugaged some Englith gentlemen (at sal; it might be translated, with Notes, very handsome salaries) to promote Additions, or Illustrations. and superintend agriculiurat societies “ 68. Were ten or twelve gentlein her empire. Why could not more men of eale and property (friends to of these be etiablished on the Con- each other) to meet once a week, they tinent?

might form a club (known only to “ 16. Establish in London an office themselves, and without any reference solely and purposely for the letting of or proclamation to the public) by lodgings. Each one wishing to take which they might difpenfe bleitings lodgings, to pay one thilling for search- unknown.' They might each peraining the books. Each person who bulate different parts of this metropoWillies to enter their ludgings in the lis, privately to find out objects of bocks to pay likewise one Avilling, most deplorable distress, such as is The smallness of the fee would insure general escape common observatiot. fuccefs. Establish the like office in At each weekly meeting, each memBrifiol, Liverpool, Dublin, and Edin- ber might communicate the miserable burgh.

objects he had beheld, and proportion "17. Establish an office solely and the relief or charity to be girea purposely for deciding causes and dif- them. What urged Mr. Burke so putes by arbitration. To be composed eloquently to paint the character of of capital merchants and others, of Mr. Howard,' but from this latter fense and unsullied integrity. This · gentleman's having • fathomed the idea ftruck the great and enlarged ; very depth of misery?' minds of Loid Mansfield and Sir Wil. “ The following paragraph Guf liam Blackstone. Forcibly too did it copied from a newspaper of April strike that elegant scholar, that gene. 1797) will thew how easy and how rous and unsullied man, that eloquent pery cheap it is to dispense comfort pleader, the late Folier Bower: A and happiness and bleflings to the lord of several villages in Castille, (in poor: --- Six poor debtors were lot order to counteract the chicanery and week discharged from Knotringley Gas, expences which oppress the middling Pontefract, by the fam of 154. 155. clafles) has erected a court, compofed given for ibat purpose, by B. Coska, of the oldeit and most intelligent ja • Elq.' Poflibly these poor men had habitants, out of which the contend- families starving, when deprived of ing parties chule umpires to fettle the the husband's labour. Who this Mr. differences without any other advo- Cooke is, I know not, but I am sure

this record of his name is more cred:38. Publish a Lady's Weekly Nerf table than fuch inhuman, fuch brutal, paper. We love Lady's Magazines; and contemptible records as the foland why not a Newípaper, adapted to lowing (and which one is so frequentthe female mind, to female pursuits? ly peltered with in the papers)

44. A very interesting trait might 1797, April 11, Tuesday morning at be written on the Poverty and Sufferings trotting match against rime, for a ter es of Men of Genius. Many selections 100 guineas, between Charles Herbert might be made from the history of . and R. Wilfon, Esquires, was decided various countries. Among the na ' in favour of the former. Tbe bei tives of this ifle, Orway and Gold was, that Mr. Herbert's berje Orbella Jmith inftantly firike one-Nahum I would not trot 17 miles in an bear, s Tate (who aliered Lear) died in the "ibe Highgate road, to set out from Si. Mint, where he was forced to seek · Giles's church, and be won it exaltis Shelter, in extreme poverty—the best by one ininute and twenty feconds." part of the days of Collins (those ir Pere Bourdaloue, the best preachdays in which imagination is on the er France ever produced, consecrated • wing') were deprelied and chilled by the latter part of his life to the service melancholy poverty.

Mr. Boswell of the hospitals, the poor, and the (about 1731 and 1732) relates two prisoners, and by his pathetic difAtriking instances of the poverty of courses and engaging manners, proJohnson. The only confolation of cured for them very bountiful alms. Phædrus's fhip-wrecked man of ge. If the discourses of our enriched and nius was, the possetlion of his talents wealthy bishops, are not jo pat beric as



Those of this good father, and if their ness of their situation, must lament manners are not quite so engaging, that what God has so bountifully yet, whoever visits the conages of the given them flows in too confined cirpoor in their dioceses, in the inclement cles ever to reach the simple dwellings months of winter, and views the ex. of the poor." treme misery and forlorn unclearful

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