The Chimney of the World: A History of Smoke Pollution in Victorian and Edwardian Manchester
"To a good many of its citizens, late Victorian Manchester, the "workshop of the world," was one of humanity's supreme achievements. In a century it had gone from regional market town to draping the world in cotton cloth. To a small minority at the time, and to the retrospective environmentalist, it was an abomination. Except on Sundays and during periods of trade collapse, Manchester was carpeted by black coal smoke. The smoke came from factory chimneys, but also from household hearths, the open coal fire being treasured both as a source of warmth and a central symbol of domestic bliss. Its residents created that smoke, lived in it, tried continuously and vainly to clean up from it, and died from it at a high rate. Smoke, Mosley argues convincingly, shaped their city and their life within it: the prevailing winds that pushed smoke inland determined who lived where; its power to blacken and destroy dictated the designs and materials feasible for architects to use; its pervasiveness affected neighborhood sociability by putting a premium on securely closed windows (which prompted reliance on the high draft of the open coal fire as a means of ventilating, as well as heating, one's dwelling, and thus in turn exacerbated the smoke problem). Stephen Mosley examines three aspects of Manchester's smoke situation: its magnitude and impact on the town, the rhetoric and culture of smoke, and the (unsuccessful) campaigns to control it--From a book review (H-Net)."
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Manchester Air Pollution
The Nature of Smoke
Stories About Smoke
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acid air pollution Ancoats Annual Report anti-smoke atmosphere black smoke boiler British campaigners cause Central Library Ref city's Clean Air coal fire coal smoke contemporaries Cottonopolis Court Leet cultural dense districts economic effects environment Environmental History example Exhibition Review factory chimneys factory towns fogs fuel furnaces Grindon Guide to Manchester Horsfall House of Commons householders Ibid Industrial Revolution industrial towns industrialists inhabitants John John Heywood John Ruskin Journal Lancashire Lancashire's living London Manches Manchester and Salford Manchester Central Library Manchester Guardian Manchester region Manchester University Press Manchester's manufacturers MAPS mechanical stokers narrative National Smoke Abatement natural nineteenth century NVAA Parliamentary Papers Prevention of Smoke problem produced reformers respiratory diseases Robert Angus Smith Salford Branch Salford Sanitary Association Sheffield Smoke Abatement League smoke cloud smoke emissions smoke nuisance smoke pollution smoke prevention smokeless smoky Social soot stokers sulphurous urban Victorian Manchester waste working-class