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excellently provided. For if when we are about to receive kings, we prepare our houses to wear a more ipagnificent appearance, neglecting nothing which may give them ornament, but using every thing in a liberal and unsparing manner, baving for our object that they shall have an abode pleasant to them, and in all respects suitable to their majesty; what sort of habitation ought we to prepare for the King of kings, for God the ruler of the whole universe, condescending in his mercy aud lovingkindness for man to visit the beings whom he has created, and to come down from the borders of heaven to the lowest regions of the earth, for the purpose of benefiting our race? Shall we prepare him a house of stone or of wooden materials? Away! such an idea is not holy even to utter ; for not even if the whole earth were to change its nature and to become on a sudden gold, or something more valuable than gold, and if it were then to be wholly consumed by the skill of workmen, who should make it into porticoes and vestibules, and chambers, and precincts, and temples-not even then could it be a place worthy for his feet to tread upon, but a pious soul is his fitting abode.

XXX. If therefore we call the invisible soul the terrestrial habitation of the invisible God, we shall be speaking justly and according to reason; but that the house may be firm and beautiful, let a good disposition and knowledge be laid as its foundations, and on these foundations let the virtues be built up in union with good actions, and let the ornaments of the front be the due comprehension of the encyclical branches of elementary instruction ; for from goodness of disposition arise skill, perseverance, memory; and from knowledge arise learning and attention, as the roots of a tree which is about to bring forth eatable fruit, and without which it is impossible to bring the intellect to perfection.

But by the virtues, and by actions in accordance with them, a firm and strong foundation for a lasting building is secured, in order that anything which may endeavour to separate and alienate the soul from honesty and make it such another haunt, may be powerless against so strong a defence, and by means of the study of the encyclical branches of elementary education, the things requisite for the ornament of the soul are provided; for as whitewashing, and paintings, and tablets, and the arrangement of costly stones, by which men dec rute

not merely the walls, but even the lower parts of their houses, and all other such things as these do not contribute to strength, but only give pleasure to those who live in the house : so the knowledge of the encyclical accomplishments decorates the whole habitation of the soul, while grammar investigates the principles of poetry and follows up the history of ancient events, and geometry labours at equalities according to analogy, and endeavours to remedy whatever in us is deficient in rhythm or in moderation, or in harmony, by giving us rhythm, and moderation, and harmony, by means of a polished system of music; and rhetoric aims at giving us acuteness in everything, and at properly adapting all proper interpretations to everything, claiming for itself the coutrol of all intenseness and all the vehement affections, and again of all relaxations and pleasures, with great freedom of speech, and a successful application of the organs of language and voice.

XXXI. Such a house then being prepared in the race of mankind, all things on earth will be filled with good hopes, expecting the return of the powers of God; and they will come, bringing laws from heaven, and bonds, for the purpose of sanctifying and hallowing it, according to the command of their Father; then becoming the associates and constant com. panions of these souls which love virtue, they sow in them the genus of happiness: as they gave to the wise Abraham bis son Isaac as the most perfect proof of their gratitude for the hospitality which they experienced from him.

And the purified intellect rejoices in nothing more than in confessing that it has for its master bim who is the Lord of all ; for to be the servant of God is the greatest boast, avd is more honourable, not only than freedom, but even than riches or dominion, or than anything which the race of man. kind is eager for. And of the supreme authority of the living God, the sacred scripture is a true witness, which speaks thus : “ And the land shall not be sold for ever; for all the earth is mine, because ye are all strangers and sojourners in my sight."* Does not the scripture here most manifestly show that all things belong to God by virtue of possession, but to created things only inasmuch as they have the use of them ?

Loviticus xxv. 28.


For, says God, nothing shall be permanently sold to any one of all created beings, since there is ono being to whom the session of the universe does permanently and surely belong : for God has given the use of all created things to all men, not having made any one of those things which are only in part perfect, so as to have absolutely no need of anything else,) in order that, being desirous to obtain that of which it has need, it may of necessity unite itself to that which is able to supply it, and that other may in its turn unite with it, and both may thus combine with one another;/for thus, the two combining and mingling together, and like a lyre which is composed of dissimilar sounds, coming into one combination and symphony, must of necessity sound together, while all things giving and receiving in turn contribute to the completion and perfection of the universal world.

In this way inanimate things combine with those which have life, irrational things with those endowed with reason, trees with men, and men with plants, things untameable with those which are tame, and domestic animals with savage ones, the male with the female, and the female with the male ; in short, terrestrial animals with such as live in the water, aquatic creatures with those whose home is in the air, and Aying animals with any of these described above. And besides all those things, earth with heaven, and heaven with earth, air with water, and water with air. And again the intermediate natures with one another, and with these at their extremities, and the extremities too form an attachment to the inter mediate natures and to one another. So again winter feels in need of summer, and summer of winter, spring of both, and autumn of spring, and each of these seasons of each other season; and, so to say, everything has a need and want of everything else. So that the whole universe of which all these are parts, namely the world, is clearly a complete work, worthy of its Maker.

XXXII. Thus, therefore, putting all those things together, God appropriated thu dominion over them all to himself, but the use and enjoyment of themselves and of each other he allowed to those who are subject to him; for we have the complete use of our own faculties and of everything which affects us : I therefore, consisting of soul and body, and appearing to have a mind, and reason, and outward sense, find that not ono

of a.l these things is my own property. For where was my body before my birth ? and where will it go when I am de. parted? And what becomes of the differences of age of that being which at present appears to exist ? Where is now the infant ?- where the child ?- where the boy ?:-where the south just arriving at the age of puberty ?-where the young man? where is ho now whose heard is just budding, the vigorous and perfect man? Whence came the soul, and whither will it go ? and how long will it remain with us? and what is its essence, or what may we speak of as such ? Moreover, when did we acquire it? Was it before our birth ?-But then we ourselves did not exist. Shall we have it after our death ?But then we shall not exist, we who are now a combination of distinctive qualities in combination with our bodies ; but rather we shall then be hastening to a regeneration, becoming in combination with incorporeal beings : and now, when we are alive we are governed rather than governing, and we are understood ourselves rather than understanding anything else ; for our soul understands us without being understood by us, and it imposes commands upon us which we are necessitated to obey, as servants are compelled to obey a mistress and whenever it chooses to abandon us and to depart to the Ruler of all things, it will depart, leaving our house destitute of life, And even if we attempt to compel it to remain, it will disappear; for its nature is composed of unsubstantial parts, such as afford no handle to the body.

XXXIII. But the mind is my peculiar place of abode. Is this the language of the mistaken conjecturer, of the former of erroneous opinions, of the man out of his mind, of the fool, of him who is found to be destitute of his senses through a trance, or through melancholy, or from old age? Will any one then say, reason is my possession, or the organs of voice are my possession? Has not a very slight pretext of disease disabled the voice ? has it not sewn up the mouths of even very eloquent men? Has not an expectation of danger, when it has come upon men, rendered myriads speechless ?

And in truth I am not found to be the governor of the outward senses, or perhaps I may even turn out to be their slave, following where they lead me, to colours, to shapes, to soundz. to smells, to flavours, or to other kinds of substances., By all which I think it is shown that we have the use of possessions which in reality belong to others, and that neither glory, nor

riches, nor honours, nor authority, nor anything else which concerns our bodies or souls is really our own, nor indeed even life itself.

But having the use of these things, if we are judicious and prudent, we shall take care of them as possessions of God, being well aware beforehand that it is the law, that the master, whenever he pleases, may reclaim his own property., For by these cousiderations we shall diminish our grief for the deprivation of such things. But now, men in general, thinking that every thing is really their own property, are iu a n.oment afflicted with extraordinary grief at the absence or loss of any thing. It is, therefore, not only true, but a thing also which most especially tends to consolation, to consider that the world and all the things in the world are the works and the property of him who created them. And his own work, he who is its real possessor, gives to others, because he has no need of it hinuself. But he who uses it has no property in it, because there is one Lord and master of all things, who says most truly, “ All the earth is mine," a saying which is equivalent to-every created thing is mino; and “ye are all strangers and sojourners in my sight.

XXXIV. For all mortals, being compared with one another, are looked upon as natives of the soil, and nobly born persons, all enjoying equal honours, and equal rank; but by God they are looked upon as strangers and sojourners; for each of us has come into this world as to a new city, in which he had no share before his birth, and having come into it be dwells here, until he has completed the period of life allotted to him. At the same time, also, this doctrine of exceeding wisdom is introduced, that the Lord God is the only real citizen, and that every created being is but a stranger and a sojourner. But those who are called citizens are called o rather in consequence of a slight misapplication of the name than in strict truth. And it is a sufficient gift to wise men—if considered comparatively with the only true citizen, God—for them to have the rank of strangers and sojourners. With respect to foolish men, of them there is absolutely no one who is a stranger or sojourner in the city of God, but such an one is found to be utterly an exile. And this is implied in what he said besides as a most authoritative doctrine, " The land shall not be utterly sold away." Nor did God add " by whom," in order that from that point being [assed over in silence, he

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