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though even these were not the most dangerous weapons with which idolatry was supplied by the powers of darkness. The shrewd arts of a refined and delusive wit, employed by the philosophers, were far more formidable than the persecutions of the emperors. Every argument that sopbistry could furnish, clothed in the bewitching robes of the most refined eloquence, was produced to give credit to so bad a cause, and to support the baseless fabric of idolatry.
It is not my intention to refute the vain subtilties of the philosophers; indeed, they sufficiently destroy themselves : I mention them only to show that it was not easy to overthrow an error, at once so universal and so delusive: for, in fact, though idolatry, considered in itself, appears to have been the production of brutal ignorance, yet when traced to its origin, it will be found to be a work of deep contrivance, carried to the utmost excess by malicious spirits, and whose security lay in the countenance it gave to criminal passions. But what rendered it still more difficult to be extirpated is, its having been founded in that extravagant fondness we have for ourselves. To this was undoubtedly owing the invention of gods similar to men, subject to our weaknesses and passions ; so that, in fact, they adored, under the name of false divinities, their own ideas and pleasures : these are the venerable, the sovereign deities whom lust had formed. Thus the heart of man became the first idol temple, and for the sake of those internal deities, altars were erected to external ones. Venus was adored because men suffered themselves to be enslaved with the passion of love, and were pleased with their chains. Bacchus, the most jovial of all the gods, had his altars, because they resigned themselves and sacrificed to sensual delights, sweeter and more intoxicating than wine.
It was therefore necessary, before idols could be overthrown, to control the dominion of lust, and throw down the altar it had raised in the heart; a work reserved to Him whose province it was to enlighten the nations ; to prove by his doctrine, that solid joy can only spring from a good conscience; for Him, who by his death was to discipline the soul of man, depraved by so many vices, dissipated by so many passions, to humility, patience, and every enduring virtue. Accordingly, it appeared equally admirable and astonishing, that while the philosopher with his fine and methodical reasonings was unable to overthrow one single idol, simple fishermen, the outcasts of the world, who preached nothing but crosses and mortifications, saw them sink down to the dust, though supported by all the arts of pagan eloquence, and the power of emperors, obstinately bent on the preservation of their worship.
FORMULARIES OF FAITH.
MR. EDITOR.—I have been much interested by some reprints which have lately issued from the Oxford University Press, relating to the Formularies of Faith, &c. &c. at the time of the Reformation. But as many of the terms then in use are now obsolete, I would suggest the propriety of the editor of any future editions of these works, or of any works of the like nature, occasionally adding a note of explanation: For instance, in page 175, of a volume called Three Primers put forth in the Reign of Henry VIII. and at the 16th line, occurs the word coresing. Guessing at the meaning, but not at all sure that I am right), and having by 'me no books of reference, I fancy it to be derived from Kópew, but should be greatly obliged by any information you can give me. In page 501 of the same volume, the editor has informed us that unneth is scarcely. I am therefore surprised that he has not thought coresing worth notice. In case you should not have the volume by you, I have transcribed the sentence in which the word occurs, and beg to subscribe myself, nii! Your obedient humble servant,
. Cler. CANTS * **** Notwithstanding yet here at this time, before he could answer and shew them his mind, as touching this coresing of swords for their other necessaries, Peter Simon, which pretended to love his Master more fervently than other, having then one of these two swords, had drawn it, and smote off the right ear of one called Malchus, the Bishop's servant."
BISHOP KIDDER'S OBSERVATIONS ON THE PSALMS. !!
Some Reflections on the Old Translation of the Psalms, as that Trans
lation is compared with, and examined by, the Hebrew Text. By Bishop KIDDER.
(Continued from Vol. XVI. page 635.)
SOME OTHER PLACES THAT ARE IN THE OLD TRANSLATION QUESTIONABLE, AND LIABLE TO EXCEPTION, AND DESERVE FURTHER CONSIDERATION.
They are such as these. Psalm VI. 9, Petition. Supplication may perhaps be a fitter word. VII. 7, Lift up thyself again, qu. if not better, return on high. X. 4, Neither is God in all his thoughts, q. all his thoughts are that there is no God. Ver. 11, His captains, q. his strong ones. XII.9, When they are exalted the children of men are put to rebuke, q. when the vilest men are exalted. XVII. 4, That are done against the words of thy lips, q. by the word of thy lips. XXIII.2, Feed me, q. cause me to lie down. XXVIII. 2, Thinkino scorn of me, q. be not silent to me. XXXVII. 8. Else thou shalt be moved to do evil. q. to do evil, Ver. 38, Compare this translation with the new, and both with the Hebrew. XLII. 8, The little hill of Hermon, q. the Hermonites from the little hill, or, hill Mizar. XLV. 10, Vesture of gold, q. gold of Ophir. XLVIII. 6, Sea, q. Tarshish. LVI, 10, In God's word will I rejoice : in the Lord's word will I comfort me, q. in God will I praise his word: in the Lord will I praise his word. LVIII. 8, So let indignation vex him even as a thing that is raw, q. he shall take them away as, with a whirlwind, both the green (viz. thorns) and dry. LXIV. 8, Laugh them to scorn, q. flee away. LXVIII. 6, That maketh men to be of one mind in an house, 9. that placeth the solitary in an habitation. Ibid. Runagates, q. rebellious. Ver. 27, Counsel, q. support. Ver. 28, Sent forth, q. commanded. LXXVII. 10, This is mine own infirmity : but I will, q. this is that which afflicts me, when 1. LXXVIII. 48, Frost, q. small hail. LXXXVIII, 16, The fear of thee hath undone me, q. thy sorrow hath cut me off. XCII, 10, His desire, q. if those words may not be better omitted. CV. 22, Inform, g. bind. CX. 3, With an holy worship, q. in the beauties of holiness. CXIX. 29, Cause thou me to make much of thy law, q. graciously vouchsafe me thy law. Ver. 78, They go wickedly about to destroy me, q. they deal perversely with me without a cause. Ver. 19, According to, q. in. CXXII. 4, To testify unto, q. unto the testimony of. CXXXVIII. 8, Despise not, q. forsake not. CXLI. 7, Let their judges be overthrown in stony places, q. their judges that were left on the sides of the rock. Ver. 1. Heweth wood upon the earth, q. plougheth up the earth. Ver. 9, O cast not out my soul, q. leave not my soul destitute. CXLII. 9, Which thing if thou wilt grant me, then shall the righteous resort unto my company, q..the righteous shall compass me about, when thou shalt deal graciously with me. CXLIV. 11, Iniquity, 9. falsehood. Ver. 14, Leading into captivity, q. going out. CXLIV. 5, promise, q. truth. Ver. 8, Helpeth them that are fallen, q. raiseth them that are bowed down.
THE OLD ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE PSALMS, CONSIDERED AS
COMPARED WITH THE LXXII.
It will appear by comparing tliese two, that the LXXII. (whatever the authority of that Version of the Psalms may be) will not justify our Old Translation, as some have supposed. For it is certain that our Old Translation differs more from the LXXII. than it does from the Hebrew. If the LXXII. could justifie the additions and other faults of the Old Translation, where it departs from the Hebrew, yet how can it be justified when it departs from the LXXII.? If the LXXII. be a good rule to translate by, our Old Translation must be the worst (perhaps) in the world. And if it be not a good rule, it ought not to be urged in behalf of the Old Translation, when that departs from the Hebrew Text. I shall not now represent what exceptions lie against the Version of the LXXII. (as we call it) of the Book of Psalms. It shall suffice to shew that, upon comparing it with our Old English Psalter, we shall find it insufficient to justifie that Old Translation. And this will appear from what follows.
OF THE ADDITIONS TO THE HEBREW TEXT, IN THE OLD ENGLISH
It must be granted that some of these additions to the Hebrew Text, are to be found also in the LXXII. E. g. those which are found in the following places :-Psalm I. 5. II. 12. III. 2. VII. 12. XI. 5. XIII. 6. XIV. 2, 5, 6, 7. XXXIII. 2. LXXIII. 27, &c.
But there are other additions to the Hebrew Text that are not found in the LXXII. And they are these that follow. Ps. I. 6, [be able to].
VOL. XVII. NO. 1.
VI. 3, (wilt thou punish me). X. 11, [the congregation of]. XVII. 14, [I say]. XVIII. 21, [as the wicked doth]. XX, 9, [of heaven]. XXII. 32, (the heavens. XXXIII. 2, [and instrument. Ver. 16, [a man]. L. 8, (not). Ver. 13, [thinkest thou that). LIV. 7, [his desire). LIX. -11, (among the people). LXVIII. 23, [may be red]. LXIX. 6, [Lord). Lxxiv. 12, (why pluckest thou not?). Ibid. [the enemyl
: Ver. 16, (out of the hard rocks). LXXXVII. 7, [shall he rehearse). XCII. '10, [Lust]. Ibid. [desire]. CXXXVII. 3, [and melody in our heaviness]. CXXXVI. 7, (the whole verse). CXXXVII. 5, [her cunning]. CXXXIX. 23, (the ground of].-In all which places last recited, our Old English Translation not only adds to the Hebrew, but also to the LXXII.
I may add, that the Old English Translation does sometimes add to the LXXII. 0. gr. Righteous, Psalm VII. 10.
Give not yourselves to vanity, LXII. 10. For the earth, LXV. 10. As it were upon an horse, LXVIII. 4.
And poureth his benefits upon us, Ver. 19. Besides other additions that are both to the LXXII. and Hebrew also.
NO. XX.-THE ORGAN AT ST. George's, HANOVER-SQUARE.
The organ at the above church was built in 1725, by Schmidt, nephew of the celebrated Schmidt, who built the organ at St. Paul's Cathedral ; but, with the exception of the case, not a vestige of it now remains. It was repaired and improved, about sixty years ago, by that eminent artist Schnetzler, who put in a new great and choir organ, and extended the compass of the echo from middle C to F in the tenor, thereby making a swell of it, and also thoroughly repairing every other part of the instrument. The original organ was never considered good, and at the election of an organist for this church, which took place Nov. 11, 1725, Mr. Rosengrave, a celebrated extemporaneous organ performet, who was elected on that occasion, complained to those musical gentlemen who were appointed umpires on that occasion, viz. Dr. Croft, Dr. Pepusch, Mr. Bononcini, and Mr. Geminiani, that the new organ was deficient both in compass and quality.
The organ at the above church has lately undergone two extensive repairs by Mr. Bishop, one in 1824, and the other in 1831. At the first repair Mr. Bishop put in a new pair of horizontal bellows, german pedals, and composition pedals, and re-voiced the whole instrument; and, in 1831, an entire new swell, together with a Cremona and Clarabella in the choir organ, and coupling stops, &c. were added; by which additions the instrument now ranks among the best of the London organs. It contains the following stops
6 Cremona. 1 Stop Diapason. 2 Open ditio.
322 pipes. 3 Open ditto, new. 4 Principal. 5 Twelftb, 6 Fifteenth.
Stop Diapason. 7 Sexquialtra, 3 ranks.
2 Open ditto. 81 Trumpet.
323 ditto. Clarabella Treble.
570 ditto. 2 Dulciana. 3 Flute.
Total number of pipes 1138 14 Principal.
The compass of the great and choir organs is from GG to E in alt, 58 notes; that of the swell from C in the tenor to E in alt, 41 notes. The quality of tone in each stop is good, used either in chorus or in solo. The new swell is very effective. The Clarabella stop (the invention of Mr. Bishop), and the Cremona, are very beautiful and effective. The instrument would have been much benefited by the addition of pedal pipes; but it was found impracticable to introduce them, there not being sufficient space. Previous to the above repair, the instrument had been nearly cut to pieces, through the wantonness of bad tuners; but, we are happy to say, the original Schnetzler tone has been restored by Mr. Bishop.
No. XXXI.-ON THE RIGHT TO REPAIR A CHANCEL.
1. This suit commenced in the Episco- The Bishop, in his answers to these pal Consistorial Court of Norwich, and articles, admitted that, by law, parwas originally a business of the office sons or rectors of parishes are bound of the Judge promoted by the church- to sustain the chancels of their parish wardens of Clare, Suffolk, against the churches, save as to exemptions by Bishop of Ely, impropriator of a' por special composition, custom, or othertion of rectorial or great tithes of that wise. He also admitted that, among parish, for not repairing the chancel of the hereditaments, &c., of which, as Clare church.
appertaining to the Bishop of Ely, he Articles on the part of the promoters was in possession, was a portion of were admitted
tithes arising within Clare parish :
Upon an application for a prohibition propter défectiuni triativnts, the Court of Arches had been enjoined from proceeding na to, a custom cul, anglingue is so tried it the chancel, is conclusive evidence in the Ecclesiastical Court of the existence and validity of the custoin,