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which is reformation, a duty required by our religion as necessary to salvation. In the other, Quetauentov, there is no allusion to a further reformation, but to a further change; it being only meant to say, that the reformation effected is such as shall never be regretted, never repented of. As into the import of this word there enters no consideration of goodness or badness, but barely of change, from whatever motive or cause; the word duci queânios comes to signify steady, immutable, irrevocable. This is evidently the meaning of it in that expression, Αμεταμέλητα τα χαρίσματα και η κλησης του 0:00, Roin. 11: 29, which our translators render, “the gists and calling of God are without repentance ;' more appositely and perspicuously are irrevocable. For this reason the word perauional is used when the sentence relates to the constancy or immutability of God. Thus, "Ωμοσε Κύριος και ου μεταμεληθήσεται, Ηeb. 7:21. “ The Lord hath sworn and will not repent,” that is, alter his purpose.
The word dustavóntov, on the contrary, including somewhat of the sense of its primitive, expresses not, as the other unchanged or unchangeable, but unreformed, unreformable, impenitent. The apostle says, addressing himself to the obstinate infidel, xora trin σκληρότητα σου και αμετανοήτον καρδίαν, « After thy hardness and impenitent," or irreclaimable, “ heart,” Rom. 2: 5. The word duetuvonios, in the New Testament style, ought analogically to express a wretched state, as it signifies the want of that ustuvora, which the gospel erery where represents as the indispensable duty of the lapsed, and therefore as essential to their becoming Christians : but the term duetaurantov is nowise fitted to this end, as it expresses only the absence of that perauihela, which is nowhere represented as a virtue, or required as a duty, and which may be good, bad, or indifferent, according to its object. Thus I have shown, that on every pertinent occasion the distinction is sacredly observed by the penmen of the New Testament, and that the very sew instances in which it may appear otherwise at first glance, are found to be no exceptions when attentively examined.
10. Having now ascertained the distinction, it may be asked, How the words ought to be discriminated in a translation? In my opinion, merarotw, in most cases, particularly where it is expressed as a command or mentioned as a duty, should be rendered by the English verb reform ; merávora, by reformation ; and that meiquéλομαι ought to be translated repent. Μεταμέλεια is defined by Phavorinus δυσαρέστησις επί πεπραγμένοις, dissatisfaction with one's self for what one has done, which exactly bits the meaning of the Word repentance ; whereas μετάνοια is defined γνήσια από πταισμάτων επί το εναντίον αγαθόν επιστροφή, and ή προς το κρείττον Éncorpoqr, a genuine correction of faults, and a chinge from worse to better. We cannot more exactly define the word reformation. VOL. I.
It may be said, that, in using the terms repent and repentance, as our translators have done, for both the original terms, there is no risk of any dangerous error ; because, in the theological definitions of repentance given by almost all parties, such a reformation of the disposition is included as will infallibly produce a reformation of conduct. This, however, does not satisfy. Our Lord and his apostles accommodated themselves in their style to the people whom they addressed, by employing words according to the received and vulgar idiom, and not according to the technical use of any learned doctors. It was not to such that this doctrine was revealed, but to those who, in respect of acquired knowledge, were babes, Matt. 11: 25. The learned use is known, comparatively, but to a few: and it is certain that with us, according to the common acceptation of the words, a man may be said just as properly to repent of a good as of a bad action. A covetous man will repent of the alms which a sudden fit of pity may have induced him to bestow. Besides, it is but 100 evident that a man may osien justly be said to repent, who never reforıns. In neither of these ways do I find the word μετανοέω ever used.
I have another objection to the word repent. It unavoidably appears to lay the principal stress on the sorrow or remorse which it implies for foriner misconduct. Now this appears a secondary
matter at the most, and not to be the idea suggested by the Greek | verb. The primary object is a real change of conduct. The
tle expressly distinguishes it from sorrow in a passage lately quoted, representing it as what the sorrow, if of a godly sort, terminates in or produces : Η κατα Θεον λύπη μετάνοιαν κατεργαζεται, rendered in the common version, “Godly sorrow worketh repentance.” Now if he did not mean to say that the thing was caused by itself, or that repentance worketh repentance, (and who will charge him
with this absurdity ?) η κατά Θεόν λύπη is one thing, and μετάνοια is another. But it is certain that our word repentance implies no more in common use, even in its best sense, than rizarà Osov aúnn, and often not so much. It is consequently not a just interpretation of the Greek word μετάνοια, which is not η κατα Θεόν λύπη, but its certain consequence. Grief or remorse, compared with this, is but an accidental circunstance. Who had more grief than Judas, whom it drove to despondency and self-destruction ? To him the evangelist applies very properly the term uzraueanoris, which we as properly translate repented. He was in the highest degree dissatisfied with himself. But, to show that a great deal more is necessary in the Christian, neither our Lord himself, as we have seen, nor his forerunner, John, nor his apostles and ministers who followed, ever expressed themselves in this manner, when recommending to their hearers the great duties of Christianity. They never called out to the people métauirco 9e, but always ustavoite. If they
were so attentive to this distinction, in order to prevent men, in so important an article, from placing their duty in a barren remorse, however violent, we ought not surely to express this capital precept of our holy religion by a term that is just as well adapted to the case of Judas as to that of Peter. For the Greek word μεταμέλοuai, though carefully avoided by the inspired writers in expressing our duty, is fully equivalent to the English word repent.
11. I shall now, ere I conclude this subject, consider briefly in what manner some of the principal translators have rendered the words in question into other languages. I shall begin with the Syriac, being the most respectable on the score of antiquity of all we are acquainted with. In this venerable version, which has served as a model to interpreters in the East, in like manner as the Vulgate has served to those in the West, the distinction is uniformly preserved. Matavosiv is rendered sin thub, to reform, to return to God, to amend one's life ; Metdvora, anian thebutha, reformation ; Metaucheo hai is rendered in thua, to repent, to be sorry for what one has done. Nor are these Syriac words, ever confounded as synonymous, except in the Apocalypse, which, though now added in the printed editions, is no part of that ancient translation, but was made many centuries after.
The second place in point of antiquity is no doubt due to the Vulgate, where I acknowledge there is no distinction made. The usual term for μετάνοια is penitentia, for μετανοέω and μεταμέλοuai indiscriminately, pænitentiam ago, penitentiam habeo, peniteo, or me pænitet. These can hardly be said to express more than the English words repentance and repent. Metávorav dustapelntov, is not improperly rendered pænitentiam stabilem, agreeably to an acceptation of the term above taken notice of.
Beza, one of the most noted, and by Protestants inost imitated of all the Latin translators since the Reformation, has carefully observed the distinction wherever it was of consequence; for, as I remarked, there are a few cases in which either term might have been used in the original, and concerning which a translator must be directed by the idiom of the tongue in which he writes. The same distinction had been made before, though not with perfect uniformity, by the translators of Zuric. Beza's word for ustuvoé'w is resipisco, and for uerávoiu, resipiscentia. To this last term he was led both by analogy and (if not by classical authority) by the a11thority of early ecclesiastical writers, which in the translation of holy writ is authority sufficient. These words have this advantage of pænitere and pænitentia, that they always denote a change of some continuance, and a change to the better. For merduslomai his word is panitere. Thus uerauenosis, spoken of Judas, is pænitens : ilerávorav dueraui,nrov, resipiscentiam cujus nunquam peniteat, in which the force of both words is very well expressed. So is also aperavortov xaqdlav, cor quod resipiscere nescit. Erasmus, one of the earliest translators on the Romish side, uses both resipisco and pænitentiam ago, but with no discrimination. They are not only both employed in rendering the same word μετανοέω, , but even when the scope is the same. Thus uetuvočite, in the imperative, is at one time resipiscite, at another pænitentiam agite : so that his only view seems to have been to diversify his style.
Castalio, one of the most eminent Latin Protestant translators, has been sensible of the distinction, and careful to preserve it in bis version. But as his great aim was to give a classical air to the books of Scripture, in order to engage readers of taste who affected an elegant and copious diction, he has disfigured, with his adventitious ornaments, the native simplicity which so remarkably distinguishes the sacred penmen, and is in fact one of their greatest ornaments. We can more easily bear rusticity than affectation, especially on the most serious and important subjects. Among other arts by which Castalio has endeavored to recommend his work, one is a studied variety in the phrases, that the ear may not be tired by too frequent recurrence to the same sounds. The words under consideration afford a strong example. The verb ueravoé'w is translated by him, I know not how many different ways. It is se corrigere, vitam corrigere, redire ad frugem, redire ad sanitatem, reverti ad sanitatem : when the vices which we are required to amend are mentioned, the phrase is, desciscere a sua pravitate, desistere a turpitudine, desistere a suis operibus, impudicitia sua recedere, sua homicidia, etc. omittere. Meravola partakes of the like variety. It is emendata vita, vitæ emendatio, correcta vita, vitæ correctio, morum correctio, correcti mores, corrigenda vita, sanitas, pænitentia ; and in the oblique cases, frugem and bonam frugem. For Merauéìouai I only find the two words pænitere and mutare sententiam. Μετανοίαν αμεταμέλητον is not badly rendered “ vita correctionem nunquam penitendam, αμεταμέλητα χαρίσματα, munera irrevocabilia, and dustavo“ros xaodia, deploratus animus.
Diodati, the Italian translator, in every case of moment, renders the verb ustavosiv, ravedersi, which in the Vocabolario della Crusca is explained resipiscere, ad mentis sanitatem redire ; but for the noun μετάνοια lie always uses penitenza and for μεταμέλομαι, very properly pentirsi.
The Geneva French translates ustavóew, s'amender, metapedopui, se repentir, and uerávoia, repentance. In both these versions they use, in rendering met avoiav Queraueanrov, the same paronomasia which is in the common English version. Diodati has penitenza della quale huom non si pente. The Geneva French has repentance dont on ne se repent. The other passages also above quoted from the original, they translate in nearly the sarne manner. Luther, in his German translation, has generally distinguished the two verbs, rendering Moravoriv, busse thun, and marquécolai, reuen or gereuen.
"Αγιος AND όσιος.
I shall give, as another example of words supposed to be synonymous, the terms öylos and colos. The former is, if I mistake not, uniformly rendered in the New Testament holy, or, when used substantively in the plural, saints. The latter, except in one instance, is always rendered by the same term, not only in the English Bible, but in inost modern translations. Yet that these two Greek words are altogether equivalent, there is in my opinion good reason to doubt. Both belong to the second class of words which 1 explained in a former Dissertation.* They relate to manners, and are therefore not so easily defined. Nor are such words in one language ever found exactly to tally with those of another. There are, however, certain means, by which the true signification may in most cases be very nearly, if not entirely reached. I shall, therefore, mention my reasons for thinking that the two words öylos and ooios, in the New Testament, are not synonymous, and then endeavor to ascertain the precise meaning of each.
2. That there is a real difference in signification between the two Greek words, notwithstanding their affinity, my first reason for thinking is, because in the Septuagint, which is the foundation of the Hellenistic idiom, one of them is that by which one Hebrew word, and the other that by which another, not at all synonymous, is commonly translated. "Ayios is the word used for viip kadosh, sanctus, holy, öolos for from chasid, benignus, gracious.
3. My second reason is, because these words have been understood by the ancient Greek translators to be so distinct in signification, that not in one single instance is the Hebrew word kadosh rendered by the Greek öolos, or chasid by öylos. What gives additional weight to this reason is the consideration, that both words frequently occur; and that the Greek translators, though they have not been uniform in rendering either, but have adopted different words on different occasions for translating each, have, nevertheless, not in a single instance adopted any of those terms for rendering one of these Hebrew words, which they had adopted for rendering the other. Few words occur oftener than kadosh. But, though it is beyond comparison oftenest translated äycos, it is not so always. In one place it is rendered xalapós, mundus, clean; the verb kadash, the etymon, is rendered dočašelv, glorificare, to glorify, dvaPipassiv, ascendere facere, to cause to ascend, xalapiše.v, purgare, to cleanse, áyvitev, purificare, to purify, as well as dgidsecv and
+ Diss. II. sect. 4.