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THE AGE OF POMPEY, CÆSAR, AND CICERO_FROM THE DEATH OF SULLA TO THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE.
B.C. 78 TO B.C. 60.
. With equal rays immortal Tully shone,
The Roman Rostra decked the Consul's throne :
INSTABILITY OF THE SULLAN RESTORATION-TIE OPPOSITION PARTY--ITS VAXT OF
LEADERS-REVOLUTIONARY ATTEMPT OF THE CONSUL LEPIDUS-HIS DEFEAT AND DEATH ---QUINTUS SERTORIUS HOLDS OUT IN SPAIN - METELLUS PIUS OPPOSED TO HIN --POMPEY ASSOCIATED WITII METELLUS-HIS DEFEATS - DECLINE OF THE INFLUENCE OF SERTORIUS-HIS MURDER BY PERPERNA-DEFEAT AND EXECUTION OF PERPERSA --OUTBREAK OF SPARTACUS AND THE GLADIATORS-THEY OVERRUN ITALY-CRASSES DEFEATS AND KILLS SPARTACUS-POMPEY CLAIMS A SHARE IN THE VICTORY-008. SULSHIP OF POMPEY AND CRASSUS--REVERSAL OP SULLA'S ACTS-RESTORATION OF TIIE TRIBUNESHIP AND REFORM OF THE JURY LISTS -RISE OF CAIUS JULICS CESAR
HIS RESISTANCE TO SULLA-HE SERVES IN ASIA-PROSECUTION OF DOLABELLACESAR AGAIN LEAVES ROME-ADVENTURE WITH THE PIRATES-HE STUDIES RHETORIC AT RHODES-SUPPORTS POMPEY-RESTORES THE IMAGES OF MARIUS-RISE OF MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO-HIS FAMILY AND EDUCATION HIS ONE CAMPAIGNSPEECHES FOR QUINTIUS AND ROSCIUS-HEWITHDRAWS TO ATHENS HIS FRIENDSHIP WITH ATTICUS --IE STUDIES IN ASIA AND AT RHODES-RETURNS TO ROME AND DEVOTES HIMSELF TO PLEADING CAUSES-HIS QUESTORSHIP IN SICILY-PROSECUTION OF VERRES-RIVALRY WITH HORTENSIUS AND TRIUMPH OF CICERO-DEDICATION OF THE CAPITOL--THE EQUESTRIAN ORDER-THE WAR WITI TIE PIRATES-COMMAND CONFERRED ON POMPEY BY THE GABINIAN LAW-HIS BRILLIANT SUCCESS-SECOND MITURIDATIC WAR AND RESTORATION OF PEACE-VAST PREPARATIONS OP MITHRIDATES-THE DEATH OF NICOMEDES III. BRINGS ON THE THIRD MITHRIDATIC WARMITHRIDATES DEFEATS COTTA AND BESIEGES CYZICUS-LUCULLI'S RAISES THE SIEGE, AND DEFEATS MITHRIDATES IN PONTUS — MITHRIDATES FLIES TO ARMENIA-HISTURI OF THE COUNTRY-THE KINGDOM OF TIGRANES - LUCULLUS SETTLES THE AFFAIRS OF ASIA ---IE DEFEATS TIGRANES, TAKES TIGRANOCERTA, AND BESIEGES NISIBIS-IRRUPTION OF MITHRIDATES INTO PONTUS-ROMAN DISASTERS-MUTINY IN THE ARMY OF LUCULLUS--GLABRIO SENT TO SUPERSEDE HIM - POMPEY MADE GENERALISSIMO IN THE EAST-CICERO PRÆTOR-IIIS SPEECH FOR TUE MANILIAN LAW-RETIREMENT OP LUCULLUS-POMPEY ADVANCES INTO PONTUS-FLIGHT OF MITHRIDATES TO BOSPORTS -POMPEY IN ARMENIA-BUBMISSION OF TIGRANES- POMPEY IN THE CAUCASIAN LASIS -HE MARCHES INTO SYRIA -- DEATH OP MITHRIDATES-REVIEW OF SYRIAN HISTORY
SYRJA MADE A ROMAN PROVINCE-THE KINGDOMS OF COMMAGENE AND EDESSA DAMASCUS AND ARABIA--PHENICIA AND CELE-SYRIA--PALESTINE--REVIEW OF JEWISH HISTORY-RELIGIOUS AND MORAL STATE OF THE RESTORED PEOPLE-HOSTILITY OF THE SAMARITANS-THEIR ORIGIN-SCHISMATIO TEMPLE ON MOUNT GERIZIM-HATRED OF THE JEWS AND SAMARITANS-BLOODSHED IN THE JEWISII TEMPLE-JADDUA AND ALEXANDER THE GREAT- JUDÆA UNDER THE PTOLEMIES -- SIMON THE JUST AND ELEAZAR-THE SEPTUAGINT VERSION-OXIAS II. AND JOSEPH THE SON OF TOBIASPTOLEMY PHILOPATOR AT JERUSALEM -HYRCANUS THE SON OF JOSEPU-PALESTINE UNDER ANTIOCHUS THE GREAT-STORY OP HELIODORUS -- REIGN OF ANTIOCHU'S EPI. PHANES-HELLENISM IN JUDÆA- JASON AND MENELAUS-MURDER OF ONIAS III. SACK OF JERUSALEM BY ANTIOCHUS-MASSACRE BY APOLLONIUS-GREAT PERSECUTION UNDER ATHENEUS-MARTYRDOM OF ELEAZAR-REVOLT OF MATTATHIAS-JUDAS MA0Cá BÆUS-HIS VICTORIES, DEDICATION OF THE TEMPLE, TREATY WITH ROME, AND DEATHJONATHAN APPHUS SECURES PEACE -HIS MURDER BY TRYPHON-PROSPEROUS
GOVERNMENT OF SINON THASSI--HIS MURDER-JOHN HYRCANUS I.-INDEPENDENCE AND EXTENSION OF JUDEA--DESTRUCTION THE TEMPLE ON GERIZIM AND OF SAMARIA-QCARREL WITH THE PHARISEES REIGN OF ARISTOBULUS I. -ALEXANDER JANNEUS-WAR WITH PTOLEMY LATHYRUS--BEBELLION OF THE PIARISEES-THEIR ASCENDANCY UNDER ALEXANDRA-ARISTOBULUS I. AND HYRCANUS II. -RISE OF ANTIPATER-CIVIL WAR-INTERFERENCE OF THE ROMANS-POMPEY TAKES JERUSALEM AND PROFASES THE TEMPLE--ITS SUBSEQUENT PLUNDER BY CRASSUS-HYRCANUS II. AND ANTIPATER-ESCAPE AND REBELLIONS OF ARISTOBULUS AND HIS SONS-DEATHS OF ARISTOBULUS AMD ALEXANDER--CÆSAR RESTORES HYRCANUS, WITH ANTIPATER AS PROCURATOR-RISE OF HEROD-MURDER OF ANTIPATER-HYRCANUS IN THE HANDS OP HERODTIE PARTHIANS RESTORE ANTIGONUS-HEROD AT ROME-RETURNS AS KING OP JODEÁ-CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM - END OF THE ASMONAN DYNASTY--ACCESSION OP IEROD THE GREAT-DEATHS OF ANTIGONUS, ARISTOBULUS, AND HYRCANUS -EVENTS AT ROME DURING POMPEY'S ABSENCE-CONSULSHIP OF CICERO AND CONSPIRACY OP CATILINE - POMPEY RETURNS TO ROME-HIS POLITICAL ATTITUDE AND HIS TRITYPH-STATE OF PARTIES-TRIAL OF CLODIUS-OPPOSITION OF THE SENATE TO POMPEI CESAR IN SPAIX-HIS RETURN TO ROME-THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE.
The victory of Sulla had restored the government of the nobles ; and the lists of consuls for several years show the position which the great families had recovered in the state. But his attempt to relay the secure foundations of a dominant oligarchy proved an utter failure, nor had his conquests abroad secured permanent repose. Within the ten years succeeding his legislation (B.C. 80 -70) the Republic was involved in dangerous wars by sea and land, with Sertorius in Spain, with Mithridates in the East, and with the gladiators in the heart of Italy. Sulla's own most favoured friend returned victorious from the West only to restore to the democracy its most cherished privilege. Sent by the favour of the popular party to reap new laurels in the East, he came back to close another decennial period by a coalition with Crassus and Cæsar for the sacrifice of the aristocracy to their own personal ambition (B.C. 60). A third such period saw him once more at the head of the aristocratic party, plunging the state into civil war in the vain endeavour to ward off the final blow by which despotism was to be established (B.C. 50). These successive stages in the career of Pompey mark the three last steps in the downfall of the Republic. The catastrophe, prepared for many years by the selfish policy of the nobles and the want of remedial powers in the constitution, was finally arranged by the vacillating and unprincipled course of Pompey, though the last stroke was given by the sword of Cæsar. Sulla had in fact left the defence of his work to successors, such as Pompey and Crassus, who had never heartily belonged to the aristocratic Party, in the face of an opposition composed indeed of many different elements—the jurists, who resented his violation of the ancient laws — the moderate aristocracy, who adopted the views of Drusus—the Transpadane Gauls, who had received only a maimed citizenship—the offended capitalists—the vengeful relatives of the proscribed—the large class of men who had been ruined by the civil wars—all resting upon the basis of the great popular party, which only waited an opportunity to recover its lost share in the government, and especially the tribunitial power. But this opposition wanted leaders. Rome was not deficient in rising men of genius, whom ambition might prompt to take part in a new movement; but for the moment there were none distinguished enough to take the lead. Cicero had just returned from his two years' course of study at Athens to devote himself to the forensic labours by which alone he could hope to rise to the honours of the state ; and Cæsar, in whom the prescient eye of Sulla had seen many another Marius, was too young to be more than the hope of the revolutionary party.
The actual leadership fell into the hands of M. Æmilius Lepidus, a man neither of character nor ability, who had deserted from the Optimates to the popular party to escape prosecution on the charge of misgovernment in Sicily. The plunder of that province, and the support of Pompey, * enabled Lepidus to secure his election as consul for B.C. 78, and we have seen the failure of his attempt to deprive Sulla of funeral honours. Even before the dictator's death, Lepidus had talked of repealing his acts. The murmurs of the populace in the Forum encouraged the attempt : some of the chiefs of the old Marian party, such as Perperna and the younger Cinna, appeared again at Rome; and a conspiracy was organized in Etruria, where the Sullan confiscation had been most severe. The most distinguished leaders of the high aristocratic party were Quintus Lutatius Catulus, son of the Catulus who had shared the victory of Marius at Vercellæ and fallen a chief victim to his revenge,Q. Cæcilius Metellus Pius, who had gone into Spain as proconsul against Sertorius,--and the two brothers, Lucius and Marcus Lucullus, who had served with distinction under Sulla, the one in Asia, and the other in Italy. Catulus, who now held the
, consulship with Lepidus, was an honest Roman of the old school, but endowed neither with civil nor military talent. He would have met his colleague's movement with open force; but the Senate chose to temporize. Having made a concession to the demand for a distribution of corn, enough to encourage without satisfying the people, they sent both consuls into Etruria to levy soldiers for their
This indication of Pompey's readiness to play a part independent of the aristocracy is said to have called forth from Sulla in his retirement the warning :-"Young man, it is time for you not to slumber ; for you have strengthened your rival against yourself.”
protection; and their knowledge that Lepidus would only abuse the confidence which they affected to repose in him was betrayed by the silly precaution of making the consuls swear not to turn their arms against each other. Lepidus interpreted the oath as only binding for his year of office; and, upon its expiration, he forwarded from the head of his army demands worthy of a Marius, and marched upon Rome. While Pompey, who obeyed the call of the Senate to take up arms against his friend, overpowered and killed Marcus Brutus, the legate of Lepidus, at Mutina, Catulus defeated Lepidus himself at the Mulvian Bridge, close to the walls of Rome. Unable to hold his ground in Etruria, Lepidus withdrew to Sardinia, where he soon after died; and the remains of his army, with a well-filled military chest, were carried over by Perperna to Liguria, and thence to the aid of Sertorius in Spain (B.C. 77).
That peninsula had now been for three years, and was destined to be for five years more, the scene of a resistance, which not only left the victory of Sulla incomplete, but threatened to revive the great enterprise of the house of Barca. If Rome was to bow to a Sullan despot, the Marian refugees seemed likely to set up in Spain a Latin kingdom. QUINTUS SERTORIUS derived his obscure birth from the Sabine village of Nursia, and was distinguished for all the hardy virtues of the old Sabine stock. He began his military career under Marius in Gaul (B.C. 102), and ventured as a spy into the camp of the Teutones. His service as a military tribune under Didius in the Celtiberian War (B.C. 97) gave him a knowledge of the country and natives of Spain ; and the loss of an eye added an accident to the points of resemblance between Sertorius and Hannibal. He was quæstor in B.C. 91. We have seen how, in the civil war, he was distinguished from the other Marian leaders as much by his moderation as by his military talent. He was prætor in B.C. 83, the year in which Sulla returned to Italy; and, before the decisive combat at the Colline Gate, he had departed for his province of Spain. The destined theatre of his exploits seemed at first to deny him even a refuge. The commander whom he left to guard the passes of the Pyrenees was killed by one of his own officers; and the lieutenants of Sulla took possession of the two provinces without resistance (B.C. 82). Embarking at New Carthage, Sertorius crossed over to Mauretania, and there he gained a victory over one of Sulla's generals. When the Marian cause was lost in Africa, he conceived the project of organizing a resistance in Spain by means of the native population. Invited by the Lusi
tanians to become their leader against the Romans, Sertorius commenced that marvellous career of ascendancy over the natives, which has made him one of the heroes of history and a favourite of romance (B.C. 80). All have heard of the hold which he gained over the superstition of the Iberians by the aid of the milk-white fawn that was always at his side, as if she were his familiar spirit.
The powerful army supplied by the Spanish tribes was officered by the Marian refugees, whose number and dignity made the camp of Sertorius appear like a rival to the capital. At a later period, he nominated a Senate of 300 Romans, and founded a school at Osca (Huesca) for the education of the children of the chief Spanish families,-a security at once for their fidelity, as well as for their civilization. It is needless to follow the complicated details of the campaigns in which Sertorius baffled the Roman armies for eight years, chiefly by that guerilla warfare in which the Spaniards have always excelled. In B.c. 79, Q. Metellus Pius, who had been consul with Sulla the year before, was sent as proconsul into Spain ; but he failed to bring Sertorius to a decisive engagement. The arrival of Perperna with fifty-three cohorts raised the insurgent general to the acme of his power; and the Senate were reluctantly compelled to yield to the desire, which Pompey expressed at the head of his victorious army, to have an equal share in the command of Metellus, with the title of proconsul (B.C. 77). Crossing the Alps in the summer, Pompey spent some time in opening the new pass over Mont Genèvre, and in subduing some of the Gallic tribes; and it was late in the autumn before he passed the Pyrenees. He wintered in the corner of Catalonia, which was the only part of the nearer province held by the Romans, except the maritime towns commanded by their fleets; while Metellus maintained himself in the neighbourhood of Seville. To prevent the junction of the Roman armies, Sertorius watched the Upper Ebro, while Perperna was stationed on the lower course of the river. Pompey opened the campaign of B.c. 76 by throwing himself upon the latter, and not only forced the passage of the river, but took the important city of Valentia (Valencia). Sertorius himself soon arrived, and laid siege to Lauro, a town south of Valencia, which had declared for the Romans. A contest of generalship ensued, in which Pompey was completely outmanæuvred, and the fall of Lauro, followed by the removal of its inhabitants to Lusitania, put a stop to further defection. Pompey's check, was the more mortifying from its contrast with the success of Metellus, who defeated Hirtuleius, the best general of Sertorius, near Italica,