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CHAPTER XL. THE RISE AND SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY, AND THE FALL OF JUDAISM. FROM THE ACCESSION OF HEROD THE GRSAT TO THE END OF THE ANTONINE PERIOD. A.D. 37 to A.D. 192.

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The general desire for the Union of the World, prepared for, but not satisfied

by the Empire-Epoch of Christianity-State of the Holy Land-Reign of Her ud the Great-Massacre of his opponents – Plot and condemnation of Antipater-Last illness of Herod-Sedition at_Jerusalem-Birth OF JESUS CHRIST- Arrival of the Magi - Alarm of Herod-Massacre of the innocents-Execution of Antipater-Death of Herod-Division of his kingdom-Archelaus, king of Judæa-Deposed and banished - Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee — The tetrarch Philip – Herod Agrippa I. - Herod Agrippa II.-State of Judæa under the empire-The Procurator Pontius Pilate--His tyrannical government. - Mission of John the Baptist, and ministry of Jesus Christ—Origin of the Christian Church, and failure of the Jewish — The two streams of Jewish history—The Day of Pentecost—The first Christian Church— The apostles and the Sanhedrin-Philip and Simon Magus at Samaria-Martyrdom of Stephen, and conversion of St. PaulDeath of Tiberius-Banishment of Pontius Pilate-Arabian War-Aretas takes Damascus-Paul escapes to Jerusalem, and returns to TarsusCaligula and Agrippa-Tumult at Alexandria-Claim of Caligula to divine honours resisted by the Jews - His reception of the embassy of Philo Judæus — The Jews of Babylonia-Death of Caligula–Tolerant edicts of Claudius-Peace of the Jewish churches - Conversion of Cornelius-The church at Antioch-Barnabas and Paul at Jerusalem-Journeys of St. Paul-- His voyage to Rome, first imprisonment, and acquittal– Doubtful journey to the West—His final imprisonment and martyrdom-Judæa again under proeurators-Cuspius Fadus— Tiberius Alexander--Ventidius Cumanus-Antonius Felix--Porcius Festus- Albinus-Gessius Florus-Omens of disaster-Disturbances at Cæsarea-Massacre at Jerusalem-Outbreak of the rebellion-Eleazar and the zealots-Rise and death of Manahem - Massacre of Roman troops—And of Jews at Cæsarea, in Syria, and at Alexandria-Advance of Cestius Gallus-Siege of Jerusalem-Retreat and complete overthrow of Cestius–Vespasian takes the command-Preparations of the Jews — The moderate and zealot parties — The historian Josephus—John of Gischala-Capture of Jotapata, and surrender of Josephus-His character as an historian- Reflections on the resistance of the Jew3 Slaughter of the Samaritans-Devastation of Galilee, Peræa, and Idumea-Death of Nero-Condition of Jerusalem- The zealots and assas. sins—The Idumæan bandits-Fate of Antipas, Ananus, and Zacharias the son of Baruch-Titus sent against Jerusalem-Secession of the ChristiansThree factions in the city-Titus forms the siege-His narrow escapeVigour of the defence-Horrors of the Siege-Capture of Bezetha and Antonia-Burning of the Temple and destruction of Jerusalem-Final Jewish war under Hadrian-Building of Ælia Capitolina—The Christians under the Flavian emperors—The seven churches of Asia-St. John and the other apostles—Trajan : Letter of Pliny : Martyrdom of IgnatiusThe Christian Apologists—Persecution of Aurelius–Justin Martyr and Polycarp—Martyrs of Lyon and Vienne—Irenæus-Christianity at the death of Commodus

529-600

:

BOOK IX.

DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE AND OF PAGANISM. FROM THE DEATH OF COMMODUS TO THE FALL OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE.

A.D. 193 TO A.D. 476.

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CHAPTER XLI. The MILLENNIUM OF ROME. FROM THE DEATH OF COMMODUS TO THE SECULAR

GAMES OF PHILIP.-A.D. 193 TO A.D. 248. Accession and death of Pertinax— The Prætorians sell the empire to Didius Juli

anus, Proclamation of Clodius Albinus, Pescennius Niger, and Septimius Severus-Severus marches on Rome-Julianus deserted and slain-Clodius Albinus named Cæsar-Defeat and death of Niger and Albinus—Parthian expedition of Severus-His new prætorian guard, and relaxation of discipline - Death of Plautianus, Expedition to Caledonia ---Death of Severus-Caracalla and Geta — Their mutual hatred -Murder of Geta-Tyranny and murder of Caracalla Universal citizenship-Reign of Macrinus—The grandsons of Julia Mæsa-Accession and abominable tyranny of ElagabalusReign and virtues of Alexander Severus-His council of state - Military insolence-Murder of the jurist Ulpian-Career of the historian Dion CassiusArdshir, or Artaxerxes, overthrows the Parthian empire, and founds the Persian dynasty of the Sassanidæ—War between Rome and Persia-Alexander Severus on the Rhine-Origin and accession of Maximin-His brutal tyranny-The two Gordians proclaimed and killed in Africa—Maximus and Balbinus proclaimed at Rome-Deaths of Maximin, Maximus, and Balbinus – Reign of Gordian 111.-His Persian War and murder-Reign of Philip I. - Question of his Christianity- His Secular games-Retrospect of Rome's one thousand years—Her present condition, and approaching fall 603-618

CHAPTER XLII.
IRRUPTIONS OF THE BARBARIANS. From Decius TO DIOCLETIAN.–

A.D. 249 TO A.D. 284.
Reign of Decius-Misery of the Roman world-Persecution of the Christians-

Origin of the Goths— Their migration to South-eastern Europe, Ostro-
goths and Visigoths— Their connection with other tribes—They cross the
Danube-Gothic campaign and death of Decius--Gallus Trebonianus-
Æmilianus- Valerian and Gallienus-Origin of the FRANKS—They in-
vade Gaul, Spain, and Africa — The ALEMANNI invade Italy and are
defeated by Aurelian-Persian successes on the Euphrates- Valerian made
prisoner by Sapor--An imperial horse-block and stuffed skin-Sapor
sacks Antioch and Cæsarea- The Saracen kingdom of Palmyra-Oden-
athus defeats Sapor-Naval incursions of the Goths-They take Trebizond,
ravage Bithynia, sack Cyzicus, pass the Hellespont, and ravage Greece- Their
retreat-Burning of the temple of Ephesus-Conduct of the Goths at Athens
- The Thirty Tyrants-Odenathus and Zenobia in the East-Postumus and
Tetricus in the West- Macrianus and Aureolus - Death of Gallienus-
Public calamitiesClaudius II. Gothicus defeats the Alemanni and Goths
- Aurelian emperor-Defeats the Marcomanni and Alemanni-New walls
of Rome - Aurelian defeats Zenobia-Death of Longinus-Aurelian puts
down Tetricus in Gaul-His triumph and death Tacitus-Probus defeats
the barbarians—Carus, Carinus, and Numerianus—Sarmatian and Persian
Wars-Accession of Diocletian

619-646

CHAPTER XLIII. PERIOD OF REVIVAL. DIOCLETIAN AND HIS COLLEAGUES. A.D. 285 to A.D. 305. Epoch formed by Diocletian's accession—The revived empire becomes an Oriental

monarchy-Origin and character of Diocletian-His association of Maxi

PAGK

mian as his colleague–The two Augusti_Revolt of the peasants in Gaul, put down by Maximian-Usurpation of Cara istus in Britain-He defeats Maximian, and is acknowledged by Diocletian-Appointment of two Cæsars, Galerius and Constantius–Quadrup. division of the empire-I. Diocletian in the East-His court at Nico neuia-Its Oriental character-11. Italy and Africa under Maximian ---Degradation of Rome and the Senate-New Imperial guards—The capital fixed at Milan-III. Galerius in Illyricum-IV. Constantius in the West-He recovers Britain and defeats the Germans - Wars of Galerius and Maximian on the Danube and in Africa-Rebellion of Egypt under Achilleus, suppressed by Diocletian-His measures against alchemy - War with Narses, King of Persia-A glimpse of China : Prince Mamgo in Armenia-Defeat of Galerius-His second campaign and decisive victoryPeace granted to Narses-Extension of the empire-Triumph of the emperors -Great persecution of the Christians-Abdication of Diocletian and Maximian -Parallel of Diocletian and Charles V. .

647–668

CHAPTER XLIV. REUNION OF THE EMPIRE AND ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY. FROM CON

STANTINE TO JOVIAN.-A.D. 306 to A.D. 364. Constantius and Galerius become Augusti-Galerius makes Maximin and

Severus Cæsars in the East and Italy-Constantine the Great-His birth and early career -His flight from Nicomedia to Boulogne-Death of Constantius at York-Constantine proclaimed in Britain-His German victories and cruelties - Maxentius proclaimed at Rome-Maximian reassumes the purple-Defeat and death of Severus_Galerius enters Italy and retreats --He makes Licinius Augustus-Six Roman emperors at once-Maximian expelled from Italy : rebels in Gaul : is defeated and put to death by Constantine- Death of Galerius-War of Constantine against MaxentiusVictories of Turin and Saxa Rubra, near Rome, and death of MaxentiusConstantine at Rome-The Prætorians abolished, and Rome left defenceless-Close alliance of Constantine and Licinius-Defeat and death of Maximin-Tyranny of Licinius in the East—EDICT OF MILAN—Review of the Diocletian persecution - In the West : martyrs of Spain and Britain : St. Alban-In Italy and Africa : the persecution stopped by MaximianIn the East : severe persecution : Galerius, dying, issues an edict of toleration-Conduct of Maximin-Conversion of Constantine-Story of his vision of the Cross-Question of his Christianity–He proclaims universal toleration-First war with Licinius-Crispus, Constantine II., and Licinius II. made Cæsars—Victories of Crispus and Constantine on the Rhine and Danube--Final war with Licinius–Battle of Hadrianople-Naval victory of Crispus—Battle of Chrysopolis–Submission and death of Licinius—Choice of Byzantium for a new capital - The Council of Nicæa : Arian controversy - Family of Constantine-Deaths of Crispus, the younger Licinius, and Fausta— Dedication of Constantinople-Organization of the empire--Gothic and Sarmatian war-Death of Constantine-Constantinus II., Constantius II., and Constans-Persian war-Death of Constantine II.- Wars of Constans in the West—His death-Usurpation and defeat of Magnentius-Athanasius and the Arians – Rise of Julian : his wars with the Germans : and proclamation at Paris - Persian war-Death of Constantius - Julian the Apostate-His acts in favour of the Pagans–His Persian expedition and death-Reign and death of Jovian-Election of Valentinian .

669-718

CHAPTER XLV. THE DIVISION OF THE EAST AND WEST : AND THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

A.D. 364 to A.D. 476. Partition of the empire between Valentinian I. and Valens-Campaigns of

Valentinian in the West-He is succeeded by Gratian and Valentinian I]. - Valens in the East, puts down Procopius-His tyranny and Arian fanaticism - The Goths, expelled by the Huns, are received into Mæsia—Their rebellion, and victory over Valens at Hadrianople—Theodosius 1. the Great, emperor of the East - Peace with the Goths—Ulphilas-Revolt of Maximus in Britain-Death of Gratian-Fall of Maximus-Theodosius at Milan

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Massacre of Thessalonica-Ambrose, bishop of Milan-Penance of Theodosius-Suppression of Pagan worship-Murder of Valentinian II. by Arbogastes, who proclaims Eugenius—Their defeat and death—Theodosius sole emperor-His death at Milan-Final division of the empire between Arcadius in the East, and Honorius in the West-Rufinus and StilichoRise and fall of Rufinus, Eutropius, and Gainas-The Empress Eudoxia - Death of Arcadius— Theodosius 11.- The Eastern Empire-Alaric devastates Greece, and invades Italy— The court removed from Milan to Ravenna -Stilicho defeats the Goths-Honorius at Rome-Gladiatorial shows abolished-Great Slavonian invasion under Radagaisus—His defeat by Stilicho and passage of the barbarians into Gaul-Settlement of the BURGUNDIANS—The VANDALS, Alans, and Sueves in Spain-Constantine revolts in Britain: is acknowledged as emperor of the West, and overthrown, with his rival Gerontius, by Constantius-Death of Stilicho-Siege and sack of Rome by the Goths— Elevation and fall of Attalus-Death of AlaricThe Goths conquer Spain-Kingdom of the Visigoths — Final loss of Britain-Death of Honorius—The usurper John put down by TheodosiusValentinian III. emperor of the West—The empress-mother PlacidiaRivalry of Aëtius and Boniface-Revolt of Boniface, who invites Genseric to Africa - Death of Augustin, Bishop of Hippo-Vandal kingdom of Africa-Appearance of the Huns—The Scyth races in Europe and Asia—The Huns of the Turkish race-Attila, king of the Huns—Extent of his dominions: exaggerations of his power-His invasion of the EastHis character_Treaty with the Eastern empire-Death of Theodosius II, - Marcian–The Franks in Gaul-Rise of the Merovingians-Attila invades Gaul-Siege of Orleans and decisive battle of Châlons-Deaths of Theodoric I., Attila, and Aëtius-Supremacy of the German race Death of Valentinian III. - Maximus and Avitus-Power of Count Ricimer-Leo 1.Majorian, Severus, Anthemius, and Olybrius-Death of Ricimer-Glycerius and Julius Nepos-- Romulus Augustulus deposed by Odoacer-END OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE

719–746

MAPS, PLANS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

.

JERUSALEM,
ACTIUM
THE ROMAN EMPIRE .
The CLAUDIAN AQUEDUCT
TRAJAN'S BRIDGE OVER THE DANUBE
TRAJAN'S COLUMN AT ROME
CONSTANTINOPLE

Frontispiece.
Page 293

3)

305 400 493 494 699

BOOK VII.

THE CIVIL WARS OF ROME;

OR,

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN

REPUBLIC.

FROM THE TRIUMVIRATE OF TIBERIUS GRACCHUS TO THE

BATTLE OF ACTIUM. B.C. 133–30.

VOL. III.

B

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