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TO THE READER.
WITHIN the space of two years from the announcement of the plan of the “History of the World,” the Author has been permitted, by the help which he desires devoutly to acknowledge, to complete the First Division of the work. In a design of such magnitude, experience must of necessity have a large place; and the redemption of the two-fold pledge,—to avoid the dry baldness
epitome, and to give to each nation of the Ancient World a space proportioned to its importance,--has increased this section to Three Volumes. Within that moderate compass the Reader has now offered to him, for the first time in English Literature, a complete ANCIENT HISTORY, from the Creation of the World to the Fall of the Western Empire, treated as a continuous narrative and with unity of purpose. Besides its place in the whole scheme of the History of the World, this division may be regarded as forming a complete and independent work, which may occupy the place once filled by the Ancient History of Rollin. That work, however deservedly popular in its time, not only regarded the despotisms of the Ancient World from a point of view inconsistent with those doctrines of well-regulated freedom which Englishmen of all parties cherish for themselves and desire to teach their children, but it omitted the important sections of Sacred History and Roman History, which are included in this work. Of the progress made, since the time of Rollin, in the researches on which the value of any historical work must mainly depend, it is superfluous to speak: of the use made of such researches in the present work, the reader may judge in part by the authorities quoted or referred to, though the author has carefully refrained from a parade of learned references.
The execution of such a work has, like the History of the World itself, epochs, at which a pause may be made to review the past and to survey the future ; and the accomplishment of the History of the Ancient World seems a fit breathing-place both for the author and his readers. The publication in Parts has not been attended with sufficient advantages to compensate for its obvious drawbacks. This form of publication will therefore be discontinued. Meanwhile the present work is offered as supplying the want so long felt, of a complete Ancient History. In like manner the second and third divisions are intended to form complete Medieval and Modern Histories ; each History being an independent work, without detriment to the unity of the whole.
In gratefully acknowledging the efforts of the Publishers to give every possible effect to the design of the work, the Author would refer especially to the important aid derived from the Maps and Plans which have been added, without any increase of price.
August 10th, 1865.
BOOK VII. THE CIVIL WARS OF ROME ; OR, THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE
ROMAN REPUBLIC. FROM THE TRIUNVIRATE OF TiberiuS GRACCHUS TO THE BATTLE OF Actium.
B.O. 133 TO B.C. 111.
Marriages of Tiberius and Caius — Í'iberius in Spain--His view of the state of Italy-He is elected Tribune--His Agrarian law-Its real character and objectIts defects of principle—Growth of the abuses in the possession of public land- Their effects on Italy-Remedy proposed by Gracchus-Ditticulties from both parties - Objection to the forın of the proposal — Opposition of Octavius-He is deposed from the Tribunate-Passage of the law–Beginning of revolution New proposals of Tiberius-He is attacked by the nobles -His defence in the Senate-He is charged with aiming at the crownAttempt to re-elect Gracchus – Tumult on the Capitol — The Senate, Scævola, and Scipio Nasica-Death of Tiberius Gracchus – Beginning of the Civil War's
Persecution of the Sempronian party-Banishment of Nasica Scipio Æmilianus and the moderate party - Censorship of Metellus – The new Triumvirs--Execution of the law. - Its practical' failure--Complaints of the Italians - Scipio suspends the
distribution-Alien law of Junius Pennus, and failure of the proposal to enfranchise the Italians—Revolt and destruction of Frrgellæ--Calus Gracchus devotes himself to follow his brother - His quæstorship in Sardinia and return to Rome-His election to the tribunate -- His eloquence and character-Banishment of Popillius— The Sempronian lawsThe corn-law and its effects — Military burthens lessened-Remodelling of
jury-lists—The Equestrian order— The provinces and their revenuesRe-election of C. Gracchus-His plans of colonization and enfranchisement -The tribune Drasus outbids Caius-Absence of Caius in Africa - His declining influence-Consulship of Opimius-Deaths of Gracchus and his par. tisans-Heroism of Cornelia-Aristocratic re-action-Trials of Papirius and Carbo-C. Marius tribune-The province of Gaul-Settlement of the Agrarian question—Human sacrifices at Rome
. 1-43 CHAPTER XXXII.
RULE OF THE RESTORED OLIGARCHY. THE WARS WITH JUGURTHA AND THE CIMBRI -- B.C. 121 to B.C. 100, How the nobles used their victory-Optimates and Populares—The conflict
tending to despotism-Government of the restored Optimates— The Metelli -Dalmatian and other wars-Cato and the Scordisci–The Cimbri and Teutones - Affairs of Numidia - Origin and character of Jugurtha-He serves at Numantia-Deathbed of king Micipsa — Murder of Hiempsal – Roman commissioners bribed by Jugurtha-Capture of Cirta and death of Adherbal—The Jugurthine War-Corruption of Bestia and Scaurus—The tribune Memmius-Jugurtha at Rome-Murder of Massiva-Spurius Albinus