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ship of Pompey and Crassus- -Reversal of Sulla's acts - Restoration of the

tribuneship and reform of the jury lists-Rise of Caius Julius Cæsar-His

Tesistance to Sulla–He serves in Asia-Prosecution of Dolabella–Cæsar

again leaves Rome-Adventure with the Pirates-He studies rhetoric at

Khodes-Supports Pompey-Restores the images of Marius-Rise of Marcus

Tullius Cicero-His family and education—His one campaign-Speeches for

Quintius and Roscius-He withdraws to Athens-His friendship with Atticus

-He studies in Asia and at Rhodes-Returns to Rome and devotes hijnself

to pleading causes-His quæstorship in Sicily-Prosecution of Verres-

Rivalry with Hortensius and triumph of Cicero-Dedication of the Capitol

– The Equestrian order— The war with the Pirates—Command conferred on

Pompey by the Gabinian law-His brilliant success-Second Mithridatic

War, and restoration of peace—Vast preparations of Mithridates-- The

death of Nicomedes III. brings on the third Mithridatic war-Mith-

ridates defeats Cotta and besieges Cyzicus, Lucullus raises the siege,

and defeats Mithridates in Pontus-Mithridates flies to Armenia--History

of the country – The kingdom of Tigranes-Lucullus settles the affairs

of Asia-He defeats Tigranes, takes Tigranocerta, and besieges Nisibis

-Irruption of Mithridates into Pontus-Roman disasters--Mutiny in the

army of LucullusGlabrio sent to supersede him-Pompey made general-

issimo in the East-Cicero prætor–His speech for the Manilian law— Retire-

ment of Lucullus-Pompey advances into Pontus-Flight of Mithridates to

Bosporus-- Pompey_in Armenia - Submission of Tigranes-Pompey in the

Caucasian lands---He marches into Syria-Death of Mithridates - Review

of Syrian history-Syria made a Roman province, The kingdoms of Com-

magene and Edessa – Damascus and Arabia-Phoenicia and Cele-Syria-

Palestine-REVIEW OF JEWISH HISTORY-Religious and moral state of the

restored people—Hostility of the Samaritans—Their origin -Schismatic

temple on Mount Gerizim-Hatred of the Jews and Samaritans-Bloodshed

in the Jewish temple-Jaddua and Alexander the Great-Judæa under the

Ptolemies-Simon the Just and Eleazar- The Septuagint version-Onias II.

and Joseph the son of Tobias-Ptolemy Philopator at Jerusalem-Hyrcanus

the son of. Joseph-Palestine under Antiochus the Great-Story of Heliodorus

-Reign of Antiochus Epiphanes-Hellenism in Judæa–Jason and Mene-

laus--Murder of Onias III.-Sack of Jerusalem by Antiochus- Massacre by

Apollonius-Great persecution under Athenæus–Martyrdom of Eleazar

Revolt of Mattathias-Judas Maccabæus-His victories, dedication of the

temple, treaty with Rome, and death-Jonathan Apphus secures peace-

His murder by Tryphon— Prosperous government of Simon Thassi-His

murder-John "Hyrcanus I.-Independence and extension of Judæa-De-

struction of the temple on Gerizim and of Samaria-Quarrel with the Phari-

sees, Reign of Aristobulus I.-Alexander Jannæus-Warwith Ptolemy Lathy-

rus, Rebellion of the Pharisees – Their ascendancy under Alexandra-Aris-

tobulus II. and Hyrcanus II.-Rise of Antipater-Civil War-Interference

of the Romans-Pompey takes Jerusalem and profanes the temple--Its sub-

sequent plunder by Crassus-Hyrcanus II. and Antipater-Escape and

rebellions of Aristobulus and his sons-Deaths of Aristobulus and Alexander

-Cæsar restores Hyrcanus, with Antipater as procurator-Rise of Herod —

Murder of Antipater – Hyrcanus in the hands of Herod–The Parthians

restore Antigonus-Herod at Rome–Returns as king of Judæa--Capture of

Jerusalem-End of the Asmonæan dynasty-Accession of Herod the Great-

Deaths of Antigonus, Aristobulus, and Hyrcanus-Events at Rome during

Pompey's absence-Consulship of Cicero and conspiracy of Catiline-Pompey

returns to Rome–His political attitude and his triumph-State of parties —

Trial of Clodius–Opposition of the Senate to Pompey-Cæsar in Spain--

His return to Rome-The first triumvirate

126-201

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TO THE READER.

WITHIN the space of two years from the announcement of the plan of the “History of the World,” the Author has been permitted, by the help which he desires devoutly to acknowledge, to complete the First Division of the work. In a design of such magnitude, experience must of necessity have a large place; and the redemption of the two-fold pledge,—to avoid the dry baldness

epitome, and to give to each nation of the Ancient World a space proportioned to its importance,--has increased this section to Three Volumes. Within that moderate compass the Reader has now offered to him, for the first time in English Literature, a complete ANCIENT HISTORY, from the Creation of the World to the Fall of the Western Empire, treated as a continuous narrative and with unity of purpose. Besides its place in the whole scheme of the History of the World, this division may be regarded as forming a complete and independent work, which may occupy the place once filled by the Ancient History of Rollin. That work, however deservedly popular in its time, not only regarded the despotisms of the Ancient World from a point of view inconsistent with those doctrines of well-regulated freedom which Englishmen of all parties cherish for themselves and desire to teach their children, but it omitted the important sections of Sacred History and Roman History, which are included in this work. Of the progress made, since the time of Rollin, in the researches on which the value of any historical work must mainly depend, it is superfluous to speak: of the use made of such researches in the present work, the reader may judge in part by the authorities quoted or referred to, though the author has carefully refrained from a parade of learned references.

The execution of such a work has, like the History of the World itself, epochs, at which a pause may be made to review the past and to survey the future ; and the accomplishment of the History of the Ancient World seems a fit breathing-place both for the author and his readers. The publication in Parts has not been attended with sufficient advantages to compensate for its obvious drawbacks. This form of publication will therefore be discontinued. Meanwhile the present work is offered as supplying the want so long felt, of a complete Ancient History. In like manner the second and third divisions are intended to form complete Medieval and Modern Histories ; each History being an independent work, without detriment to the unity of the whole.

In gratefully acknowledging the efforts of the Publishers to give every possible effect to the design of the work, the Author would refer especially to the important aid derived from the Maps and Plans which have been added, without any increase of price.

P. S.

August 10th, 1865.

CONTENTS.

BOOK VII. THE CIVIL WARS OF ROME ; OR, THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE

ROMAN REPUBLIC. FROM THE TRIUNVIRATE OF TiberiuS GRACCHUS TO THE BATTLE OF Actium.

B.c. 133–30.

PAOE

CHAPTER XXXI.
THE BEGINNING OF CIVIL WAR AT ROME-TIBERIUS AND CAIUS GRACCHUS,

B.O. 133 TO B.C. 111.
Revolution impending at Rome- Family of the Gracchi-Cornelia and her sons-

Marriages of Tiberius and Caius — Í'iberius in Spain--His view of the state of Italy-He is elected Tribune--His Agrarian law-Its real character and objectIts defects of principle—Growth of the abuses in the possession of public land- Their effects on Italy-Remedy proposed by Gracchus-Ditticulties from both parties - Objection to the forın of the proposal — Opposition of Octavius-He is deposed from the Tribunate-Passage of the law–Beginning of revolution New proposals of Tiberius-He is attacked by the nobles -His defence in the Senate-He is charged with aiming at the crownAttempt to re-elect Gracchus – Tumult on the Capitol — The Senate, Scævola, and Scipio Nasica-Death of Tiberius Gracchus – Beginning of the Civil War's

Persecution of the Sempronian party-Banishment of Nasica Scipio Æmilianus and the moderate party - Censorship of Metellus – The new Triumvirs--Execution of the law. - Its practical' failure--Complaints of the Italians - Scipio suspends the

distribution-Alien law of Junius Pennus, and failure of the proposal to enfranchise the Italians—Revolt and destruction of Frrgellæ--Calus Gracchus devotes himself to follow his brother - His quæstorship in Sardinia and return to Rome-His election to the tribunate -- His eloquence and character-Banishment of Popillius— The Sempronian lawsThe corn-law and its effects — Military burthens lessened-Remodelling of

jury-lists—The Equestrian order— The provinces and their revenuesRe-election of C. Gracchus-His plans of colonization and enfranchisement -The tribune Drasus outbids Caius-Absence of Caius in Africa - His declining influence-Consulship of Opimius-Deaths of Gracchus and his par. tisans-Heroism of Cornelia-Aristocratic re-action-Trials of Papirius and Carbo-C. Marius tribune-The province of Gaul-Settlement of the Agrarian question—Human sacrifices at Rome

. 1-43 CHAPTER XXXII.

RULE OF THE RESTORED OLIGARCHY. THE WARS WITH JUGURTHA AND THE CIMBRI -- B.C. 121 to B.C. 100, How the nobles used their victory-Optimates and Populares—The conflict

tending to despotism-Government of the restored Optimates— The Metelli -Dalmatian and other wars-Cato and the Scordisci–The Cimbri and Teutones - Affairs of Numidia - Origin and character of Jugurtha-He serves at Numantia-Deathbed of king Micipsa — Murder of Hiempsal – Roman commissioners bribed by Jugurtha-Capture of Cirta and death of Adherbal—The Jugurthine War-Corruption of Bestia and Scaurus—The tribune Memmius-Jugurtha at Rome-Murder of Massiva-Spurius Albinus

the

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