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in Africa-Capitulation of A. Albinus—Indignation at Rome-Prosecutions of the Optimates-Metellus sent to Afriea, with Marius as legate-Overtures of Jugurtha- Battle of the river Muthul-Successes of Metellus-He is repulsed from Zama--Conspiracy of Bomilcar-Rise of Caius Marius-His marriage with Julia— The soothsayer at Utica-Marius aspires to the consulship-Scorn of Metellus- Election of Marius-Metellus takes ThalaBocchus and Jugurtha-Negotiations with Metellus-Marius arrives in Africa -His first campaign-Taking of Capsa-Expedition to the Molochath- The last battle of Jugurtha--Treachery of king Bocchus-Mission of Sulla and capture of Jugurtha—Triumph of Marius-His jealousy of Sulla--The coming conflict-The Cimbri and Teutones-Defeats of Carbo, Silanus, Longinus, and of Mallius and Cæpio-Successive consulships of Marius-His victory over the Teutones at Aix-Victory over the Cimbri-Condition of Rome and Italy-Insurrections of slaves-Sufferings of the provinces-Piracy-Second Servile War in Sicily-Sixth consulship of Marius-Births of Cicero, Pompey, and Cæsar.
CHAPTER XXXIII. FIRST PERIOD OF CIVIL WARS.- MARIUS AND SULLA--B.C. 100 TO B.C. 78. Marius is honoured as a second Camillus-His defeets-He creates a standing
army-His league with Glaucia and Saturninus-- The Appuleian laws,Banishment of Metellus-Sedition and death of Saturninus—Triumph of the Optimates—Retirement of Marius-Foreign affairs : Spain and Cyrene--Lex Cæcilia-Judicial abuses by the Equites—Q. Scævola in Asia-Condemnation of Rutilius Rufus- Prosecution of Scaurus–Tribunate of M. Livius Drusus -His measures of reform-Their passage and repeal— Assassination of Drusus-Revolt of the Allies The Social or Marsic War-The Italian confederation, and its new capital - The States faithful to Rome–The two scenes of the war-Successes of the insurgents in Campania-L. Julius Cæsar -Defeat and death of Rutilius Lupus-Successes of Marius, Sulla, and Pompeius Strabo- The Romans grant the citizenship to the Allies - The Lex Julia and Lex Plautia Papiria- The franchise in Cisalpine Gaul--Second year of the war-Successes of Pompeius Strabo and Sulla-Resistance of the Sam. nites-War with Mithridates—Consulship of Sulla— Jealousy of Marius-Tribunate and laws of Sulpicius Rufus-Marius appointed to the command against Mithridates-Sulla marches upon Rome-Flight and adventures of Marius-Proceedings of Sulla-Cinna elected consul-Sulla departs for Asia -Attempt at a counter-revolution-Cinna driven out of Rome, He collects an army- Return of Marius to Italy-Siege and capitulation of RomeMassacre of the Optimates-Seventh consulship of Marius—The first Mithridatic War-Character of Mithridates VI. - Affairs of Cappadocia and Bithynia-Invasion of Asia, and massacre of the Italians- Insurrection of Greece—Sulla lands in Epirus, takes Athens, and defeats ArchelausPeace with Mithridates, The Civil War extends to Asia-Deaths of Flaccus and Fimbria-Sulla returns to Italy--Government and death of Cinna-Preparations for war-Sulla defeats Norbanus—Is joined by Pompey and other leaders of the Optimates-Marius the younger and Papirius Carbo--Defeat of Marius-Massacre at Rome-Sulla defeats the Samnites before the Colline Gate-Death of Marius-Autocracy of Sulla—The first great proscriptionTriumph-Dictatorship, and legislation of Sulla–His retirement, death, and funeral
CHAPTER XXXIV. THE AGE OF POMPEY, CÆSAR, AND CICERO— FROM THE DEATH OF SULLA TO THE
First TRIUMVIRATE.-B.C. 78 TO B.C. 60. Instability of the Sullan restoration—The opposition party-Its want of leaders
Revolutionary attempt of the consul Lepidus-His defeat and deathQuintus Sertorius holds out in Spain-Metellus Pius opposed to himPompey associated with Metellus- İlis defeats, Decline of the influence of Sertorius-His murder by Perperna-Defeat and execution of PerpernaOutbreak of Spartacus and the Gladiators-They overrun Italy-Crassus defeats and kills Spartacus-- Pompey claims a share in the victory-Consul
ship of Pompey and Crassus-Reversal of Sulla's acts – Restoration of the
-Reign of Aristobulus I.-Alexander Jannæus-War with Ptolemy Lathyrus-Rebellion of the Pharisees — Their ascendancy under Alexandra-Aristobulas II. and Hyrcanus II.— Rise of Antipater-Civil War-Interference of the Romans – Pompey takes Jerusalem and profanes the temple-Its subsequent plunder by Crassus-Hyrcanus II. and Antipater-Escape and rebellions of Aristobulus and his sons-Deaths of Aristobulus and Alexander Murder of Antipater-Hyrcanus in the hands of Herod-The Parthians restore Antigonus-Herod at Rome-Returns as king of Judæa-Capture of Jerusalem-End of the Asmonæan dynasty-Accession of Herod the GreatDeaths of Antigonus, Aristobulus, and Hyrcanus–Events at Rome during Pompey's absence-Consulship of Cicero and conspiracy of Catiline-Pompey returns to Rome His political attitude and his triumph-State of parties Trial of Clodius-Opposition of the Senate to Pompey-Cæsar in Spain His return to Rome-The first triumvirate
SULSHIP TO THE DEATH OF CÆSAR.-B.C. 59 to B.C. 44.
character-First Consulship of Cæsar—Measures of the Triumvirs – Procon
sulate of Cæsar - Position of Cicero-Clodius elected Tribune-Cicero's banishment and recal-Clodius quarrels with Pompey-Riots of Milo and Clodius-Meeting of the Triumvirs at Lucca-Partition of the Provinces -Second Consulship of Pompey and Crassus-Dedication of Pompey's Theatre-Pompey remains at Rome-Crassus departs for Syria—Omens of disaster-He crosses the Euphrates and retires - Embassy from the Parthians—Crassus enters Mesopotamia— Tactics of the Parthians—The battle of Charræ--Death of the younger Crassus-Retreat to Charræ- Death of Crassus-Sequel of the Parthian war- -Anarchy at Rome-Murder of Clodins-Pompey sole Consul - Trial of Milo : Speech of Cicero-Pompey joins the Optimates, and aims to strengthen himself against CæsarProrogation of his command-Cæsar's Gallic War-First Campaign : The Helvetii and Germans-Second campaign : the Belgic tribes—Third campaign : the Armoric nations-Fourth campaign : Cæsar crosses the Rhine, and invades Britain-Fifth campaign : second invasion of Britain : attacks on the winter quarters of the Romans-Sixth campaign : second passage of the Rhine-Seventh campaign : revolt of Gaul under Vercingetorix : Siege and capture of Alesia- Eighth campaign : complete subjection of Gaul-Cæsar in Cisalpine Gaul-- Cicero's proconsulate in Cilicia- Measures of the Senate against Cæsar-He is declared a public enemy-Antony and Cassius fly to Cæsar's camp-Cæsar crosses the Rubicon - The great Civil War begins-Flight of the Pompeians to Brundisium and Greece Cæsar master of Italy—War in Spain : Defeat of Afranius and PetreiusCapture of Massilia-Cæsar dictator for eleven days—Cæsar in Greece: battle of Pharsalia-Flight of Pompey to Egypt-His death-Cæsar in Egypt-Cleopatra—The Alexandrine war-Cæsar in Pontus : Veni, vidi, Vici-His return to Rome-Pardon of Cicero-African war : battle of Thapsus : siege of Utica : death of Cato—Triumph of Cæsar – Reformation of the Calendar-Insurrection in Spain-Cæsar defeats the Pompeians at Munda--His return to Rome as master of the empire-Dictatorship for life, and other honours - His gigantic projects – The Conspiracy against his life-Character of Brutus—The Ides of March-Character of Cæsar-His admirers and imitators.
202-260 CHAPTER XXXVI. THE LAST CIVIL WAR: AND THE FOUNDATION OF THE EMPIRE.- FROM THE
DEATH OF CÆSAR TO THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM-B.C. 44 to B.C. 31. Sequel of Cæsar's death-The conspirators and the people—The corpse of
Cæsar—Proceedings of Antony-Decision of the Senate-Hollow reconciliation-Cæsar's acts are confirmed and the provinces allotted - Cæsar's testament-Funeral oration of Mark Antony-Fury of the people-Government of Antony-His use of Cæsar's papers – Octavius at Apollonia-His decision on hearing of Cæsar's death-M. Vipsanius Agrippa-Octavius returns to Italy-Claims his inheritance as C. Julius Cæsar OctavianusHis interview with Cicero-He arrives at Roine-Omens of his greatness
- He courts the Senate and people--His interview with Antony-Octavian discharges Cæsar's bequests-His popularity-Apotheosis of Julius -The Provinces Cicero's Philippics' - Antony leaves Rome–War of Mutina-Defeat of Antony, Octavian breaks with the Senate, returns to Rome, and becomes Consul-His coalition with Antony and LepidusSecond Triumvirate-Proscription -Murder of Cicero-Successes of Sextus Pompeius—The Republicans in the East - Battles of Philippi-Deaths of Brutus and Cassius-Partition of the Provinces-Antony and CleopatraConfusion in Italy-War of Perusia—The Parthians in Syria-Antony and Sextus before Brundisium - Reconciliation of the Triumvirs – Peace with Sextus Pompey at Misenum- Ventidius defeats the Parthians, New war with Sextus, and defeat of Octavian-Second reconciliation of Octavian and Antony-Treaty of Tarentum-Agrippa's victory over Sextus Pompey—Deposition of Lepidus-Death of Sextus-- Extinction of the Senatorial party -- Honours heaped upon Octavian--Agrippa and Mæcenas -Antony and Cleopatra in the East- Antony's defeat in Parthia-His Armenian campaign and triumph at Alexandria-Roman provinces given to Cleopatra- The Egyptian Court-Octavian's successful wars in the Alps-His growing popularity-Final breach with Antony-War declared
against Egypt-Battle of Actium— Flight of Cleopatra and Antony -Octavian lands in Egypt-Deaths of Antony, Cleopatra, and Cæsarion -Egypt made a Roman province - Return and triumph of OctavianEpoch of the empire
THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN ITS GREATNESS ; OR, THE CÆSARS AND THE
B.C. 29 to A.D. 14.
Census of the empire—The dignity of Princeps-He accepts the Imperium for ten years—The provinces of Cæsar, and of the Senate and people-The title of Augustus- The name of Cæsar-Augustus goes to Spain–His dangerous illnesses-Question of a successor-He receives the perpetual tribunitian and consular powers-His legislative and judicial functions—The Emperor not above the laws-The popular assemblies State of the Roman people - The Senate and the Equites—The Imperial consuls, prætors, ædiles, and quæstors—The prefect of the city-Government of the provinces-Military organization—The Prætorian cohorts and Urban guards—The Legions-The teet-Finances of the empire-Summary of the Imperial system- The family of Augustus-Livia and her stepsons-Octavia and Marcellus – Death of Marcellus–Marriage of Julia to Agrippa--Caius and Lucius Cæsar, and Agrippa Postumus— Descendants of Octavia and Antony--Genealogy of the Six Cæsars"-Augustus in the East-- The standards of Crassus recovered—The great Secular gamesAgrippa goes to the East-Augustus in Gaul-Description of the Danubian regions, Vindelicia and Rhætia conquered by Tiberius and Drusus-Consulship of Tiberius-Augustus Pontifex Maximus-Death of Agrippa – Marriage of Tiberius to Julia-Drusus in Gaul-Account of the Germans and their land—The four campaigns of Drusus in Germany–His death and funeral–Conquest of Mesia— Tiberius in Germany–His retirement to Rhodes- Banishment of Julia-Advancement and deaths of Caius and Lucius Cæsar-Adoption of Tiberius-His campaigns in Germany and Illyricum-Intrigues against Augustus— Exile of Ovid—Catastrophe of Varus—Tiberius and Germanicus in Germany-Last days and death of Augustus
305-357 CHAPTER XXXVIII. THE DEGENERACY OF THE CÆSARS; AND THE FLAVIAN DYNASTY.
A.D. 14 to A.D. 96. Tacitus and the history of the Cæsars-Accession, character, and first acts of
Tiberius-Oath of allegiance taken by the Senate-Testament, funeral and apotheosis of Augustus-Scene between Tiberius and the Senate-Asinius Gallus-Election of inagistrates transferred from the Comitia to the Senate -Mutinies of the legions in Pannonia and on the Rhine---Noble conduct of Germanicus-His campaigns in Germany-Burial of the remains of the legions of Varus-Retreat of Cæcina and Germanicus-Arminius and his brother-Victory of the Romans-Their final retreat beyond the Rhine -Recal of Germanicus–Drusus in Illyricum-War between the Cherusci and Marcomanni, Fate of Maroboduus and Arminius-Arminius worshipped as a hero-Germanicus in the East-Intrigues of Piso and Plancina–Death of Germanicus-Trial and death of Piso— Tacfarinas in Africa, and other wars-Government of Tiberius-Law of treason, informers and executions - Various internal measures-Earlier promise of Tiberins—Marked change in his character Rise and influence of Sejanus — Drusus designated
as heir, and murdered by Sejanus — The Prætorian camp formed at Rome-New victims of the informers—Tiberius quarrels with Agrippina - Withdraws to Capree-His occupations and alleged orgies — Death of Livia — Condemnation of Agrippina and her sons–Elevation and fall of Sejanus—Starvation of Drusus and Agrippina-Death of Tiberius -Accession of Caius Cæsar (Caligula)—His tyranny, madness, and death -Reign of Claudius-Mauretania and Britain-Seneca—Reign of Nero-His character, tyranny and death-The Jewish war-Galba, Otho, and Vitellius–Victory of Vespasian- The Flavian dynasty-Capture of Jerusalem -Civilis and the Batavians-Affairs of the East-Reign of TitusEruption of Vesuvius — Fire at Rome - The Colosseum-Reign and tyranny of Domitian-Dacian and Sarmatian wars-Campaigns of Agricola in Britain-Persecution of the Christians-Death of Domitian
A.D. 96 TO A.D. 192.
Union of monarchy and liberty-Accession of Nerva–His character and origin-Clemency and government of Nerva-Discontent of the Prætorians -Nerva adopts Trajan–His death-Accession of Trajan–His extraction and character-His settlement of the German frontier-His entry into Rome–His magnanimity and firmness—Title of "Optimus"-First Dacian war, and submission of Decebalus-Second Dacian war– Trajan's bridge over the Danube-Death of Decebalus and conquest of Dacia- The forum and column of Trajan-Dacia a Roman province-Conquests in ArabiaGovernment of Trajan-Dignity and freedom of the Senate-Condition of the people—Trajan's economy and magnificence-Natural disasters at Rome-Parthian aggressions in Armenia – Trajan goes to the East-Earthquake at Antioch-Conquest of Armenia and Assyria-Capture of Ctesiphon – Trajan on the Persian gulf-His retreat to Antioch, and death in Cilicia- Epoch from which the empire began to recede - Accession and origin of Hadrian-His education and early career--His alleged adoption by Trajan-His system of policy—The conquests of Trajan abandonedHadrian's return to Rome-Dangers of the frontiers-Hadrian in Mesia -His first progress : Gaul: the Rhine : Britain : the “Vallum Romanum": Mauretania : Asia : Athens : Sicily : Rome : Carthage--Hadrian's second progress-His residence at Athens, and buildings there-Hadrian at Alexandria and Antioch-His works at Rome-The “Edictum Perpetuum — Adoption and death of Ceionius Commodus Verus-Aurelius Antoninus is adopted by Hadrian, and himself adopts M. Annius Verus and L. Aurelius Verus-Death and character of Hadrian-Great merits of his government-Accession of Antoninus Pius-His origin and family-Association of M. Aurelius in the empire-Character of the two Antonines—The basis of their power was not despotic-State of the frontiers—The “Vallum Antonini” in Britain-Excesses of Faustina-Happy life and death of Antoninus-Accession of Marcus Aurelius, the Philosopher- His “Meditations”-His association of Lucius Verus in the empire—The Parthian war - Victories of Avidius Cassius-Government of Aurelius-The barbarians on the Danube-Pestilence brought from the East-The Emperors at Aquileia-Death of Verus-War upon the Danube, Victory over the Quadi—The Thundering Legion-Vices of Commodus and Faustina-Rebellion and death of Avidius Cassius-Aurelius at Antioch, Alexandria, and Athens-His triumph shared with Commodus—Persecution of the Christians-New war upon the Danube Death of Aurelius - Accession of Commodus-He purchases peace from the barbarians-Plot of Lucilla against his life-Rage of Commodus against the Senate - State of the provinces and frontiers-Revolt of Maternus- The ministers Perennis and Cleander – Profligacy of Commodus-His performances in the amphitheatre -His assumption of divinity-His monstrous arrogance-Death of Commodus-Epoch of the decisive decline of the Empire - Roman and Greek literature in the second century