Understanding Trauma: Integrating Biological, Clinical, and Cultural Perspectives
Laurence J. Kirmayer, Robert Lemelson, Mark Barad
Cambridge University Press, Jan 15, 2007 - Psychology
This book analyzes the individual and collective experience of and response to trauma from a wide range of perspectives including basic neuroscience, clinical science, and cultural anthropology. Each perspective presents critical and creative challenges to the other. The first section reviews the effects of early life stress on the development of neural systems and vulnerability to persistent effects of trauma. The second section of the book reviews a wide range of clinical approaches to the treatment of the effects of trauma. The final section of the book presents cultural analyses of personal, social, and political responses to massive trauma and genocidal events in a variety of societies. This work goes well beyond the neurobiological models of conditioned fear and clinical syndrome of post-traumatic stress disorder to examine how massive traumatic events affect the whole fabric of a society, calling forth collective responses of resilience and moral transformation.
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Events become traumatic through both fearandhorror This may explain
figure 72 The effect of genetics and stressors during different
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activation adaptive adult American Journal amygdala animals anxiety disorders associated Bali Balinese behavior Biological Psychiatry Bouton brain Bremner Cambodian childhood chronic clinical clinicians cognitive comorbid conditioned fear context cortisol cues cultural declarative memory depression diagnosis effects emotional Ethiopian Jews factors Fanselow fear conditioning function GABAA receptor hippocampal Holocaust HPA axis human increased individual Indonesia inhibition Israel Israeli Journal of Neuroscience Journal of Psychiatry journey Khmer Rouge LeDoux LG-ABN mothers locus coeruleus maternal Meaney mediated memory mental health mPFC myth narrative neurons NMDA receptor one’s pain person political posttraumatic stress disorder psychological PTSD PTSD patients PTSD symptoms rats refugees responses to stress role sexual abuse Shalev Silove social society somatic Southwick stimuli story stress response stressors suffering survivors syndrome threat tion trauma traumatic events traumatic stress treatment University Press veterans victims violence Wilkomirski Yehuda yohimbine York