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am a great lover of mankind, I took part in the happiness of that people who were to be governed by one of so great humanity, justice, and honour. Eboracenfis has read all the schemes which writers have formed of government and order, and been long conversant with me* who have the reins in their hands; so that he can very well distinguish between chimerical and practical politics. It is a great blessing, when men have to deal with such different characters in the fame species as those of freemen and slaves, that they who command have a just fense of human nature itself, by which they can temper the haughtiness of the master, and soften the servitude of the slave. H* tibi erunt artes. This is the notion with which those of the plantation reeeive Eboracenfis And as I have cast his nativity, I find there will be a l-ecord made of this person's administration ; and on that part of the shore from whence he embarks to return from bis government, there will be a monument with these words: " Here the people wept, and took leave of Eboracenfis, the first governor our mother Felicia sent, •* who, during his command here, believed, himself, her « subject."
White's Chocolate-house, September 16.
The following Letter wants such sudden disoatch, thsf all things else most wait for this time.
Sir, Sepi. 13, Equal day and night*
** HT^HERE are two Ladies, who, having a good "JL opinion of your taste and judgment, desire you "to make use of them in the following particular, *' which perhaps, you may allow very extraordinary. *' The tw.o Ladies before mentioned have, a cousider"able time since, contracted a more sincere and con*' slant friendship, than their adversaries, the men will 44 allow consistent with the frailty of female nature; "and, being from a long acquaintance convinced of "the perfect agreement of their tempers, have thought "upon an expedient to prevent their separation, and * cannot think any so effectual (since i; is common for
** lorn « love to destroy friendship) as to give up both their
*« liberties to the fame person in marriage. The Gen
*• tleroan they have pitched upon is neither well-bred nor
"agreeable, his understanding moderate, and his per
"son never designed to charm -women; but having si»
** much self-interest in his nature, as to be satisfied with
*' making double con-tracts, upon condition of receiving
«' double fortunes; and most men being so far sensible
"of the uneasiness that one woman occasions; they
«' think him, for these reasons, the most likely person of their acquaintance to receive these proposals.
«« Upon all other accounts, he is the last man either cf
*' them would chuse, yet for this preferable to all the
"rest. They desire to know your opinion the next
** post, resolving to defer farther proceeding, until they
*' havereceived.it. lam,
This is very extraordinary; and much might be objected by me, who am something of a civilian, to the* cafe of two marrying the fame man: But these Ladies are, I perceive, Free-thinkers; and therefore I shall (peak only to the prudential part of this design, merely as a philosopher, without entering into the merit of it in the ecclesiastical or civil law. These constant friends, Piladea and Oreftea, are at a loss to preserve their friendship from the encroachments of love; for which end they have-resolved upon a fellow who cannot be the object of affection or esteem to either, and consequently cannot rob one of the place each has in her friend's heart. But in all my reading, (and I have read all that the Sages of love have writ,) I have found the greatest danger in jealousy. The Ladies* indeed, to avoid this passion,
Will's Coffee-house, September 14,
"TT A VIN G lately read your discourse about the ** X"l family os Truhies, wherein you observe, that *' there are some who fall into laughter out of a certain "benevolence in their temper, and not out of the or*' dinary motive, viz. contempt, and triumph over the "imperfections of others; I have conceived a good •« idea of your knowledge of mankind. And, as you '* have a tragi-comic genius, I beg the savour of you ** to give us your thoughts of a quite different effect, *' which also is caused by other motives than what are "commonly taken notice of. What I would have you "treat of, is the cause of shedding tears. I desire you "would discuss it a little, with observations upon the "various occasions which provoke us to that expression "of our concern, &c."
To obey this complaisant Gentleman, I know no way so short as examining the various touches of my own bosom, on several occurrences in a long life to the evening of which I am arrived, after as many various incidents as any body has met with. I have often reflect«d, that there is a great similitude in the motions of the heart in mirth and in sorrow ; and I think the usual occasion of the latter, as well as the former, is something which is sudden and unexpected. The mind has not a sufficient time to recollect its force, and immediately gushes into tears before we can utter ourselves by speech or complaint. The most notorious causes of these drops from our eyes are pity, sorrow, joy, and reconciliation.
The Fair Sex, who are made of man and not of earth, have a more delicate humanity than we have; and pity is the most common cause of their tears: For as we are inwardly composed of an aptitude to every circumstance of life, and every thing that befall* any one person might have happened to any other of.human race; self
love, and a sense of the pain we ourselves should suffer in the circumstances of any whom we pity, is the cause of that compassion. Such a reflection in the breast of a woman, immediately inclines her to tears; but in a man* it makes him think how such a one ought to act on that Occasion, suitably to the dignity of his nature. Thus a woman is ever moved for those whom she hears lament,, and a man for those whom he observes to suffer in silence, it is <a man's own behaviour in the circumstances he is under, which procures him the esteem of others, and not merely the affliction itself which demands our pity f for we never give a man that passion which he falls into for himself. He that commends himself never purchases our applause; nor he who bewails himself, our pity.
Going through an alley the other day, I observed a noisy impudent beggar bawl out, that be was wounded in a merchant-man ; that he had lost his poor limbs, and shewed a leg clouted up. All that passed by made what haste they could out of his sight and hearing ; but a poor fellow at the end of the passage, with a rusty coat, a. melancholy air, and soft voice, desired them to look. Upon a man not used to beg. The latter received the charity of almost every one that went by. The strings of the heart, which are to be touched to give us compassion, are not so played on but by the finest hand. We fee in tragical representations, it is not the pomp of language, nor the magnificence of dress, in'which the passion is wrought, that touches sensible Spirits; but something of a plain and simple nature which breaks in uport our Souls, by that sympathy which is given us for our mutual good-will and service.
In the tragedy of Macbeth, where Wilts acts the part of a man whose family has been murdered in his absence,, the wildness of his passion, which is run over in a torrent of calamitous circumstances, does but raise my spirits, and give the alarm: But when he skilfully seems to be out of breath, and is brought too low to fay more? and upon a second reflection cries only, wiping his eyes.
What, both children ! Both, both my children gone!" —There is no resisting a sorrow which seems to have cast about for all the reasons possible for its consolation, but has no resource*. "There is not one left; but both, f * "both. "both are murdered!" such sudden starts from the thread of the discourse, and a plain sentiment expressed in an artless way, are the irresistible strokes of eloquence and poetry. The fame great master, Sbakesptar, can afford us instances of all the places where our Souls are accessible; and ever commands our tears. But it is to be observed, that he draws them from some unexpected source, which seems not wholly of a piece with the discourse. Thus, when Brutus and Cajjius had a debate in the tragedy of Casar, and rose to warm language against each other, insomuch that it had almost come to something that might be fatal, until they recollected themselves: Brutus does more than make an apology for the
heat he had been in, by saying, "Pcra'a is dead"
Here Cajfius'is all tenderness, and ready to dissolve, when he considers, that the mind of his friend had been employed on the greatest affliction imaginable, when he had been adding to it by a debate on trifles ; which makes him in the anguish of his heart cry out, '* How scaped *' I killing when I thus provoked yoo?" This is an incident which moves the Soul in all its sentiments; and Cœjius's heart was at once touched with all the soft pangs •f pity, remorse, and reconciliation. It is said indeed by Horace, "IF you would have me weep, you must first •' weep yourself." This is not literally true; for it would have been as rightly said, if we observe nature, That I shall certainly weep, if you da not: But what is intended by that expression i», That it is not possible to give passion, except you (hew that you suffer yourself. Therefore the true art seems to be, that when you would have the person you represent pitied, you must (hew him, at once in the highest grief, and struggling to bear it with decency and patience. In this cafe, we sigh for him, and give him every groan he suppresses.
I remember, when I was young enough to follow thft sports of the field, I have more than once rode off at the death of a deer, when I have seen the animal in an affliction which appeared human, without the least noise, let fall tears when he was leduced to extremity; and I have thought of the sorrow 1 sa.v him in, when his haujich came to the table. But our tears are npt given Obiv to objects of pity, but the mind has recourse to lhat relief