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that elegance and politeness which appear in your more retired conversation. I should be unpardonable, if, after what I have said, I should longer detain

you

with an address of this nature : I cannot, however, conclude it without owning those great obligations which you have laid upon,

SIR,

Your most obedient,

humble Servant,

The SPECTATOR

***KA*********

Τ Η Ε ́

SPECTATOR.

NO 170. FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 1711.

U

In amore hæc omnia infunt vitia : injuria,
Suspiciones, inimicitiæ, induciæ,
Bellum, pax rurfum-

TER. Eun. Act. i. Sc. I, All these inconveniencies are incident to love :

Reproaches, jealoufies, quarrels, reconcile-
ments, war, and then peace.
PON looking over the letters of my female
correspondents, I find several from women

complaining of jealous husbands; and at the fame time protesting their own innocence; and defiring my advice on this occafion. I shall therefore take this subject into my confideration, and the more willingly, because I find that the Marquis of Hallifax, who, in his Advice to a Daughter, has instructed a wife how to behave herself towards a false, an intemperate, a cholerick, a sullen, a covetous, or a filly husband, has not poken one word of a jealous husband.

Jealousy is that pain which a man feels from the apprehension that he is not equally beloved by the perfon whom he intirely loves. Now because our inward VOL. III.

paffions

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passions and inclinations can never make themselves visible, it is impossible for a jealous man to be thoroughly cured of his fufpicions. His thoughts bang at best in a state of doubtfulness and uncertainty; and are never capable of receiving any fatisfaction on the advantageous fide; fo that his inquiries are most successful when they discover nothing. His pleasure arises from his disappointments, and his life is spent in pursuit of a secret that destroys his happiness if he chance to find it.

An ardent love is always a strong ingredient in this paffion; for the fame aífe ction which stirs up the jealous man's defires, and gives the party beloved to beautiful a figure in his imagination, makes him believe the kindles the same paflion in others, and appears as amiable to all beholders. And as jealousy thus arises from an extraordinary love, it is of so delicate a nature, that it scorns to take

up with any thing less than an equal return of love. Not the warmest expeífions of affection, the softest and most tender hypocrify, are able to give any fatisfaction, where we are not persuaded that the af. fection is real and the fatisfaction mutual. For the jealous man wishes himself a kind of deity to the person he loves : He would be the only pleasure of her fenfes, the employment of her thoughts; and

angry at every thing fhe admires, or takes delight in, besides himself,

Phadria's request to his mistress, upon his leaving her for three days, is inimitably beautiful and Datural.

Cum milite isto præfens, abfens ut sies:
Dies nocte que me ames : me defideres:
Me fomnies : me exfectes: de me cogites:
Me fperes: me te oblettes : mecum tota fis ;
Meus fac fis poftremò aninus, quando ego fum tuus.

Ter. Eun Act. i. Sc. 2. “ When you are in company with that foldier, be

" have as if you were absent: But continue to “ love me by day and by night: Want me; dream of me; expect me ;

think of me; wish for me; delight in me: Be wholly with me : In short, bc. my very soul, as I am yours.”

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The jealous man's disease is of so malignant a nature, that it converts all it takes into its own nourishment. A cool behaviour sets him on the rack, and is interpreted as an instance of aversion or indifference; a fond one raises his suspicions, and looks too much like diffimulation and artifice. If the person he loves be cheerful, her thoughts must be employed on another; and if fad, she is certainly thinking on himself. . In short, there is no word or gesture so insignificant, but it gives him new hints, feeds his fufpicions, and furnishes hiin with fresh matters of discovery: So that if we consider the effects of this passion, one would rather think it proceeded from an inveterate hatred, than an excessive love ; for certainly none can meet with more difquietude and uneasiness-than a suspected wife, if we except the jealous husband..

But the great unhappiness of this paffion is, that it naturally tends to alienate the affection which it is fo folicitous. to ingross; and that for thef: two reasons, because it lays too great a constraint on the words and actions of the suspected person, and at the same time shews

you

have no honourable opinion of her; both of which are strong motives to averfion..

Nor is this the worst effect of jealousy; for it often draws after it a inore fatal train of confequences, and makes the person you suspect guilty of the very crimes you are so much afraid of. It is very natural for such who are treated ill and upbraided falsely, to find out an intimate friend that will hear their complaints, condole their fufferings, and endeavour to footh and assuage their secret rer

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fentments,

fentments. Besides, jealousy puts a woman often 'in mind of an ill thing that she would not otherwise perhaps have thought of, and fills her imagination with such an unlucky idea, as in time grows familiar, excites desire, and loses all the fhaine and hore. ror which might at first attend it. Nor is it a wonder if she who fuffers wrongfully in a man's opinion of her, and has therefore nothing to forfeit: in his esteem, refolves to give him reafon for his fufpicions, and to enjoy the pleasure of the crime, fince she must undergo the ignominy. Such probably were the confiderations that directed the wife. man in his advice to husbands; Be not jealous over the wife of thy bosom, and teach her not an evil leffon: against thyself. Ecclus.

And here, among the other torments which this. paffion produces, we may usually observe that none are greater mourners than jealous men, when the person who provoked their jealousy is taken from: them. Then it is that their love breaks out furiously, and throws off all the mixtures of fufpicion which chocked and smothered it before. The beautiful parts of the character rise uppermost in the jealous husband's memory, and upbraid him with the ill-usage of fo divine a creature as was once in: his poffeffion; whilst all the little imperfections, that. were before so uneasy to him, wear off from his re.. membrance, and shew themselves no more.

We may fee by what has been said, that jealousy takes the deepest root in men of amorous dispositions; and of those we may find three kinds who. are most over-run with it.

The first are those who are conscious to them-. selves of an infirmity, whether it be weakness, old? age, deformity, ignorancé, or the like.. These men are so well acquainted with the unamiable part of themselves, that they have not the confidence to think they are really beloved ; and are so diftruftful of their own merits, that all. fondness towards:

them

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