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lightning, the signal of divide vengeance, disse persed the vessels on a Sunday night. The greater part were buried in the waves: the remainder took shelter in the recess of an impending cliff, and before morning were crushed to pieces by its fall. The dread of a similar fate is sufficiently strong among the seamen to prevent a repetition of the practice. · The nets are buoyed up by inflated bags of dogskin, and the fish are caught chiefly by the gills. To be able to bring to shore from ten to twenty thousand herrings is considered a good night's work for each boat. After a successful voyage, the fishermen get so intoxicated, that the ensuing night, however favourable, is usually lost. The produce is divided into three more shares than the number of fishermen. Every fisherman is entitled to one share: the owner of the boat to two shares, and the owner of the nets to one. Frequently the nets belong to some of the boatmen, and occasionally the boat, Two seamen and four countrymen are the number usually employed. From two to three thousand of the latter annually quit their inland habitations for the sea-ports, for the three or four summer or autumnal months. They leave

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their wives to turn the soil, to reap, to thresh, and dig potatoes ; and having reserved a considerable number of herrings for the year's consumption, feast and get drunk with the produce of the remainder.

Many of the Irish, when the butter does not appear in due time upon the churning of the cream, ascribe their ill success to the machinations of some evil-minded witch. The Manks fishermen, who unfortunately return with a boat unladen, ascribe their's to the same cause. - To dispel the charm, they set fire to a bundle of dry heath, or furze, in the middle of the boat. They light by the flames whisps of the same material, and apply them to every part of the interior of the vessel.

By boys and girls the herrings are conveyed in baskets from the boats.

The first operation is to make an opening with the knife, and clear away the intestine, if the fish be designed for a warm climate; if not, it is frequently dispensed with. In this country they serve only to enrich the land, or feed the gulls; but in Sweden they are boiled for oil.

Those designed for red 'herrings are piled up with a layer of salt between each row, and thus

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left for two or three days. They are then washed, are hung by the mouth upon small rods, and placed in extensive houses built for the purpose ; sometimes so large as ninety feet by sixty, and from fifteen to thirty feet high. The length is divided into several apartments, and here the rods are arranged in rows, almost close together from the roof of the house to within eight feet of the floor. Underneath are kindled many fires of dry wood and roots of trees, which, for three, four, or five weeks are kept constantly burning. When sufficiently dry and sufficiently smoked, they are, in great regularity, put up in barrels.

For white herrings he process is much more expeditious, and is usually performed on board of vessels lying in the harbour. The fish are by the women rubbed well with salt, and left in heaps till the following morning. They are then in equal regularity packed in barrels, with a layer of salt between each row.

Much of the excellence of a herring is thought to depend upon its being salted immediately after its being caught. The Dutch, and the Scotch imitating them, have adopted the practice of salting their fish on board the fishing vessels, and

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of throwing overboard, at sun-rise, all that are remaining fresh.

· The number of herrings annually cured in this country is subject to considerable variation. The average may, probably, be between eight and ten millions, being some years double this quantity, and some years only half. In the years 1787, 8, 9, and 90, twenty-nine millions were exported. The present price of fresh herrings varies from 12s. 6d. to 20s. per maze of thirty score. On the 13th July 1667, they were so abundant as to be sold at 6d. per maze.

Formerly præmia were given to the owners. of the most successful boats; and certain bounties upon all that were exported to foreign lands; but both are discontinued.

The gobback, or dog-fish, preys upon herrings, and is often taken with them, rendering great damage to the nets. It abounds in oil which may be profitably extracted. Of the voracious animal itself many of the lower orders of people are extremely fond, and account it a rich delicacy.

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CHAPTER VII,

The ilrms of Man. Manks Fencibles. Religion. THE old Arms of Man were a ship with the sails furled, and the motto, “Rex Manniæ et Insularum.” At the Scottish conquest they were changed to three legs, uniting at the upper part of the thigh, and clothed and spurred, with the moito,.“ Stabit quocunque jeceris:” They resemble the ancient arms of Sicily, except in the covering and spurs, of which those were destitute.

In former times every man capable of bearing arms was liable to be summoned by the lord, and obliged to serve in his militia. At present, the military establishment of the island consists of a regiment of fencibles, the individuals of which are inlisted voluntarily. The duty of an officer, or a soldier, is not considered incompatible with trade. The service is easy;, and vacancies are readily flied up by the bounty of three guineas to a recruit. Their pay is the same as that of English regiments.

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