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13. Soon after, another bill was passed, which restrained the trade of the middle and southern colonies to Great-Britain, Ireland, and the West-Indies, except under certain conditions. These repeated acts of oppression on tlie part of Great-Britain, alienated the affections of America from her parent and sove. reign, and produced a combined opposition to the whole sys. tem of taxation.
14. Preparatiops began to be made, to oppose by force, the execution of these acts of parliament. The militia of the country were trained to the use of arms, great encouragement was given for the manufacture of gunpowder, and meas'ıres were taken to obtain all kinds of military stores
15. In February, Colonel Leslie was sent with a detachment of troops from Boston, to take possession of some cannon at Salem. But the people had intelligence of the design; took up the draw-bridge in that town, and prevented the troops from passing, until the cannon were secured; so that the expedition failed.
16. In April, Colonel Smith and Major Pitcairn were sent with a body of troops, to destroy the military stores which had been collected at Concord, about twenty miles from Boston. At Lexington the militia were collected on a green, to oppose the incursion of the British forces. These were fired on by the British troops, and eight men killed on the spot.
17. The militia were dispersed, and the troops proceeded to Concord, where they destroyed a few stores. But on their return, they were incessantly harrassed by the Americans, who, inflamed with just resentment, fired upon them from houses and fences, and pursued them to Boston. ,
18. Here was spilt the first blood in the late war; a war which severed America from the British empire. Lexington opened the first scene of the great drama, which, in its progress, exhibited the most illustrious characters and events, and closed with a revolution, equally glorious for the actors, and important in its consequences to the human race. .
19. This battle roused all America. The militia collected from all quarters, and Boston was in a few days besieged by twenty thousand men. A stop was put to all intercourse between the town and country, and the inhabitants were reduced
to great want of provisions. ? 20. General Gage promised to let the people depart, if they
would deliver up their arms. The people complied; but when the general had obtained their arms, the perfidious wretch refused to let the people go. .
.21. In the mean time, a small number of men, under the command of Colonel Allen, and Colonel Easton, without any public orders, surprised ard took the British garrison at Ti. conderago, without the loss of a man. • 22. In June following, our troops attempted to fortify Bunker's Hill, which lies in Charlestown, and but a inile and an half from Boston. They had, during the night, thrown up a small breast-work, which sheltered them from the fire of the British cannon.
23. But the next morning, the British army was sent to drive them from the hill, and landing under cover of their can non, they set fire to Charlestown, which was consumed, and marched to attack our troops in the entrenchments. A severe engagement ensued, in which the British suffered a very great loss both of officers and privates.
24. They were repulsed at first, and thrown into disorder; but they finally carried the fortification with the point of the bayonet. The Americans suffered a small loss, compared with the British; but the death of the brave General Warren, who fell in the action, a martyr to the cause of his country, was severely felt and universally lamented.
25. About this tiine, the continental Congress appointed George Washington, Esq. a native of Virginia, to the chiel 'command of the American army. This gentleman had been a distinguished and successful officer in the preceding war, and he seemned destined by Heaven to be the saviour of his country,
26. He accepted the appointment with a difiidence which was a proof of his prudence and his greatness. He refused any pay for eight years laborious and hardy service; and by his matchless skill, fortitude and perseverance, conducted America through indescribable difficulties to independence and peace.
27. While true merit is esteemed, or virtue honored, man kind will never cease to revere the memory of this berc; and while gratitude remains in the human breast, the praises of WASHINGTON shall dwell on every American tongue.
28. General Washi:gton, with other officers appointed by Congress, arrived at Cambridge, and took command of the American army in July. From this time, the affairs of America began to assunie the appearance of a regular and general opposition to the forces of Great-Britain.
29. In autumn, a body of troops, under the command of General Montgomery, besieged and took the garrison ai SC
John's, wliich commands the entrance into Canada. The pris. oners anounted to about seven hundred. General Montgom. ery pursued his success and took Montreal ; and designed to puslı his victories to Quebec. i
30. A body of troops commanded by Arnold, was ordered to march to Canada, by the river Kennebeck, and thro'the wil. derness. After suffering every hardship, and the most disstressing hunger, they arrived in Canada, and were joined by
General Montgomery before Quebec. This city, which was - commanded by Governor Carleton, was immediately besieged.
But there being little hope of taking the town by a siege, it was determined to storm it.
31. The attack was made on the last day of December, but proved unsuccessful, and fatal to the brave general, who, with his aid, was killed in attempting to scale the walls.
32. Of the three divisions which attacked the town, one only ettered, and that was obliged to surrender to superior force. After this defeat, Arnold, who now coinmanded the troops; continued some months before Quebec, although his troops suffered incredibly by cold and sickness. But the next spring the Americans were obliged to retreat from Canada.
33. About this time, the large and flourishing town of Norfolk, in Virginia, was wantonly burat by order of Lord Dun. more, the royal governor.
34. General Gage went to England in September, and was succeeded in the command by General Howe.
35. Falmouth, à considerable town in the province of Maine, in Massachusetts, shared the fate of Norfolk ; being laid in ashcs by order of the British admiral.
36. The British king entered into treaties with some of the German Princes for about seventeen thousand men, who were to be sent to America the next year, to assist in subduing the colonies. The Brilish parliament also passed an act, forvidding all intercourse with America; and while they repealed the Boston port and fishery bills, they declared all American, property on the high seas, forfeited to the captors.
37. This act induced Congress to change the niode of carrying on the war; and measures were taken to annoy the enemy in Boston. For this purpose batteries were opened on several hills, from whence shot and bonibs were thrown into the town. But the batteries which were opened on Dorches
ter point had the best effect, and son obligid General Howe j to abandon the town. Ia Maich, 1776, the British troops
embarked for Halifax, and General Washington entered the town in triumph.
38. In the ensuing summer, a small squadron of ships, com manded by Sir Peter Parker, and a body of troops under the Generals Clinton and Cornwallis, attempted to take Charles ton, the capital of South Carolina. The ships made a violen: attack upon the fort in Sullivan's Island, but were repulsed with great loss, and the expedition was abandoned.
39. In July, Congress published their declaration of inde, pendence, which for ever separated America from GreatBritain. This great event took place two hundred and eighty. four years after the discovery of America by Columbus; one hundred and seventy from the first effectual settlement in Virginia, and one hundred and fifty-six from the first settlement of Plymouth in Massachusetts, which were the earliest Eng. lish settlements in America.
40. Just after this declaration, General Howe, with a powerful force, arrived near New-York; and landed the troops upon Staten-Island. General Washington was in New-York with about thirteen thousand men, encamped either in the city or the neighboring fortifications.
41. The operations of the British began by the action on Long-Island, in the month of August. The Americans were defeated, and General Sullivan and Lord Stirling, with a large body of men, were made prisoners. The night after the en. gagement, a retreat was ordered and executed with such silence, that the Americans left the island without alarming their enemies, and without loss.
42. In September, the city of New York was abandoned by the American army, and taken by the British.
43. In November, Fort Washington, on York-Island, was taken, and more than two thousand men made prisoners. Fort Lee, opposite to Fort Washington on the Jersey shore, was soon after taken, but the garrison escaped.
44. About the same time, General Clinton was sent with a body of troops to take possession of Rhode Island ; and suceceded. In addition to all these losses and defeats, the Amer. ican army suffered by desertion, and more by sickness, which was epidemic, and very inortal. , 45. The northern army at Ticonderoga, was in a disagreeable situation, particularly after the battle on Lake Champlain, in which the American force, consisting of a few light vesselse
under the command of Arnold and General Waterbury, was totally dispersed.
46. But General Carleton, instead of pursuing his victory, landed at Crown-Point, reconnoitered our posts at Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, and returned to winter quarters in Canada.
47. At the close of this year the American army was dwindled to a handful of men; and General Lee was taken pri: 01er in New-Jersey. Far from being discouraged at these lesses, Congress took measures to raise and establish an army.
48. In this critieal situation, General Washington surprised and took a large body of Hessians, who were cantoned at Tren. ton, and soon after another body of the British troops at Princeton,
49. The address in planning and executing these enterprises, reflected the highest honor on the commander, and the success revived the desponding hopes of America. The loss of General Mercer, a gallant officer, at Princeton, was the principal circumstance that allayed the joys of victory. ..30. The following year  was distinguished by very memorable events in favor of America. On the opening of the campaign, Governor Tryon was sent with a body of troops to destroy the stores at Danbury, in Connecticut. This plan was executed, and the town mostly burnt. The enemy suffered in their retreat, and the Americans lost General Wooster, a brave and experienced officer.
91. General Prescot was taken from his quarters on Rhode. Island, by the address and enterprise of Colonel Barton, and conveyed prisoner to the continent.
52. General Burgoyne, who commanded the northern Brito. ish army, took possession of Ticonderoga, which had bein abandoned by the Americans. He pushed his successes, crosscd Lake George, and encamped on the banks of the Hudsor, near Saratoga.
53. His progress, however, was checked by the defeat of Colonel Baum, near Bennington, in which the undisciplined militia of Vermont, under General Stark, displayed unexampled bravery, and captured almost the whole detachment.
54. The militia assembled from all parts of New England, to stop the progress of General Burgoyne. These, with tlic regular troops, formed a respectable army, commanded by Ceneral Gates.