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55. After two severe actions, in which the Generals Lin. coln and Arnold behaved with uncommon gallantry, and were woundcd, General Burgoyne found himself enclosed with brave troops, and was forced to surrender his whole army, amount. ing to ten thousand men, into the hands of the Americans. Tliis happened in October.
56. This event diffused a universal joy over America, and laid a foundation for a treaty with France.
57. But before these transactions, the main body of the British forces bad embarked at New-York, sailed up the Ches. apeak, and landed at the head of Elk river. The army soon began their march for Philadelphia. General Washington had determined to oppose them, and for this purpose made a stand upon the heights near Brandywine Creek.
58. Here the armies engaged, and the Americans were overpowered, and suffered great loss. The enemy soon pursued their march, and took possession of Philadelphia towards the close of Septeniber.
59. Not long after, the two armies were again engaged at Germantown, and in the beginning of the action the AmeriGans had the advantage; but by some unlucky accident, the fortune of the day was turned in favor of the British. Both sides suffered considerable losses ; on the side of the Americans, was General Nash,
60. In an attack upon the forts at Mud Island and Red Bank, the Hessians were unsuccessful, and their commander, Colonel Donop, killed. The British also lost the Augusta, a ship of the line. But the forts were afterwards taken, and the navigation of the Delaware opened, General Washington was reinforced, with part of the troops which had composed the northern army, under general Gates; and both armies retired to winter quarters.
61. In October, the same month in which general BurFoyne was taken at Saratoga, general Vaughan, with a small Reet, sailed up Hudson's river, and wantonly burnt Kingston, a beautiful Dutch settlement, on the west side of the river.
62. The beginning of the next year (1778) was distinguished by a treaty of alliance between France and America; by which we obtained a powerful and generous ally.
63. When the English ministry were informed that this treaty was on foot, they dispatched commissioners to America te attempt a reconciliatien. But America would not now ac
it their offers. Early in the spring, Count d'Estaing, with a
fleet of fifteen sail of the line, was sent by the court of France to assist America.'
64. General Howe left the army and returned to England; the command then devolved upon Sir Henry Clinton. ' in 31.1., the British army left Philadelphia, and marched for New-virh.
265. On their march they were annoyed by the Americans ; and at Monmouth a very regular action took place between part of the armies; the enemy was repulsed with great loss; and had General Lee obeyed his orders, a signal victory must have been obtained. General Lee, for his ill conduct that day, was suspended, and was never afterwards perinitted to join the army.
66. In August, General Sullivan, with a large body of troops attempted to take possession of Rhode Island, but did not suc. ceed. Soon after, the stores and shipping at-Berfurt, in Massachusetts, were burnt by a party of British troops. The same year, Savannah, the capital of Georgia, was taken by the British, under the command of Colonel Campbell. 67. In the following year (1779) General
incoln was a')pointed to the cominand of the southern arıny:
: 68. Governor Tryon and Sir George Collier inade an incur. sion into Connecticut, and burnt, with wanton barbarity, the towns of Fairfield and Norwalk.
69. But the American arms were crowned with success in a bold attack upon Stoney-Point, which was surprised and taken by General Wayne, in the night of the 15th of July. Five hundred men were made prisoners, with a small loss on either side.
70. A party of British forces attempted this summer to buik! a fort on Penobscot river, for the purpose of cutting timber in the neighboring forests. A plan was laid by Massachusetts to dislodge thein, and a considerable fleet collected for that purpose. But the plan failed of success, and the whole marine force fell into the hands of the Britisl, except some vessels, which were burnt by the Americans themselves,
71. In October, General Lincoln and Count d'Estaing made an assaull upon Savannah; but they were repulsed with considerable. loss. In this action, the celebrated Polish count, Pulaski, who had acquired the reputation of a brave soldier, was mortally wounded.
72. In this summer, General Sullivan marched with a bociy of troops into the Indian country, and burnt and destroyed a! their provisions and settlements that fell in their way.
73. On the opening of the campaign the next year (1780) the British troops left Rhode Island. An expedition under General Clinton and Lord Cornwallis, was undertaken against Charleston, South-Carolina, where General Lincoln commande d. This town, after a close siege of about six weeks, was Surrendered to the British commander; and General Lincoln, and the whole American garrison, were made prisoners.
74. General Gates was appointed to the command in the southern department, and another army collected. In August, Lord Cornwallis attacked the American troops at Camden, in South Carolina, and routed them with considerable loss. He afterwards marched through the southern states, and supposed them entirely subdued.
75. The same summer, the British troops made frequent incursions from New York into the Jerseys; ravaging and plundering the country. In one of these descents, the Rer. Mr. Caldwell, a respectable clergyman and warm patriot, and his lady, were inhumanly murdered by the savage soldiery.
76. In July, a French fleet, under Monsieur de Ternay, with a body of land forces, commanded by Count de Rochambeau, arrived at Rhode Island, to the great joy of the Americans.
77. This year was also distinguished by the infamous trea. son of Arnold. General Washington having some business to transact at Weathersfield in Connecticut, left Arnold to command the important post of West-Point, which guards a pass in Hudson's river, about sixty miles from New York. Arnold's conduct in the city of Philadelphia, the preceding winter, had been censured; and the treatment he received in sonist quence, had given him offence.
73. He determined to take revenge; and for this purpose, he entered into a negociation with Sir Henry Clinton to deliver West-Point and the army into the hands of the British. While general Washington was absent, he dismounted the cannon in yume of the forts, and took other steps to render the taking of the post easy for the enemy.
79. But by a providential discovery, the whole plan was defeated. Major Andre, aid to general Clinton, a brave officer, who had been sent up the river as a spy, to concert the plan of operations with Arnold, was taken, condemned by a court-martial, and executed. 80. Arnold made his escape by getting on board the Vul.
á British vessel, which lay in the river. His conduct
has stamped him with infamy; and, like all traitors, he is despised by all mankind. General Washington arrived in camp just after Arnold had made his escape, and restored onder in the garrison.
81. After the defeat of general Gates in Carolina, general Greene was appointed to the command in the southern department. From this period things in that quarter wore a more favorable aspect. · Colonel Tarleton, the active convi mander of the British legion, was defeated by general Morgan, the intrépid commander of the ridemen.
32. After a variety of movements, the two ar.nies met at Guilford, in North Carolina. Here was one of the best furiglie actions during the war, General Greene and Lord Cornwala lis exerted themselves at the head of their respective armies, and altho' the Americans were obliged to retire from the field of batile, yet the British army suffered an immense loss, and could not pursue the victory. This action happened on the 15th of March, 1781..
83. In the spring, Arnold, who was made a brigadier general in the British service, with a small nuinber of troops sailed for Virginia, and plundered the country. This called the ata tention of the French deet to that quarter; and a navalençarsment took place between the English and French, in whish some of the English ships were much damaged, anii one entirely disabled.
84. After the battle at Guilford, general Green moved towards South Carolina, to drive the British from their posts in that state. Here Lord Rawdon obtained an inconsiderable acrantage over the Americans near Camden.
85. Bat general Green more than recovered this dishdran. tage, by the brilliant and suecessful action at the Eutaw Springs; where general Marian distinguished himself, and the brave colonel Washington was wounded and taken prisoner.
86. Lord Cornwallis finding general Greca successful in Carolina, marched to Virginia, collected his forces, and fortified himself in Yorktown. In the mean time Arnold inade an incursion into Connecticut, burnt a part of New London, took Fort Griswold by storin, and put the garrison to the sword. ; 87. The garrison consisted chiefly of mea suddenly collecte: ed (rom the litle town of Groton, which, by the savage crus clty of the British officer wiio commanded the attack, löst, in one hour, almost all its heads of families. The brave colonci
Ledyard, who commanded the fort, was slain with his own sword, after he had surrendered.
88. The Marquis de la Fayette, the brave and generous nobleman, whose services command the gratitude of every Amer. ican, har been dispatched from the main army, to watch the motions of Lord Cornwallis in Virginia.
89. About the last of August, Count de Grasse arrived with a large fleet in the Chesapeak, and blocked up the British troops at Yorktown. Admiral Greaves, with a British fleet, appeared of the Capes, and an action succeeded, but it was not decisive.
90. General Washington had, before this time, moved the main body of his army, together with the French troops, to the southward ; and as soon as he heard of the arrival of the French fleet in the Chesapeak, he made rapid marches to the head of Elk, where embarking the troops, he soon arrived at Yorktown.
91. A close siege immediately commenced, and was carried on with such vigor, by the combined forces of America and France, that Lord Cornwallis was obliged to surrender. This glorious event, which took place on the 19th of Octeber, 1781, decided the contest in favor of America, and laid the foundation of a general peace.
92. A few months after the surrender of Cornwaliis, the British evacuated all their posts in South Carolina and Georgia, and retired to the main army in New York.
93. The next spring (1782) Sir Guy Carleton arrived in New York, and :ook con mand of the British army in America. Immediately after his arrival, he acquainted general Washington and Congress, that negociation for a peace had been commenced at Paris.
94. On the 30th of November, 1782, the provisional articies of peace were signed at Paris, by which Great Britain acknowledged the independence and sovereignty of the United States of America.
95. Thus ended a long and arduous conflict, in which Great Britain expended near a hundred millions of money, with an hundred thousand lives, and won nothing. Amcfica endured every cruelty and distress from her enemies ; lost many lives and inuch treasure--but delivered herself from a foreign doo minion, and gained a rank among the nations of the earth,