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cart loaded with fire-wood. Curious to know the cause, he questioned one of the spectators, and was informed that the Inspector of the Barrier had stopped the countryman on sus picion of his having concenled tobacco among the wood, and insisted on his immediately unloading the cart. The countryman, who regarded this as a loss of time and a very seri. ous labour, earnestly intreated him to permit somebody to accompany him into the city, where he could obtain satisfactory testimonies of his innocence; but the clerk would not listen to his supplications, and insisted on executing the order he had received to empty the cart. The Emperor, who was concealed amidst the crowd, remained for some time a tranquil witness of the dispute. He at length sent for a subaltern officer and a few soldiers from the nearest Corps-de-Garde, and ordered them to remain on the spot until the wood 'was entirely turned out. This being done, he enjoined them, in case the peasant should be fonud guilty of fraud, to executive fifty lashes across his shoulders; but if he were proved to be innocent, the refractory clerk was immediately to undergo the same punishment, and to be obliged to reload the wood himself. These orders were,

exe. cuted. No tobacco was found, and the Inspector after hav. ing reloaded the cart of the poor countryman, who was besides indemnified for his loss time, received the fifty lashes.

Previous to his accession to the throne, the gates of the superb promenade called the Prater, were opened only to persons of distinction. Joseph wished they should be thrown opcu to every body, and caused these words to be inscribed above the entrance to the promenade : Place of Amusement, a treasure destined for every body. The nobility immediately thronged round him, and declared that the Promenade would soon be profaned, and that it would no longer be fit for their enjoyment, if the vulgar were suffered to frequent it.

“Gentlemen,” replied Joseph, "if I were determined to associate with none but my equals, I must transport myself into the vaults of the Monastery of the Capuchins, where my ancestors

repose,
and take up my

abode with them. I love men, because they are men; I make no other distinction among them, and have no other preference for them, except that which is due to their actions. Whpsover thinks well and acts honourably, is entitled to my esteem. It must not be exclusively reserved for those who reckon none but Princes among their ancestors."

In 1773 as the Emperor was passing through Medwisch in Transylvania, and aged woman came up to him for the purpose of soliciting a discharge, from the army., før her, son,

whom she had not seen for a long time. She thus began : good day to you, Mr. Emperor, I hope you enjoy good health. How is your mother? Is she likewise well?" Joseph replied to each of these questions, heard her request, gave her some pieces of gold, and sent her away well satisfied; then turning to his attendants he said: “This good woman is the only person who has spoken to me of my mother during my journey. She shall bee her son in eleven days, and free from all military engagements.

The Emperor, by an edict, granted permission to every Jandholder, whose fields had been ravaged by Deer, and whose representations had not been attended to by the Forest Courts, to destroy the animal. A countryman who had made repeated complaints, killed a superb Stag which had been brought to Vienna for the amusement of the Emperor, and which had frequently laid waste the field of the poor farmer. He was immediately thrown into prison. The chief huntsman in dismay presented himself before the Emperor, exe plained the circumstance, not forgetting to mention the detention of the criminal, and requested to know the further orders of His Majesty.' “My orders are," said the Emperor, “release the man, let the Stag bc sold and give him the produce of the sale of the animal by way of indem, nitko "crime committed by a person of distinction, whose friends applied for a mitigation of the punishment which he bad but too well merited, served to make manifest the principles of Joseph, who replied: "The law must be exe. cuted on all individuals equally. He who did not blush to commit the offence, should not blush to expiate it. If tbe law admitted of any difference in the chastisement allotted to the same species of offence, the indulgence ought not to be extended to those who bave the fewest excuscs to offer.' Besides, virtuous and honorable actions being the more meritorious in the lower classes, where one may presume that education is least carefully attended to, and the greatest privations are felt, they ought to be the more highly recompensel.'

In April, 1785, the Prince of Kaunitz, Chancellor of the Empire, completed his 74th year. The Emperor went at seven in the morning to the Riding School, where he was certain of finding him. Whilc, in conformity to the orders of the Emperor bis arrival was announced to the Prince, be proceeded himself to the outer gate, where he received him saying: “ Happy the day which gave birth to the Prince of Kaunitz!" Surprised at this unexpected salute, the worthy old man could not utter a single word in reply.

His gratitude was manifested only by a tear which dropped from his eye. The Emperor perceiting this, added: 1 know, my dear Kaunitz, that you have invited some good friends to pass this day with you; as

am among the number, of your friends, I shall not fail to wait upon you.

A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF THE PROGRESS

OF MANNERS.

Simple Manners of the Greeks-Violent Passions predomie

nate among Savages-Cruelty of the Scythians - Barbar ous Manners of the Trojans of the Jews.

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(Continued from page 95.) Men improve in urbanity by conversing with women; and however selfish at heart, they conciliate favour, by assuming an air of disinterestedness. Selfishness thus refined becomes an effectual cause of civilizatiou. But what follows? Turbulent and violent passions are buried, never again to revive ; leaving the mind totally ingrossed by self-interest. In the original state of bunters and fishers, there being little connection among individuals, every man minds his own concerns, and selfishness governs. The discovery that hunt. ing and fishing are best carried on in company promotes some degree of society in that state : it gains ground in the shepherd-state, and makes a capital figure where husbandry and commerce flourish. Private concord is promoted by social affection ; and a nation is prosperous in proportion as the 'amor patriæ prevails. But wealth, acquired whether by conquest or commerce, is productive of luxury and sensu. ality. As these increase, social affections decline, and at last vanish. This is visible in every opulent city that has long flourished in extensive commerce. Selfishness becomes the ruling passion : friendship is no more ; and eveu blood. relation is little regarded. Every man studies his own in-, terest; and love of gain and of sensual pleasure are idols worshipped by all. And thus in the progress of manners, men end as they begun : selfishness is no less eminent in the last and most polished state of society, than in the first and, most savage state. From the general view of the

progress of manners, we de. scend to particulars. And the first scene that presents itself is cruelty to strangers, extended in process of time against members of the same tribe. Anger and resentment are prea dominant in savages, who never think of smothering passion. But this character is not universal: some tribes ate remarkable for humanity. Anger and resentment formed the character of our European ancestors, and made them fierce and cruel. The Goths were so prone to blood, that in their first inroads into the Roman territories they massacred man, woman, and child. Percopius reports,y that in one of these inroads, they left Italy. thin of inhabitants ; they were however an honest people; and by the polish they received įą the civilized parts of Europe, they became no less remarkable for Humanity, than formerly for cruelty. Tosila, their King, having mastered-Rome, after a long and bloody siege, permitted not a single person to be killed in cold blood, nor the chastity of any woman to be attempted. One cannot without horror think of the wanton cruelties exercised by Tartars against the nations invaded by them under Gengiz Khan and Timor Bec.

A Scythian, says Herodotus, presents the King with the heads of the enemies he has killed in battle, and the man who brings not a head, gets no share of tke plunder. He adds, that many Scythians clothe themselves with the skin's af men, and make use of the sculls of their enemies' to drink out of.' Diodorus Siculas reports of the Gauls, that they carry home the heads of their enemies slain in battles, and after embalming them, deposit them in chests as their chief trophy; bragging of the su ms offered for their heads by the friends of the deceased, and refused. da similar icircumstances men are the same all the workl over. The scalping of enemies, in daily use among the North Americansavages, is equally barbarous.i

(To be Gontinued.)

The Amusing Chronicle is published at No. 6, Gilbert's Pasgage, Portugal Street, and served at the houses of the subscribers, in the same manner as newspapers and magazines.

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AMUSING CHRONICLE,

CHRONICLE,

A tweekly Repository for MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE.

No.XXIII, Price 4d.) Feb. 22, 1817.

(Vol.II.

The certainty that Spence's plan will be alluded to by future Historians, induces us to insert Dr. 'Watson's Letter to Lord Cochrane, with some Remarks selected from the last Quarterly Review.

MAXIMS for the Instruction of a PRINCE,

Taken from the Memoirs of the Count d'Angoulesme; it

contains the important advices which Charles King of Sweden left on his death-bed to his Son Gustavus Adolphus II. which are in the Library of the most Christio an King. This Count was Ambassador from France to Vienna air 1621; and at that time Gustaphus Adolphus, who was but Twenty-nine Years of Age, was already. looked upon as invincible by the Muscovites, the Danes, and the Poles, and formidable to all the rest of Europe.

1. A CROWN is a very heavy Burden, if the faithful Ser. vants of the Prince who wears' it, and the Love of his People, do not sustain one part of it, and his own Virtue the other.

2. He ought never to have that done by his Ministers and Officers, which he can do with Decency himself.

3. Let him see and hear every thing himself; and let his own Wisdom and Goodness provide for every Thing the Remedy.

Pinted by T.Kaygill, 36, Frith Street, Soho

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