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own hands. The joiner who made the bridal bed of Ulysses, was Ulysses himself. The Princess Nausicaa washes the family-cloaths; and the Princes her brothers, upon her return, unyoke the car, and carry in the cloaths. Queens, and even female deities, are employed in spinning. Is it from this fashion that young women in England are denominated spinsters ? Telemachus goes to council with no attendants but two dogs : : : :
Soon as in solemn form th' assembly sat,
in Odyssey, book ii.
Priam's car is yoked by his own sons, when he went to re, deem from Achilles the body of his son Hector. Telemachus yokes his own car. Homer's heroes kill and dress their own victuals, Achilles entertaining Priam, as.now mentioned, slew a snow-white sheep; and his two friends dressed it. Achilles himself divided the roasted meat among all,
Not to talk of gold, silver was scarce in England during the reign of the third Edward. Rents were paid in kind; and wbat money they had was locked up in the coffers of" the great Barons. Pieces of plate were 'bequeathed even by Kings of England, so trifling in our estimation, that a gen. tleman of a moderate fortune would be ashamed to mention such in his will. .
. We next take - under consideration the progress of such manners as are more peculiarly influenced by internal dispo. sition; preparing the reader by a general view, before entering into particulars. Man is by nature a timid animal, having little ability to secure himself against harm : but he becomes bold in society, and gives 'vent to passion against his enemies. In the hunter-state, the daily practice of slaughtering innocent animals for food, hardens men in cru.. clty: 'they are worse than bears or wolvès, being cruel even to their own kind. The calm and sedentary life of a shepherd tends to soften the barsh manners of hunters : and agriculture, requiring the union of many hands in one operation, inspires a taste for mutual good offices. But here comes in the boarding appetite to disturb that auspicious commencement of civilization. Skilful husbandry, produce ing the necessaries of life in plenty, paves the way to arte and manufactures. Fine houses, splendid gardens, and rich apparel, are desirable objects: the appetite for property
becomes headstrong, and to obtain gratification tramples down every obstacle of justice or honour. Differences arise, fomenting discord and resentment: war is raised, even among those of the same tribe ; and while it was lawful for a man to take revenge at his own hand, that fierce passion fol*. lowed up all others. In equality of rank and fortune fostered dissocial passions: witness pride in particular, which produced a custom, once universal among barbarians, of killing men, women, dogs, and horses, for serving a dead chieftain in the other world. Such complication of selfish and stormy passions, tending eagerly to gratification, and rendering society uncomfortable, cannot be stemmed by any human means other than wholesome laws: a momentary obstacle inflames desire; but perpetual restraint deaden even the most fervid passion. The authority of good government gave a vigour to kindly affection; and appetite for society, which acts incessantly, though not violently, gave a currency to mutual good offices. A. circumstance occurred to blunt the edge of dissocial passions: the first-societies were small and small states in close neighbourhood produce discord and resentment without end: the junction of many such states into à great kingdom remove people farther from their". enemies, and render them more gentle. In that situation, men have leisure and sedateness to relish the comforts of i social life : they find that selfish and turbulent passions are”. subversive of society, they patiently undergo the severe discipline of restraining passions, and smoothing manners. Violent passions that disturb the peace of society have subsided, and are now seldom heard of : humanity is in fashion, and social affections prevail. . .
(To be Continued.)
THE UNFORTUNATE RECLUSE.
Enchanted with the gay and magnificent appearance of a Sicilian masquerade, Rinaldo Piozzi contemplated his emancipation from College with the liveliest delight. Confined to a species of study the most iniinical to the buoyant spirit of youth, he entered into the amusements of Messina with a rapture known only to one, who, in a few weeks was about
to forfeit them forever being designed by his father for a member of a socicty distinguished in the Church as the severest in its pale: but in the full possession of present en joyments, Rinaldo adverted not to their speedy termination : and while his ear was turned to the full smell of harmon ny, or the sweet and tender notes, which Sicilian art can sol wel improve, bis eyes was caught by the fascinating beauty that blazed around him. Rinaldo was: a stranger to the cont, pany, but their politeness did away that objection ; and be soon found himself emboldened to ask the name of a figure, whose solemn step and uncouth appearance, added to a scrum tinizing manner, seemed to denonnee him as an enemy to the gallantry of the places To this question he received an equiyocal answer. : The Signor was called Schabraco. . He was seen where. eyer business or pleasure convened' a crowd. If he spoke, it was to satirize. His, smile was the smile of spleen. · His frowa that of a dark revenge. But as to his origin, residence or means of subsistence, no opo knew, non did anjo ope seem desirous of investigating. i i mi
sisi Our youth's curiosity was of a different stamp. Ardent in the parsuit of mystery, he seldom considered its object;' and the purpose he sought to elucidate was defeated by wantz of caution. At the first approach of dawn Schabraco' retreateck; and before Piozzi could reach the portico he was 110 where to be seen. The crowd of carriages, which nearly filled the street made this very probable. n
o i ! For several days nothing further occurred: respecting this extraordinary personage, and Rinaldo, felt, his hopes sus*: pended, if not wholly extinct; till, on his taking the air on: the noble quay which fronts thc Calabrian shore, he beheld in a felucca that was making from the port, the figure of him he so recently gave up. His dress, which was that worn at the masquerade, his fiercc air, and abstracted mana, ner, convinced our young man of his identity, who, immediately stepping into another boat, directed the rowers to follow that a-head of them. o.
n (To be continued.
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