The Existence of God
Richard Swinburne presents a substantially rewritten and updated edition of his most celebrated book. No other work has made a more powerful case for the probability of the existence of God. Swinburne gives a rigorous and penetrating analysis of the most important arguments for theism: the cosmological argument; arguments from the existence of laws of nature and the 'fine-tuning' of the universe; from the occurrence of consciousness and moral awareness; and from miracles and religious experience. He claims that while none of these arguments are deductively valid, they do give inductive support to theism and that, even when the argument from evil is weighed against them, taken together they offer good grounds to support the probability that there is a God. The overall structure of the discussion and its conclusion have been retained for this new edition, but much has been changed in order to strengthen the argumentation and to take account of Swinburne's subsequent work on the nature of consciousness and the problem of evil, and of the latest philosophical and scientific writing, especially in respect of the laws of nature and the argument from fine-tuning. This is now the definitive version of a classic in the philosophy of religion.
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12 Arguments from History and Miracles
13 The Argument from Religious Experience
14 The Balance of Probability
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agnosticism animals argued Argument from Moral background knowledge basic actions behaviour beliefs beneﬁt best action brain events bring C-inductive argument causal cause Chapter complete explanation conﬁrm consequence cosmological argument create creatures deﬁned desires divine equal best evidence example existence existence of God explanatory power ﬁnd ﬁnite ﬁrst ﬁt free choice full explanation fundamental laws give given God’s humanly free agents hypothesis of theism improbable inductive inﬁnite number inﬂuence initial conditions instantiation intentions intrinsic probability justiﬁed kind laws of nature Leibniz matter mental events moral natural evils natural laws Newton’s laws normal occur operation P(ejk P(hjk particular perception personal explanation phenomena physical objects physical universe postulate powers and liabilities predict premisses principle prior probability Problem of Evil produce properties rational reason region of basic religious experience scientiﬁc explanation sensations sense signiﬁcant simple simpler simplicity substances suffering sufﬁcient suppose teleological argument things true