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factors that have entered into our educational development. School houses were built of rock and adobe, although the first schools were as a rule, housed in log cabins. In those days, all co-operated in building, and many school houses were erected upon the co-operative plan. An interesting example of this method of work, which all economists now pronounce as the best and most effective and democratic kind of work, is found in the records of the Thirteenth Ward of Salt Lake City :

"Friday evening, Dec. 1, 1854. The inhabitants of the Thirteenth ward met in the meeting house to consider the nature and extent of the improvement of the school.

A. W. Babbitt spoke of the benefits of the common school.

The plan of the main building was presented by T. O. Angell

. All the brethren spoke in favor of building the main house, the estimated cost of which would be $11,770. Bishop Edward Hunter spoke of educating our children, otherwise we were not worthy of them. A motion was passed pro










A Type of Building Erected by Co-operative Work viding for the repair of the present building, the building of a new fence, and the erection of outhouses.

The brethren were asked to co-operate in this work, and to put in a certain amount of their time in promoting the work.”.

Many beautiful buildings were erected before the railroad, buildings that were plain, but beautiful in their massiveness, stability, and simplicity. The old Twelfth Ward school in Salt Lake City is an example of these characteristics. Not only schools were maintained from the beginning of their history, but the “Mormon” people have been great readers and collectors of books, and today, few homes in Utah are without a good library.

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"In 1851, the first extensive library was brought by ox teams to this state. It had been purchased in New York City by Dr. John M. Bernhisel, and was a wonderful collection of books. There were the works of Shakespeare, Milton, Bacon, Byron, Homer, Juvenal, Lucretius, Virgil, Euripides, Sophocles, Plato, Montaigne, Tacitus, Spenser, Herodotus, Goldsmith, and many others of the great masters of the world's best literature. The library received copies of the New York Herald, New York Evening Post, the Philadelphia Saturday Courier, and the North American Review. Of the scientific works there were Newton's Principia, Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy, and Von Humboldt's Cosmos. The treatises on philosophy included the works of John Stuart, Mill, Martin Luther, John Wesley, and Emanuel Swedenborg. These are but a few of the names found in the list. The books were read by practically, everybody, as it was customary for the people to meet in the several ward assembly halls, and to discuss the substance of the best works on literature, philosophy, science, and history. This was the movement that gave rise to the establishment a few years later of the Mutual Improvement Associations throughout Utah.”

In every ward of Utah, a library was established in connection with the Sunday Schools and Mutual Improvement associa-, tions from the very earliest days. The Twelfth Ward Library in Salt Lake City contained some of the best of the classics, and many of the books were deposited in the library as early as 1855. The cities passed resolutions and laws creating libraries in the. early sixties, and in 1866, Provo, Lehi, Nephi, Salt Lake City, Manti, Beaver, Fillmore, and other cities had their public libraries. The following unique law passed in 1866, providing for a library in the town of Deseret is significant and tells a story that is well for us to remember:

An ACT to Incorporate the Deseret City Library Association

Sec. 1.—Be it enacted by the Governor and Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah: That Thomas Memmott, John Rowell, Henry Roper, Isaac W. Pierce, Martin Littlewood and their associates and successors are hereby constituted a body corporate, to be known and styled Deseret City Library Association, and shall have power to purchase, receive and hold property real and personal, to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend and be defended in all courts of law and equity, and to do all things that may be proper to carry into effect the objects of the Association, by establishing a library of books, maps, charts and scientific instruments, connecting therewith a reading room and lectures. And the above named persons are hereby appointed a Board of Directors of said Association, until superseded as provided in the following section.

Sec. 2.—A Board of seven Directors shall be elected by the members of said Association on the second Monday of March, eighteen hundred and sixty-six, and biennially thereafter on said day, who shall hold office two years, and until their successors are duly elected;

and they shall have power to appoint a president, secretary, corresponding secretary, treasurer and librarian and define their duties, and also to enact such by-laws as may be necessary to do all business of the Association. A majority may form a quorum to do business, and may fill any vacancy in the Board, until the next regular election.

Sec. 3.—This Association may raise means by the sale of shares and by contribution and donation, for the purchase of books, maps, charts, etc., and for leasing or erecting suitable buildings for the library, reading rooms and lectures.

Sec. 4.—Conditions of membership, admission to the library, reading rooms and lectures and the loaning of books or other property shall be as provided by the by-laws of said Association.

Approved Jan. 17, 1866.

As a result of this early library movement, Utah contains today some most beautiful buildings, where the public may obtain books free of charge, and where they may go to study and read. There can be no doubt but that the “Mormon” people have been great readers.

In the days before the railroad, the schools and general progress of the people were noted by many writers from the eastern States. In fact the testimonies of these writers show a rapid progress of the people intellectually and socially. Among them are Howard Stansbury, Captain of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, United States Army; Captain John W. Gunnison, United States Army; Lieutenant Edward Fitzgerald Beale of the United States Navy, and later envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Austria-Hungary; the Rev. A. M. Stewart of the Presbyterian church; Col. D. C. Dodge, chief engineer in building the Union Pacific Railroad ; Leland Stanford of California; in fact a host of famous Americans have noted our early educational development.

Before the railroad, the 'theatre was built, and dramatic art was encouraged from the beginning of our history. There were scientific and philosophical societies; the Seventies of the "Mormon” church maintained a Hall of Science, where meetings were held in which the "brethren" discussed the affairs of the day, and read scientific, religious, and philosophical treatises; there was a Deseret Agricultural and Manufacturing Society as early as 1856, and in every ward of Utah, there were established literary and religious societies called the Young Men's and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. Thousands of boys and girls, and parents as well, have been enrolled in these organizations, and they have been a potent factor in our educational history. In fact they are unique, and at no time in American history has there been anything like them. Today, they still are doing a wonderful work among the young, and have an enrollment of nearly 100,000 members. In one of the meetings of a young ladies' meeting held in 1869, a lecture was given on the "Importance of Bible Study," a short talk on the life of Shakespeare, and a third party read and explained the play of Hamlet. These exercises were interspersed with music. At a Mutual Improvement meeting held in a remote town of Utah recently, the people listened to a talk on Goethe's life, together with an explanation of

his Faust. During the program, a young musician played parts from Gounod's Faust, and one young lady sang Wagner's "Evening Star" from Tanhauser.

So from the beginning of their history, have the people encouraged intellectual development in many, many different ways. Art has been encouraged, music in its best form has been fostered. Handel's "Messiah” was given in Salt Lake in 1866 to crowded houses. The leading artists of the world have sung in our Tabernacle, Utah's children, like Maud Adams, have won distinction upon the stage, and FIRST SCHOOL HOUSE IN FILLMORE M. M. Young and C. E. Dallin have international reputation

timber, with wooden pegs for nails in the realm of art.

When the University of Deseret took a forward step in 186768, it announced a high standard of courses. From the catalogue of 1870-71, I take the following prescribed outline. How many educators and teachers of today are prepared for the studies? It shows the high regard in which the intellectual studies were held. Truly with these people, the "glory of God and man is intelligenće:”

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"FIRST TERM.-Cicero (Orations), Latin Prose Composition, Xenohpon's Anabasis, Greek Prose Composition, Higher Algebra completed, Natural Philosophy.

“SECOND TERM.- Virgil's Aeneid, Latin Prose Composition, Xenophon's Anabasis, Greek Prose Composition, Cubic and Biquadratic Equations, Natural Philosophy.

“THIRD TERM.–Virgil's Aeneid, Latin Prose Composition, Homer's Iliad, Greek Prose Composition, Geometry, Roman History.

"FOURTH TERM.- Virgil's Bucolics, Homer's Iliad, Greek Prose Composition, Greek Testament (Gospels), Geometry, Roman History.

“SOPHOMORE YEAR “FIRST TERM.-Cicero de Senectute, and Horace, Xenophon's Memorabilia, Greck Testament (Acts of the Apostles), Geometry completed, and Plane Trigonometry, Zoology.

“SECOND TERM.-Livy and Terence, Demosthenes (Philippics), Greek Testament (Epistles), Spherical Trigonometry and 'Mensuration, and Surveying and Navigation, Zoology.

"THIRD TERM.-Livy and Juvenal, Plato (Apology), Greek Testament (Epistles), Analytical Geometry, Grecian History, Physiology..

“FOURTH TERM.-Tacitus (Germania and Agricola), Thucydides, Analytical Geometry completed, Grecian History, Physiology.

“JUNIOR YEAR “First Term.—Differential Calculus, General Chemistry (inorganic), Rhetoric, Political Economy.

“SECOND TERM.-Integral Calculus, General Chemistry (organic), Rhetoric, Political Economy

“THIRD Term.-Astronomy, Practical Chemistry, Logic, Botany, Mental Philosophy.

“FOURTH TERM.—Astronomy, Practical Chemistry, Logic, Botany, Mental Philosophy.


"FIRST TERM.-English Literature, Natural Theology, Elements of Criticism, Moral Philosophy.

"SECOND TERM.-English Literature, Natural Theology, Elements of Criticism, Moral Philosophy.

“THIRD TERM.--Geology, Mineralogy, Analogy of Religion, International Law, Constitution of the United States.

"Fourth TERM.-Geology, Mineralogy, Analogy of Religion, International Law, Constitution of the United States.




The schools of Utah were effective in their work, for from the earliest statistics of the United States, we find that Utah's educational standing has been exceptionally high. In fact so clean has been Utah's system of government, so intellectual and moral have been her people, that as early as 1869, the American Presbyterian, printed in Philadelphia, had the following to say from the pen of Rev. A. M. Stewart, who had spoken a few months before in the "Mormon" Tabernacle:

"When driven from Ohio, Missouri, Illinois, and Iowa, the wretched, starving, half-naked fugitives started on a pilgrimage, which an army with banners dared not have attempted.

How, under their condition, and without all perishing, they succeeded in traversing those fifteen hundred miles of reputed desert, seems even now a mystery. They settled, at length, upon a dry and apparently barren soil, where they hoped never again to see or be troubled with intruders.

Whatever purposes the Almighty has to subserve with this strange mass of people hereafter, he has already effected purposes the most wise and beneficent, and for which no other agents seemed fitted.

Salt Lake City is the most quiet, orderly, and best governed city in the world. Among the “Mormons” there is no disorder or outbreak; no profanity or intemperance. The city on the Sabbath is as quiet and orderly as a rural parish in Scotland or New England. Whatever disorder there may be is created by Gentile intruders.

The court house and theatre substantial structures.

By such processes, coupled with economy, industry, home manufacture, and consumption, that far inferior community numbering at present one hundred thousand, is fast becoming one of the wealthiest communities in the world.”

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Quite a testimony is this. I take it that Dr. Stewart is sincere, for his church pronounced him one of the most honest of men, and "a minister of grace in God's great cause.”

The schools of Utah must have been productive of great

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