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results, for I find the following to be our educational standing in comparison to other states of the Union in 1870:

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“In 1877, when the school population of Utah numbered 30,792, there invested in the Territory in school property the creditable sum of $568,984, being about eighteen and one-half dollars per capita of the school population. In contrast with this, take the amount per capita of their school population which some of the States have invested in school property: North Carolina, $0.60; Louisiana, $3.00; Virginia about $2.00; Oregon less tuan $9.00; Wisconsin less than $11.00; Tennessee less than $2.50; Delaware less than $13.00.”

During the last decade of the nineteenth century, the public school system of the entire United States was greatly improved

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ONE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH BUILDINGS upon. We find California, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New York, Wisconsin, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Nebraska, Maryland, and all the states of the South making great headway in educational development. New school houses were built, the standard of teaching was raised, and better scholarship required of scholars and teachers. So in Utah. Great advancement was made. All people contributed to the building of the public school system, until today, we naturally ask, "How does Utah stand in education among the states and territories of the Union ?” The following table was compiled by Andrew S. Draper, LL. D., and published some time ago in the Youth's Companion. It will be interesting to note the place of Utah among the other states of the Union in literacy:

“We have very exact information about the number of people in the United States who are illiterates. By an "illiterate" we mean a person who is ten years old or more and can not write in any language. It is generally true that if one can not write he can not read.

“The proportion of illiterates is smaller than it used to be. In 1870 there were 200 illiterates to each 1,000 of population; in 1880 there were 170; in 1890 there were 133; in 1900 there were 107.

“The accompanying table will show the number of illiterates to each 1,000 people in the various states in 1900.

“These figures are from the census, but a table from election returns showing the number of illiterate voters per thousand people in each state is so nearly the same that it confirms the substantial accuracy of the census figures.

We have one full-grown man who can not read or write in every nine voters. We have no tests of exact comparison, but there are related and authentic figures which are more convincing than comforting.

ILLITERACY IN THE UNITED STATES

Iowa
23 South Dakota
50 Delaware

120 Nebraska 23 Maine

51
Nevada

133 Kansas

29
New York

55
Texas

145 Washington 31 Oklahoma

55 Kentucky

..165 UTAH 31 North Dakota

56 Arkansas

.204 Oregon 33 Vermont

58 Tennessee

.207 Ohio 40 Massachusetts

59 Florida

..219 Wyoming 40 New Jersey

59 Virginia

.229 Minnesota 41 Connecticut

59 North Carolina.

..287 Illinois 42 Pennsylvania

61 Arizona

.290 Michigan 42 Montana

61 Georgia

.305 Colorado 42 New Hampshire

62 Mississippi

.320 Indiana 46 Missouri

64 New Mexico

.332 Idaho 46 Rhode Island 84 Alabama

.340 Wisconsin 47 Maryland

111
South Carolina

.359 California 48 West Virginia 114 Louisiana

.385 “The figures give the number of illiterate persons in each thousand. of population, as shown by the census of 1900."

Although Utah's school system today ranks among the best in the world, it is far from what the ideals of the people wish for. There is not only the public school system maintained by taxation, but the different religious denominations maintain their schools, and it may be noted that the Latter-day Saints University at Salt Lake City has possibly the highest standard of faculty of any high school in the United States. The head of the institution is Colonel Young, late of the corps of engineers, United States army, and a graduate of the Military Academy at West Point, and the noted universities of the world are represented in its faculty, including Harvard, Chicago University, Oxford, University of Berlin, University of California, Cornell, and others.

As the public school system is the glory of the American Republic, so is it the glory of Utah. The people of the State pride themselves on their schools as they do on their high ideals and desires to become rich in knowledge and power—that power which is of light and high moral endeavor. Their school system has been built up by the people as a whole. Not by one party, one creed, one faction. The system has been formed by the union

and co-operation of all sorts and conditions of people who have come to a firm conviction and realization in heart that "all men are created equal and are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights." Utah has been an asylum for thousands of the best people of Europe. . Germans, Scandinavians, Scotch, Irish, and the English have found their way to the far West, and have been taught the rudiments of American citizenship, and in becoming Americanized, they have learned the fundamental law of all good government, namely, self-government. All the forces they have been able to muster have been brought to influence the better ideals and attainments, the best men, the different Christian sects, the press, and the political parties, all have exerted a moulding influence.

Our school system has grown by the acceptance and adaptation of all the good things and best ideas of the world. Hundreds of young men return to our state every year from abroad to bring with them new ideals, new motives and incentives, new plans for a better living. Books and pictures are purchased abroad, and the average young man of Utah becomes acquainted through his traveling with Goethe, Lessing, Herder, Corneille, or Carlyle. Possibly no other state of the Union has so many people abroad every year in comparison with her population as has Utah. All this goes to make the people broad and conservative in life.

In Utah the idea of universal education was outlined from the first. The circular letter issued by the chancelor of the University in 1850, certainly snaps of breadth and enthusiasm for all that can be obtained for our intellectual advancement. In Utah the children have been educated from the primary school upward. The primary school came first, and in time the University was reestablished as the head of the public school system of the State. In the United States we well realize that education owes little to paternalism. So it is in Utah. No creed or organization has control of the minds of the people. The people have promoted

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education from the first, and it has grown with their growth, and gathered strength as the industrial and social conditions of the people have become better. Our schools have been democratic from the first, and all that is good and true in the world at large, the people have tried to absorb. From the days of the overland emigration by pony express to the time of the completion of the

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ALL HALLOWS COLLEGE-A CATHOLIC SCHOOL, SALT LAKE CITY

trans-continental railroad, and from the time of the advent of the railroad to the present, Utah has been not only provincial but cosmopolitan; sectional yet national; individual, yet loving the influences of extraneous ideals and institutions.

The country has tended to create a hardy people, who hate the dilettante pursuits and who love hard work. For years it was a struggle for existence. Such a life could not produce cowards or effeminates. The people of Utah have naturally bred within them a love for the home, for humanity, and for God. They are free from the conventionalities of older communities, and are more given to the belief that culture is not outward manners but inward grace and honesty of purpose. They believe that schools should produce citizens in the highest sense of the term. In fact, their ideals are expressed by the immortal Jefferson in his famous words before the Virginia legislature at one time:

“To form the statesmen, legislators, and judges, on whom public prosperity and individual happiness are so much to depend; to expound the principles of government, the laws which regulate the intercourse of nations, those formed municipally for our own government, and a sound spirit of legislation, which, banishing all arbitrary and unnecessary restraint on individual action, shall leave us free to do whatever does not violate the equal rights of another; to harmonize and promote the interests of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and by well-informed views of political economy to give free scope to public industry; to develop the reasoning faculties of our youth, enlarge their minds, cultivate their morals, and instill into them precepts of virtue and order; to enlighten them with mathematical and physical sciences, which advance the arts and administer to the health, the subsistence, and the comfort of human life; and, finally, to form them to habits of refleciion and correct action, rendering them examples of virtue to others and of happiness within themselves—these are the objects of that higher grade of education, the benefits and blessings of which the legislature now propose to provide for the good and ornament of their country, the gratification and happiness of their fellow-citizens.”

Upon her schools, Utah's future government depends. The schools must produce men and women who are interested in the government of the state. The youth of our state are to become the legislators and the officials. They will be exepcted to exercise the higher functions in the state according to the best of American ideals. Native talent must be developed and character building made the aim of our learning. Herein have the schools their great mission.

Again the schools must influence for the building up of the proper home environment. The youth must be taught that the home is the centre where life is begun and where all that is best emanates. We can never be a great and mighty commercial people; we can be a wise and good people. The big broad "God's out-of-doors” must be appreciated, and the magnificent mountains, lakes, and canyons, must influence us to very great ideals and to very great actions.

Our schools must teach us to come to a realization of our best selves, and that the best life is the life that finds its salvation not in formal Christianity and dogma, but in the “Gospel of work and redemption.” Our education must revert, however, to the ideals of a generation ago, wherein it was taught that the school is but one factor in life to make for the better self. The school must make the whole setting of life worth more, and develop that wisdom and broad judgment that make good Christianity. They must give us that culture and education described by Hamilton Wright Mabie in his Nature and Culture:

“For culture, instead of being an artificial or superficial accomplishment, is the natural and inevitable process by which a man comes into possession of his own nature, and into real and fruitful relations with the world about him. It is never taking on from without of some grace or skill or knowledge; it is always an unfolding from within into some new power; the flowering of some new quality hitherto dormant; the absorption of some knowledge hitherto unap

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