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quently come up through the grades and secondary schools to the college and university.

VIFinancial Support From a standpoint of financial support we have passed through several stages. First stage, local taxation for buildings and applicances only; second stage, state and local taxation for partial payment of tuition; third stage, state and local taxation for full payment of tuition, and fourth stage, for free text books.

VIIEvolution of the Educational Unit The educational unit for many years was the county, subdivided into districts with a board of trustees managing each district, and a superintendent. Later, cities of the first and second classes were made educational units, with a superintendent, and provision made for county consolidation at the option of the voters.

The public high school has been latest in its development. Until the last decade the high school work was done for the greater part by the University of Utah, the Utah State Agricultural College, the Salt Lake City and Ogden high schools, and the various denominational schools. * These schools carried on the high school work with great credit when the state was financially unable.

The state is at present in what may be styled the high school era. Beginning with the establishment of high schools at the expense of the locality, and terminating with the establishment of high school units or districts composed of counties or parts of counties, at the option of the voters in those districts. All building and furnishing expenses are provided for by local taxation. The teaching expense is provided for by tuition, special local tax, and a per capita state appropriation.

The University of Utah, as most of the other institutions of higher education in the state, has come up through the elementary school; the secondary school, (which in most instances has been a normal school preparing teachers for the elementary schools,) to the college and university.

Today our state University has a school of mines; well equipped departments of engineering; a teachers' college, and departments of medicine and law, as well as a normal training school of high repute.

VIIIThe Evolution of the Teacher
If it be true that the teacher is the soul of the school, then

*An article in this issue of the IMPROVEMENT Era by General Superintendent of Church Schools Horace H. Cummings reviews the work of the Latter-day Saint system of schools.

the schools of Utah have, as a rule, never been small-souled. Civilization in her invasion of the American desert resorted to unusual tactics. There was not a gradual advance of the everrising tide, but the sudden heaving forth of a mighty wave from the banks of the Missouri over the summit of the Rockies carrying with it the aggregation of the ages; skilled artisans and scholars from Europe, people of culture and refinement from the Eastern and Southern states, and characters of strength in practical affairs from Canada and the then Western states of the Union. Cosmopolitanism characterized the communities from the first, while conditions tended to a rapid amalgamation of interest.

Inspiration, Indians, and irrigation are responsible for the village method of settling and developing Utah. This system of settlement had a tendency to accelerate and economize the application of skill and ability.

The pioneer teacher of Utah was Mary Jane Dillworth (Hammond), a talented maiden of seventeen, whose portrait deserves a place in every school house in the state. She taught in a tent where pieces of logs served for benches and a camp table for a desk.

Education in Utah has had no backwoods era. Fifty years ago this winter my teacher in the little hamlet of Cedar Fort was the honorable Zerrubbabel Snow, a member of the first supreme court of the territory of Utah, and a friend of Daniel Webster, while the latter was secretary of state. Over forty years ago, in the little town of Grafton, on the Rio Virgin, it was my good fortune to come under the training of one of the best teachers I have ever known, in the person of Henry I. Young. In makeup he seemed to me the prototype of the author of the Monroe Doctrine, whose picture was in my geography, and in disposition I thought of him as I did of Washington. In my early teens the great man of our town was my teacher, Silas Hillman, a man of eastern training. He was justice of the peace and a general legal adviser of the town folk.

Then later I had the good fortune to become educationally intimate with Robert Campbell, a scholar of whom it is said, “He worked all the time;" John Morgan, the father of commercial schools in Utah; T. B. Lewis, with a soul akin to that of the present incumbent of the office of State Superintendent, A. C. Nelson, which position he once held; John R. Park, college bred, who came to Utah, taught the village school at Draper, successfully stood for many years at the head of the faculty of the parent education institution of our State, and rendered yoeman service to the state as superintendent of public instruction. Dr. Karl G. Maeser, German-trained pedagogue, none too big to teach a district school, and none too little to work out and direct a magnificent educational system. J. B. Forbes, one of the first persons in Utah to establish a free school. For a decade and a half before free tuition was state wide, American Fork, Mr. Forbes' home town, had free schools.

Glancing back over this line-up of departed educators, with the famed philosopher and mathematician, Orson Pratt, at their head, and seeing also the community leaders still with us who have retired from teaching, and then viewing the multitude of trained teachers at this noblest of all tasks, it can be said of Utah, "She has had no cause to plead pedagogical poverty.” But by pedagogical poverty I do not mean to say that teachers are as a rule on “Easy Street;" I mean that from the first the teachers of the schools of Utah have been good teachers.

IX-Evolution of Teacher's Pay and Preparation

The teacher has not received relatively his share of what has been created by honest toil. Often he has taught school because he loved the work and those for whom he worked, while he has been forced to make most of his “living” on the side. His vocation was not as compensative as his avocation. But the evolution of pay has gone on, beginning with what he could collect with sack on his arm, or pushing a wheelbarrow, or with some borrowed team, and up to the present, when the bank check is regularly mailed. There are instances now where the teacher receives more for one month's service than he did for six months' service four decades ago.

The day may be dawning when our educational motto may apply to the teacher in a twofold way: Get the best preparation and then get the best salary. Here are a few pointers I quote from the Journal of Education:

“A year ago there were but three cities in the United States that paid salaries higher than $6,000 for city superintendents. New York and Chicago paid $10,000 to their superintendents, and were in a class by themselves. Seattle paid $7,000. Today New York pays $12,000; Chicago, Boston and Cincinnati pay $10,000, and Philadelphia and Pittsburg $9,000.”

Surely the world moves educationally, if the salaries of superintendents have any significance.

XThe Rise of the Stepping Stone It has sometimes happened that school teaching has been made a stepping stone to something else, say law, medicine, engineering. But the stepping stone has stepped up. In the face of the following it would appear that teaching is very near the door of honor. From the Journal of Education we quote: “The fraternity rejoices in the election of Woodrow Wilson, as President of the United States.The evolution of the teachers' income has lagged behind the requirements made of him. For a new candidate to receive recognition as a permanently certificated teacher today, for the elementary schools, four years' high school training, supplemented by two years in the college, is required. For full recognition in the high schools of the state, a requirement of a four years' college course, with a four years' high school course, as a foundation, is demanded.

From the fact that the other professions, requiring no more preparation, are much more remunerative in this state, it must be seen that in order to get its share of the best talent, the teaching profession must expect to increase the teacher's compensation, even if some other educational output must be curtailed.

No one can hope for a greater proportionate revenue for education than the state of Utah allows, but the real educational growth of the state will demand a change in the distribution of the finances. It may not be possible to have buildings, furnishings and fixtures that are too good, but it is quite possible that we have a teaching force that is too poor.

The faculties of our higher institutions of learning are made up, in the main, of men and women who have done graduate and undergraduate work in institutions of the first rank in both America and Europe. We have done more than supply our own faculties with the majority of its members, for Utahns are to be found upon the faculties of a number of America's leading colleges.

In conclusion we present a summary of some of the educational results growing out of our educational effort: Utah made the first appropriation for an annual Art Exhibit. Utah was one of the first states to make the Kindergarten part of its public school system. Utah made the first appropriation for the National Education Association, excepting perhaps California.

Utah devotes 86 per cent of her taxes to Education, and her educational edifices are among the best in the land. Utah has always stood near the head of the list in respect to literacy, for many years standing third.

The report of the United States Commissioner of Education (1890-1910) shows that Utah and Iowa lead the United States in their percentage of secondary school students, these being the only two states that have over 20 per 1,000 of population. PROVO, UTAH

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LOOKING DOWN THE RIVER AT THE NARROWS IN OGDEN CANYON

The roadway in this scenic canyon is doubtless the best in the mountain country. From Ogden it extends twelve miles east to Ogden valley, through mountain scenes unequalled in the Wasatch range. A trolley road leads up the canyon for several miles.

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