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ness in their own community. Heretofore, the rural high schools have been feeders to the college and to city life. The high school is now seeking to readjust itself to the needs of the particular community in which it is situated. Courses are given in agriculture, outside of mining districts and first and second class cities. Courses in domestic art and science are offered, that the girls may become acquainted with household duties. Courses in music, commercial branches, and subjects leading to the professions are also given. But one of the main purposes now sought in the rural high school is to educate the stronger youth toward the farm and to industry instead of toward the professions and business exclusively. The greatest change in the Utah school system during recent years has taken place in the high schools. Only a decade ago, there were but four or five high schools in the state. Today there are forty. High school privileges are now accessible practically to all of the youth who are prepared to pursue courses in secondary instruction.
A word should be said of the public libraries. Recent legislation has made it the duty of the State Board of Education to promote the establishment and maintenance of libraries. School toards are required to set aside annually from the local school fund, a sum equivalent to fifteen cents for each child in the district of school age, which sum is expended for books recommended by the State Board of Education. The schools throughout the state now have libraries well adapted to the needs of the pupils. In addition to school libraries there are between twenty and thirty public libraries in various towns and cities. Since the beginning of the library-gymnasium movement, gifts aggregating $70,000 have been received from Andrew Carnegie. Other gifts from private and public organizations have contributed to the establishment of municipal libraries which are a distinct credit to the cities in which they are situated.
CONSOLIDATION About eight years ago, a law was enacted providing for the consolidation of small school districts into larger units of organization. Seven of the twenty-seven counties have already taken advantage of the benefits of this law and several other counties will doubtless consolidate their districts within a comparatively short time. In these consolidated districts, there is an equitable distribution of school funds. As a tax is levied upon all the assessable property of the county, sections with much corporate property necessarily contribute to the support of sections less favored in this respect. Consolidation admits readily of the appointment of efficient supervisors; of a desirable grading, both of teachers and of pupils; of economy in the purchasing of supplies; and of a more efficient school administration throughout.
While, as before stated, there has been a consistent development in the schools of Utah from the beginning, it is only fair to say that the schools have made especially commendable progress during recent years. The citizens have responded readily and generously to any requests which have appealed to them as beneficial to the schools. During the last decade we have changed our school law, and therefore our standards, so that now we have
MT. PLEASANT HIGH SCHOOL, SANPETE COUNTY, UTAH free, uniform text books, uniform 'state examinations for teachers, uniform examinations for eighth grade pupils, school libraries, better organized county teachers' institutes, a committee to prepare a state course of study, county consolidation of districts, a committee to approve school house plans, and medical inspection in city schools. Now our high schools receive state aid when they reach such standard of efficiency as is prescribed by the State Board of Education. Ten years ago, an eighth grade graduate was eligible for examination for a teaching certificate. Now four years of accredited high school work and at least nine hours in the professional subjects are required for entrance to the examination. The requirements for state certificates and diplomas have been greatly increased. A state high school diploma then represented scarcely more than one year's work of college grade. Now a full college course or its undisputed equivalent is required.
Corresponding increases have been made in the requirements for grammar grade diplomas and state five year certificates. Largely through these requirements the schools have grown in influence and efficiency. They are not perfect, but they are responding in an encouraging manner to our necessities and to the praiseworthy ideals of our people.
[Superintendent A. C. Nelson, who has faithfully and efficiently served Utah as Superintendent of Public Instruction since the year 1900, is a man who stands as well with the leaders in education in the United States as in our own State. Here is what Carrol G. Pearse, Superintendent of Milwaukee Public Schools, wrote last August: "Mr. Nelson is known to me, as he is to all the men engaged in school work thtroughout the country, as a splendid type of western educational leader, a man who commands the respect of all his associates throughout the country; and who is regarded by them with the warmest fecling of personal friendship.”
M. G. Brumbaugh, Ph. D., LL. D., Superintendent City Schools, Philadelphia, says of our state superintendent: “I count Superintendent Nelson one of the kingly men in the profession, able, alert, progressive, sane, and lovable.”
G. H. Harris, State Superintendent of Louisiana, writes: “I consider Superintendent Nelson one of the strongest superintendents in this country. He is so considered by thousands of men who annually attend the N. E. A.”—THE EDITORS.]
TECHNICAL BUILDING, SALT LAKE HIGH SCHOOL From a report by Mosiah Hall, State High School Inspector, it is learned that the following number of students were engaged in the principal high school subjects for the year 1912: In English and English literature, 4,919; in languages, including German, French, Spanish, Latin and Greek, 2,146; in mathematics, 3,780; in history and social sciences, 3,222; in sciences, 3,100; in industrial sciences and art, 3,325; in commercial subjects, 2,072. The average monthly salary of male teachers in the state is $118.90, and of female teachers, $90. In the languages, the greater number of students studied German, being 1,117.
Organization and Government of the Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
BY JOSEPH B. KEELER, OF THE BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
"In the founding of his over-hated Church, Joseph Smith displayed a consistent genius for organization and government that has baffled the best conceived plans of enemies, bent on undoing his work, during three generations, and half of a fourth.”
That is the opinion of a non-"Mormon" writer, Doctor Webb, who recently gave a lengthy review of some of the doctrines and policies advanced by the prophet Joseph Smith, founder of the religious organization known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Many other outsiders all down the line have in effect expressed the same judgment as this commentator. It is taken for granted, therefore, that any phases or particulars couched within the caption of this article would be alike interesting to the young "Mormon" as well as to the uninformed outsider.
I-Source of Authority for Organization At the outset, it should be said of Joseph Smith that he never claimed to have originated that form of church government so often ascribed to him ; it was not an emanation of his brain. He ever and persistently proclaimed that he was simply a human agent under the Almighty, in whatever he advocated either as law, religious principle, or as sociological doctrine. The "Mormons” themselves thoroughly believe this, however others may question its truth.
The world of mankind first began to know Joseph Smith when he announced that the heavens had been opened to him and he beheld two glorious personages, God the eternal Father, and his Son Jesus Christ. This event occurred in his fifteenth year, as he prayed fervently to know which church he should join. At intervals from this time on, from 1820 to the day of his death, 1844, he claimed communion with holy angels and to be constantly guided by Divine Providence pertaining to social and religious matters. The scope of this article precludes details of history showing the process of development of church government as a practical instrument by which a people have secured much of this world's comforts and a hope of happiness for the future. But two very important events must be mentioned.