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most of us do it very ill, and could not get on at | gelhood.” She would be doing what thousands all were we not able to fall back on others who of the very best of our sex are giving life and do it better. If we could not do it in any de strength to do. In thousands of homes these gree, we should be mere instruments in the same “ best of women” would value her (if she hands of those who could: they would be able to deserved it) as a faithful sister. But suppose reduce us to slavery. Then how shall we best a frivolous mother wants some ope upon whose learn to do this ? By being shown the way in shoulders to cast the duties irksome to herself, which it has already been successfully doue. and who is entirely content to give up those The processes by which truth is attained, rea- cares to an ignorant foreigner; is the labor insoning, and observation, have been carried to trinsically any the less high and holy? In their greatest known perfection in the physical such a situation she would be using her gifts sciences. As classical literature furnishes the and knowledge, eminently" for others,” with a most perfect types of the art of expression, so further reach and a more powerful leverage, if do the physical sciences those of the art of with a narrower field, than from the recitationthinking. Mathematics, and its application to room of a high school; and if she has had the astronomy and natural philosophy, are the most good sense once to have accepted the lower po. complete example of the discovery of truths by sition, how can she hesitate to fill it again till reasoning; experimental science of their dis.. she finds her true level? It cannot be lovg. covery by direct observation. In all these Every one, sooner or later, finds his or her place : cases we know that we can trust the operation, and by the allotments of Providence, the work because the conclusion to which it has led have that God has best fitted him or her to do. It been found true by subsequent trial. It is by is not wise for any young person to imagine the study of these, then, that we may hope to that society will appreciate their right-minded quality ourselves for distioguishing truth, in intentions, their holy resolves, their noble selfcases where there do not exist the same ready depials; all these are measured only by the means of verification.

" Father wbo seeth in secret."

Society pays (To be continued.)

for what it gets in tangible acts, often grudging.

ly. If you accomplish anything for society, it WAY NOT SAY THIS?

recognizes you when it is obliged to do so, and Not to dwell on the mistakes of the past, the pays you at its own time. But with God the question is, “ How shall the young lady appli- reward is sure ; and the very humblest labor is cant receive immediate compensation for some holy, dignified and angelic according to the kind of labor ?” In this respect she is just spirit in which it is performed. Let young wowhere young men of education and ability find men who meet these struggles help themselves, themselves every day-brought close to the al- and others in like circunstances, by creating a ternative of accepting for a time humble labor better public sentiment, by constantly insisting or none at all." To our Western cities and upon the justness of receiving an equal remu. towns come scores of young men, who cheer- deration to that awarded to young men for lafully undertake labors which at their Eastern bor of an equal qnality, and, lastly, by filling homes would be exceedinzly distasteful, if they every situation with the dignity of conscien. did not scorn them altogether, because they feel tious faithfulness. themselves qualified for a higher grade of work. All this I would say to my younger sisters And does any one give them credit for great with the utmost tenderness, fully remembering magnanimity? Does any one think they are how hard it is to struggle against the errors of anything more than manly in accepting with our false education, and fully measuring the out a murmur the hardness of the situation ? difficulties and perplexities by which they are So, for the educated young woman, one single surrounded. Had such counsel been given to half-hour spent in reverie over the rewards that me twenty years ago, it would have been a mine cultivated powers and high attainments ought of blessing, by God's favor, in strengthening to bring is so much time worse than lost. If my heart.-N. Y. Independent. she is so uofortuoate as to be in debt, she should accept the very first situation that offers, provided she can fill it honestly.

Oxygen, in its native condition, is a gas or Domestic service receives the best pay, ex- air. It floats freely in the atmosphere, forming, acts the lightest duties, and offers the most by measure, above one-fifth of the whole, and wholesome variety of exercise of any depart- by weight a much larger proportion. It is the ment of female labor. To be a cook, though, vital principle in the air,—that which supports requires more than book knowledge can give. both life and flame; the support of each of But ber education joined with the maternal in which is more nearly allied to each other (as stinct wbich most women possess, would fit ber we shall see ere loog) than most people think. for the holiest of duties, the care of children. But though it floats freely in the air, oxygen To spurn such a place is simply to “decline an. I is never found there alone. If it were so, iame

OXYGEN.

and life would burn with too much energy and nesium, and potassium, which are only met with rapidity. It is always diluted with another in a pure state after having passed through the gascous element, called nitrogen, in the propor laboratory of the chemist; because oxygen likes tion of twenty one parts of the former to seven- them so well that they can scarcely be parted. ty-vine of the latter. There are also small To these firm combinations we are indebted for and varying quantities of other gases and vaclay, sand, lime; yea, nearly all our earths, pors in the air; but these quantities of its chief which are really only, for the most part, oxides components are always constant, whether the of other elements. Their changes-nay, their air be light or heavy, expanded or compressed. very existence—are due to the preference which Oxygen exists also abundantly in water. There oxygen gives to one element over another, and it is not free, but chemically combined or unit- to its restless seeking for new combinations; and ed with hydrogen ; two elements thus com- by it nearly all the material operations of nabined always forming a very different substance ture, slow or rapid, minute or grand, are carfrom what either of them is alone. Oxygen ried into effect. - Our Own Fireside. will mix with hydrogen as gas; but wherever they may be in the proportions of two-thirds, Nothing renders one more bappy than to do by measure, of hydrogen and one-third of oxy. pleasantly what one must do from pecessity. gen, they have such an affinity or liking that if a spark or flame come in contact with them,

ITEMS. they will explode, and, uniting together, form

THE PANAMA RAILWAY.-Since the construction of

this rond across the Isthmus it bas carried nearly water ; existing in that state in many thousand 40,000 passeugers and $675,000,000 of treasure, the times less space than they occupied as gas or lutter from the Pacific to the Ailantic side of the air. Thus water is oxygen and hydrogen unit- Istbmus. The silver shipments over the road are ed or married, and flame is the priest which gradually declining, and most of the silver trangmarries them. And fire will unite oxygen with ported is shipped to the Isthmus from the Pacific many other elements beside hydrogen. In fact, transported 614,535 tons, but this year it is estimated

coast of South America. Of freight the road has either by that or other means, it may be made the traffic will amount to 150,000 tons. America chemically to unite with at least sixty-three out now controls the road, which rnns through the terof the sixty-five elements which bave been dis- ritory of New Grapada, but England is making great covered. And in such union it exists abun exertions to get possession of it.

From the Atlantic scaboard to Sacramento, by the dantly on the surface of the earth, forming railroad route, is 3129 miles, of which 1887 have about one half of its solid crust, or outer sur- been completed and are now in successful operation, face, as far as man has penetrated. Oxygen, leaving but 1252 miles yet to be built. Ii is confi. however, when thus married, is far from being dently asserted that the gap will be filled up witbio a faithful spouse.

two years. Its restlessness, and the

Owing to the stringent rules enforced in Lonisiada, preference it gives to one element over another, and the neglect of the whites to register, the New cause it to be continually seeking fresh com. Orleans papers say the proportion of registered colbinations. . Thus, when it is quietly settled ored voters to wbite volers is so large as to become down in water, the water may be set on fire by alarming. Outside the city the proportion is still throwing a piece of potassium in it; because greater. At the latest accounts the v ters registered

at Baton Rouge were thirty-six whites and three the nearest particles of oxygen leave the bydro-hundred and fifty colored. At Ascension, ffty-one gen, with which in water they were combined, wbites and seven hundred and ninety-six colored. to unite by Aame with the potassium which Part of the disproportion is accounted for by the they like better, and form potassa. And thus in fact that every qualified negro registered, wbile a a quieter way, if iron be thrown into water, large proportion of those whites not disfranchised bg

law refused to register. oxygen will leave the hydrogen and seize apon

The Third Annual Report of Friends' Association the outer particles, to form oxide of iron (rust), of Philadelpbia for the Aid and Elevation of the though this process goes on much more rapidly Freedmen, shows that their efforts the past year have in damp air, where the oxygen was free. And been directed almost exclusively to the establishment a volume might be written upon the uses to

and support of schools. Seventeen are represented which this oxide of iron is turoed; for it forms been found necessary to seek out from the more ad.

as in suocessful operation. In some of these it bas the red, orange, and yellow coloring of sands, vanced pupils those who showed decided qualificaand clays, and marbles, and the pigments of tions for teaching, and place them over the primary many paints. It gives strength to vegetables, classes. More than eight hundred children have and through them to animal frames, where it is dition and deportment of the colored people in sec.

been under instruction in these schools, and tbe condistinctly traced as the coloring watter of the tions where they are located are encouraging and blood; and in fine, supplies the warm and glow. hopeful. The Association asks the aid of Frieods to ing tiuts of uearly all outward nature. Rest. enable them to continue their teachers at tbeir posts less, however, as oxygen is generally, its uniou of usefulness. It is not thought that in future clotbing with some elements, especially some of the less and seeds will also be of great importance, and it is

will be needed, but money is iodispensable. Books koown metals, is bard to be severed. This is

hoped that all interested in the welfare of these peothe case with calcium, aluminum, sodium, mag. ple will generously respond to their need.

FRIENDS' INTELLIGENCER.

"TAKE FAST HOLD OF INSTRUCTION; LET TER NOT GO; KEEP HER; FOR SHE IS THY LIFE.”

VOL. XXIV.

PHILADELPHIA, SIXTH MONTH 15, 1867.

No. 15.

EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY AN ASSOCIATION

CONTENTS.
OF FRIENDB.

Review of the Life and Discourses of F. W. Robertson.... 225
Extracts from Bogatsky....

228 COMMUNICATIONS MUST BE ADDRESSED AND PAYMENTS The Compensations of Sorrow..

229 MADE TO The Press.........

229 EMMOR COMLY, AGENT, Companionship...

229 At Publication Office, No. 144 North Seventh Street,

Letter from Europe.

231 Open from 9 A.M. until 5 P.M, EDITORIAL .......

232 TERMS:-PAYABLE IN ADVANCE The Colored School System.

234 The Paper is issued every Seventh-day, at Three Dollars per Suffrage for Women .......

234 annum. $2.50 for Clubs; or, four copies for $10. Agents for Clubs will be expected to pay for the entire Club. POETRY........

235 The Postage on this paper, paid in avance at the office where It is received, in any part of the United States, is 20 cents a year. A Chinese History of America.......

236 AGENTS - Joseph S. Cohu, New York.

Extracts from John Stuart Mill's Inaugural Address......... 238
Henry Haydock, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Benj. Siraiton, Richmonel, Ind.
Liberality in Farming....

240
William H. Churchman, Indianapolis, Ind.
James Baynes, Baltimore, Md.
ITEMS..

240

BY S. M. JANNEY.

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REVIEW OF TIIE LIFE AND DISCOURSES OF of love, which is but a portion of it,-almsgive
F. W. ROBERTSON.

ing; and too saturated with that meaning to be

entirely disengaged from it, even when we use it (Continued from page 212.)

most accurately. Love is the great characteristic of Christian- Benevolence or philanthropy, in derivation, ity, and the seal of that life which is bid with come pearer to the idea : but yet you feel at Christ in God; for by this we know “we have once that these words fall short; they are too passed from death to life, because we love the tame and cool ; too merely passive, as states of brethren. He that loveth not his brethren feeling rather than forms of life. abiderb in death."-1 Joho. iii. 14.

We have no sufficient word. There is, there. This is the subject of one of Robertson's dis- fore, no help for it, but patiently to strive to courses, entitled, “The new commandment of master the meaning of this mighty word love, love to one another," from the text, Joho xiii. in the only light that is left us, the light of the 31. “A new commandment I give unto you, Saviour's life: 'As I have loved you;' that alone That ye love one another; as I have loved you, expounds it. that ye also love one another."

We will dispossess our minds of all precon“In the openiog of the discourse he says, ceived n'otions ; remove all low associations, all “ There is a difficulty in the atttempt to grasp partial and conventional ones. If we would'unthe meaning of this command, arising from the derstand this law, it must be ever a new ' fact that words change their meaning. Our commandment, ever receiving fresh light and Lord affixed a new significance to the word love. meaning from His life. It had been in use, of course, before, but the Take, I. The novelty of the law- That ye new sense in which He used it made it a new love one another.' word.

II. The spirit or measure of it—'As I have His law is not adequately represented by the loved you.' word love ; because love is, by conventional us. I. Its novelty. A new commandment:' yet age, appropriated to one species of human affeo- that law was old. See 1 John ii. 7, 8. tion, which, in the commoner men, is the most 1. It was new as a historical fact. We talk selfish of all our feelings; in the best, too ex- of the apostolic mission as a matter of course ; clusive and individual to represent that charity we say that the apostles were ordered to go and which is universal.

plant churches, and so we dismiss the great fact. Noris charity a perfect symbol of his meaning; But we forget that the command was rather the for charity by use is identified with another form 'result of a spirit working from within, than of

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an injunction working from without. That if to be a barbarian were identical with being a spirit was Love.

brute. And when that new spirit was in the world, Now, listen to Christ's exposition of the word see how straightway it created a new thing neighbor. • Ye have heard that it was said, Men before that had travelled into foreigo Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thine countries : the naturalist, to collect specimens; enemy. But I say unto you, love your enethe bistorian, to accumulate facts; the philoso- mies. And be went further. As a specimen pher, to hive up wisdom, or else he had stayed of a neighbor he specially selected one of that in his cell or grove to paint pictures of beautiful nation whom, as a theologian and a patriot, love. But the spectacle of an Apostle Paul every Jew had been taught to bate." crossing oceans, not to conquer kingdoms, por “3. It is new in being made the central to hive up knowledge, but to impart life, -oot principle of a system. Never had obedience to accumulate stores for self, but to give and to before been trusted to a pripciple : it had alspend himself,—was new in the history of the ways been hedged round by a law. The reli. world. The celestial fire had touched the hearts gion of Christ is not a law, but å spirit,--00t a of men, and their hearts flamed; and it caught, creed, but a life. To the one motive of love and spread, and would not stop. On they went, God bas intrusted the whole work of winning that glorious band of brothers, in their strange the souls of His redeemed. The heart of man enterprise, over oceans, and through forests, was made for love; pants and pines for it :penetrating into the dungeon, and to the throne; only in the love of Christ, and not in restricto the hut of the savage teeding on human flesh, tions, can his soul espand. Now, it was reserved and to the shore lined with the skin-clad in hab- for Oue to pierce, with the glance of intuition, itants of these far Isles of Britain. Read the down into the springs of human action, and to account given by Turtullian of the marvellous proclaim the simplicity of its machinery. Love,' rapidity with which the Christians increased said the apostle after Him,— Love is the ful. and swarmed, and you are reminded of one of filling of the law.' those vast armies of ants which move across a We are told that in the new commandment country in irresistible myriads, drowned by the old perishes; that under the law of love, thousands in rivers, cut off by fire, consumed, man is free from the law of works. Let us see by man and beast, and yet fresh hordes succeed how ing interminably to supply their place.

Take any commandment,-for example, the A new voice was beard; a new yearping sixth, the seventh, the eighth. I may abstain upon earth; man pining at being severed from from murder and theft, deterred by law; behis brother, and longing to burst the false dis- cause law bas annexed to them certain penaltinctions which had kept the best hearts from ties. But I may also rise into the spirit of each other so long; an infant cry of life-the Charity; then I am free from the law. The cry of the young Church of God. And all this law was not made for a righteous man ; the law from Judea—the narrowest, most bigoted, most no more biods or restrains me, now that I love intolerant pation on the face of the earth. my neighbor, than the dike built to keep in

Now, I say that this was historically a new the sea at bigh tide restrains it when that sea thing

has sunk to low-water mark. 2. It was new in extent. It was, in literal Or the seventh. You may keep that law from words, an old commandment, given before both dread of discovery,—or you may learn a higher to Jew and Gentile. To the Jew; as, for in- love: and then you cannot injure a human stance, in Lev. xix. 18. To the Gentile, in soul-you cannot degrade a human spirit. the recognition which was so often made of Charity bas made the old commandment superthe beauty of the law in its partial application, fluous. in the strong language of St. John, you as in the case of friendship, patriotism, domes- cannot sin, because you are born of God. tic attachment, and so on.

It was the proclamation of this, the great But the difference lay in the extent in which living principle of human obedience, not with these words one another' were understood. By the pedantry of a philosopher, nor the exaggerathem, or rather by neighbor,' the Jew meant tion of an orator, but in the simple reality of his countrymen; and narrowed that down again life, which made this commandment of Christ a to his friends among his countrymen; so that new commandment. the well-known Rabinical gloss upon these II. The spirit or measure of the law,-'as I words, current in the days of Christ, was, 'Thou have loved you.' shalt love thy neighbor, and bate thine ene- Broadly, the love of Christ was the spirit of my.' And what the Gentile understood by the giving all he had to give. “Greater love hath extent of the law of love, we may learn from the no man than this, that a man lay down his life well-known words of their best and wisest, who for his friend.' Christ's love was not a septi. thanked heaven that he was born a man, and ment; it was a self.giving. To that his adnot a brute; a Greek, and not a barbarian; as versaries bore testimony : He saved others;

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Himself He cannot save.' Often as we have divining what every one felt and every one
read these words, did it ever strike us,-and, if wanted, told that she had got out of self, and
Dot, does it not bring a flash of surprise when learned to think for others; so that at one time
we perceive it, -that these words, meant as it showed itself in deprecating the quarrel,
taunt, were really the noblest panegyric, a high- which lowering brows and raised tones already
er testimony and more adequate far than even showed to be impending, by sweet words; at
that of the centurion ? He saved others; another, by smoothing an invalid's pillow; at an.
Himself He cannot save.' The first clause con other, by soothing a sobbing child; at another,
tained the answer to the second - Himself He by humoring and softening a father who had
cadoot save! How could He, having saved returned weary and ill-tempered from the irri-
others ? How can apy keep what he gives ? tating cares of business. Nono but she saw
How can ang live for self, when he is living for those things. None but a loving heart could
others? Unconsciously, those enemies were see them.”
enunciating the very principles of Christianity, “That was the secret of her heavenly power.

grand law of all existence, that only by los Call you those things homely trifies, too ing self you can save others; that only by giv- homely for a sermon? By reference to the ing life you can bless."

character of Christ, they rise into something “That spirit of self-giving manifests itself in quite sublime. For that is loving as He loved. the shape of considerate kindliness. Take three And remark, too, these trifles prepare for larger cases : First, that in which He fed the people deeds. The one who will be found in trial with bread. 'I have compassion on the multi- capable of great acts of love, is ever the one tude, because they continue with me now three who is always doing considerate small ones. days, and have nothing to eat.' There was a The soul which poured itself out to death upon tenderness which, not absorbed in his own great the cross for the human race, was the spirit of designs, considered a number of small particu. Him who thought of the wants of the people, lars of their state-imagined, provided; and contrived for the rest of the disciples, and was this for the satisfaction of the lowest wants. thoughtful for a mother.". Again, to the disciples : Come ye yourselves “Once again :-It was a love never foiled by apart into a desert place, and resť awhile.' He the unworthiness of those on whom it had beca would not over-work them in the sublimest ser- once bestowed. It was a love which faults, device. He did not grudge from duty their inter- sertion, denial, unfaithfulness, could not chill, val of relaxation ; He even tenderly enforced even though they wrung his heart. He had it. Lastly, his dying words : 'B'hold thy mo- chosen; and the trusted. ther! Woman, behold thy son!

Short sen

And it is on this principle that Christ wins tences. He was too exhausted to say more. the hearts of His redeemed, He trusted the But in that hour of death-torture He could doubling Thomas; and Thomas arose with a think of her desolate state when he was gone, faith worthy of his Lord and bis God. He aud, with delicate, thoughtful attention, pro would not suffer even the lie of Peter to shake vide for her well being.

his conviction that Peter might love Him get; There are people who would do great acts; and Peter answered to that sublime forgiveness. but, because they wait for great opportunities, His last prayer was extenuation and hope for life passes, and the acts of love are not done at the race who had rejected Hing-and the kingall. Observe, this considerateness of Christ doms of the world are become IIis own. He was shown in little things. And such are the has loved us, God knows why-I do not; and parts of human life. Opportunities for doing we, all unworthy though we may be, respond greatly seldom occur— life is made up of infini- faintly to that love, and try to be what He would tesimals. If you compute the sum of happiness have us. in any given day, you will find that it was com- Therefore, come what

may,

hold fast to love. posed of small attentions,-kind looks, which Though men should rend your heart, let them made the heart swell, and stirred into health not embitter or harden it. We win by tenderthat sour, rancid film of misanthropy, which is ness; we conquer by forgiveness, O, strive to apt to coagulate on the stream of our inward enter into something of that large celestial life, as surely as we live in heart apart from our Charity which is meck, enduring, un retaliating, fellow-creatures. Doubtless the memory of and which even the overbearing world cannot each one of us will furnish him with the pic-withstand forever. Learn the new commandture of some member of a family whose very ment of the Son of God. Not to love, but to presence seemed to shed happiness :-a daugh love as he loved. Go forth in this spirit to ter, perbaps, whose light step even in the dis- your life-duties; go forth children of the cross tance irritated every one's countenance. What to carry everything before you, and win victowas the secret of such a one's power? What ries for God by the conquering power of a love had she done? Absolutely nothing; but ra- like His.” diant smiles, beaming good humor, the tact of

(To be continued.)

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