Page images
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors]

ders each State is bound to obey. The manner C. This is a vague expression for a vast distance; of his election is the same as that for a Gover-three li are usually recki ned to equal an English

mile.-Translator's Note. nor of a State. He holds his office four years,

d. Sometimes the Lieutenant-Governor is a sirgle or, if re-elected, for eight. Since the days of officer; in other cases several persons aid tbe GurWashington (who died in 17:9) the country ernor. bas existed sixty years; there have been pine e, They are also changed biennially, and sometimes Presidents, and the present incumbent (Tyler) annually.

f. When he bas held 'the office for eigbt years be was elected from Virginia.

cannot be re-elected. When Washington made peace with the

g. Ching Sbing and Hang Kwang were two patri. British be dismissed all the troops, and directed otic gunerals, who endeavored to overthrow the Tsin the attention of the country entirely to agricul. dynasty (B. C. 208), and restore the feudal system, ture and commerce. He also issued a mandate and establish their own prince in his stead.' Tsan saying, “ If hereafter a President should cor. first of whom destroyed the great Han dynasty, and

Tsa, and Sin Pi were rival chieftans (A. D. 220), the etously plot how he can seize the forts or lands the second, after surviving all his own efforts to up, of another kingdom, or harass apd extort the bold it, founded a small Siate himself in the west of people's wealth, or raise troups to gratify his China. The four-footed falcbion is an allusion to the personal quarrels, let all the people put him to celebrated sword of Sin Pan, the founder of the Han death." He accordingly retained only twenty buge serpent that crossed his path. The three mon

dynasty (B. C. 202), with wbicb he clove in twain a Dational war vessels, and limited the army to archs, Yan, Shun, and Yu, were among the earliest ten thousand men.

Cbinese rulers (B. C. 2357–2405), and were chosen The area of the country is very great, and to fill the throne on account of tbeir virtues. every one exerts himself to increase its fertility and riches. The several States hare all ove ob- Extracts from Inaugural Aditress of Joun ject, and act together in entire barmony; the STUART MILL," delivered to the University of other nations of the world have therefore main- St. Andrews, Scotland. taided amicable relation with the Upited States,

(Continued from page 223.) and bave never presumed to despise or encroach In what consists the principal and most charon them. During the sixty years that have acteristic difference between one human intelelapsed since peace with England, there has lect and another? In their ability to judge been no interval war, and their trade has in- correctly of evidence. Our direct perceptions creased, so that the number of American mer- of truth are so limited; we know so few things chantmen resorting to Canton yearly is second by immediate intuition-or, as it used to be only to those of Great Britain.

called, by simple apprehension--that we depend It

appears from the above that Washington for almost all our valuable knowledge, on eviwas a very remarkable man. In devising plans dence external 10 itself; and most of us are he was more daring than Chin Shing or Hain very unsafe hands at estimating evidence, where Kwang. In winning a country be was braver an appeal cannot be made to actual eyesight. than Tson Tsan or Sin Pis. Wielding his four. The intellectual part of our education has nofoot falchion, he enlarged the frontiers myriads thing more to do, than to correct or mitigate of miles, and yet he refused to usurp regal dig- this almost universal infirmity—this summary nity, or even to transmit it to posterity; but, on and substance of nearly all purely intellectual the contrary, first proposed the plan of electing weakness. To do this with effect needs all the men to office. Where in the world can be found resources which the most perfect system of intela mode more equitable? It is the same idea, in lectual training can command. Those resources, fact, that has been handed down to us (the Chi- as every teacher knows, are but of three kinds : nese) from three reigns of San Shun and first, models, secondly, rules, thirdly, appropriYu. In ruling the State be honored and fos- ate practice. The models of the art of estimatered good usages, and did not exalt military ting evidence are furnished by science; the rules merit, a principle totally unlike what is found are suggested by science; and the study of sciin other kingdoms. I have seen his portrait.ence is the most fundamental portion of the pracHis mien and countenance are grand and im- tice. pressive in the highest degree. Ob, who is there Take in the first instance mathematics. It that does not call him a hero! (y)

is chiefly by mathematics we realize the fact Notes.

that there actually is a road to truth by means

of reasoning ; tbat anything real, and which a. It is also called Collected Nations of America. United Leagued Nations, Confederated Countries of will be found true when tried, can be arrived at America, and United all States (i. e. these different by a mere operation of the mind. The flagrant Chinese names have been used).

abuse of mere reasoning in the days of the b. This flag is an oblong banner, with red and schoolmen, when men argued confidently to white stripes alternating; in the right hand cor

supposed facts of outward nature without proner is a small square of a black color, wherein are drawn many white spots arranged in a form resemb- perly establishing their premises, or cheeking ling the Constellation of the Dipper.

the conclusions by observation, created a preju

[ocr errors][ocr errors]


dice in the modern, and especially in the Eng-| by means of facts that can be directly observed,
lish mind, against deductive reasoning alto-ascends to laws which govern multitudes of
gether, as a mode of investigation. The preju- other facts-laws which not only explain and
dica lasted long and was upheld by the misun. account for what we see, but give us assurance
derstood authority of Lord Bacon; until the beforehand of much that we do not see, much
prodigious applications of mathematics to phy- that we never could have found out by observa-
sical science—to the discovery of the laws of tion, though hariog been found out, it is always
external nature-slowly and tardily restored verified by the result.
the reasoning process to the place which be- While mathematics, and the mathematical
longs to it as a source of real knowledge. Ma- sciences, supply us with a typical example of the
thematics, pure and applied, are still the great ascertainment of truth by reasoning, those phy-
and conclusive example of what can be done by sical sciences which are not inathematical, such
reasoning Mathematics also habituates us to as chemistry, and purely experimental physics,

several of the principal precautions for the safe-show us in equal perfection the other mode of
ty of the process. Our first studies in geometry arriving at cer:ain truth, by observation, in its
teach us two invaluable lessons. One is, to lay most accurate form, that of experiment. The
down at the beginning, in express and clear value of mathematics in a logical point of
terms, all the premises from which we intend view is an old topic with mathematicians, and
to reason. The other is, to keep every step in has even been insisted on so exclusively as to
reasoning distinct and separate ?róm all the provoke a counter-exaggeration, of which a
other steps, and to make each step safe before well-known essay by Sir William Hamilton is
proceeding to another; expressly stating to our an example: but the logical value of experi- .
selves, at every joint in the reasoning, what mental science is comparatively a new subject,
new premise we there introduce. It is not ne- yet there is no intellectual discipline more im-
cessary that we should do this at all times, in portant than that which the experimental sci-
all our reasonings. But we must be always ences afford. Their whole occupation coosists
able and ready to do it. If the validity of our in doing well, what all of us, during the whole
argument is denied, or if we doubt it ourselves, of life, are engaged in doing, for the most part
that is the way to check it. In this way we are badly. All men do not affect to be reasoners,
often enabled to detect at once the exact place but all profess, and really attempt, to draw in-
where paralogism or confusion get in: and af. ferences from experience : yet hardly any one,
ter sufficient practice we may be able to keep who has not been a student of the physical
them out from the beginning. It is to mathe- sciences, sets out with any just idea of what
matics, again, that we owe our first notion of a the process of interpreting experience really is.
connected body of truth; truths which grow If a fact has occurred once or oftener, and
out of one another, and hang together so that another fact has followed it, people think they
each implies all the rest; that no one of them have got an experiment, and are well on the
can be questioned without contradicting an road towards showing that the one fact is the
other or others, until in the end it appears that cause of the other. If they did but know the
no part of the system can be false unless the immense amount of precaution necessary to à :
whole is so. Pure mathematics first gave us scientific experiment; with what sedulous care
this conception; applied mathematics extends the accompanying circumstances are contrived
to it the realm of physical nature. Applied ma- and varied, so as to exclude every agency but
thematics shows that not only the truths of ab- that which is the subject of the experiment
stract number and extension, but the external-or, when disturbing agencies cannot be ex-
facts of the universe, which we apprehend by cluded, the minute accuracy with which their
our senses, form, at least in a large part of all influence is calculated and allowed for, in order
Dature, a web similarly held together. We are that the residue may contain nothing but what
able, by reasoning from a few fundamental is due to the one agency under examination ;
truths, to explain and predict the phenomena of if these things were attended to, people would
material objects: and what is still more re- be much less easily satisfied that their opinions
markable, the fundamental truths were them have the evidence of experience; many popular
selves found out by reasoning; for they are not notions and generalizations which are in all
such as are obvious to the senses, but had to be mouths, would be thought a great deal less
inferred by a mathematical process from a mass certain than they are supposed to be; but we
of minute details, which alone came within should begin to lay the foundation of really
the direct reach of human observation. When experimental knowledge, on things which are
Newtop, in this manner, discovered the laws of now the subjects of mere vague discussion,
the solar system, he created, for all posterity, where one side has as much to say and says it
the true idea of science. He gave the most as confidently as another, and each person's
perfect example we are ever likely to have, of opinion is less determined by evidence iban by
that union of reasoning and observation, which his accidental interest or prepossession. In

[ocr errors]

politics, for instance, it is evident to whoever bas been selected is known as the Cassegranian telecomes to the study from that of the experiment- scope. It differs from the Gregorian form in appaal sciences, that no political conclusions of any confers on it some striking advantages. In the lat

really a very slight degree, but to an extent wbich value for practice can be arrived at by direct ter the reflected image is received upon a small cun. experience. Such specific experience as we can cave speculum; in the Cassegranian the surface of

; have, serves only to verify, and even that insuf- the small mirror is convex. By this apparently slight ficiently, the conclusions of reasoning. Take difference is secured more light, and a better defined any active force you please in politics, take the image in consequence of the small convex mirror

correcting the aberration necessarily present in the liberties of Eogland, or free trade; how should large concave mirror. The tube of the telescope is we know that either of these things conduced of the enormous diameter of four and a half feet, and to prosperity, if we could discern po tendency of proportional length. The diameter of the specuin the things themselves to produce it? If we lum is but six inches less thao that of the tube, or had only the evidence of what is called our ex. and weighing about twenty-seven bundred weight.

four feet, being four and a half inches in thickness, perience, such prosperity as we enjoy might be the telescope will be moved by clock-work.—Counowing to a hundred other causes, and might try Gentleman. have been obstructed, not promoted, by these. The “Dominion of Canada” may be regarded as All true political science is, in one sense of the baving begun its existence. The Queen's proclamaphrase, à priori, being deduced from the ten- tion was made on the 22d of Fifth month, declaring

that Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were deocies of things, tendencies known either united as this dominion, and nominating the Senathrough our general experience of human na- tors who are to be summoned as the “Senate of ture, or as the result of an analysis of the Canada.” course of history, considered as a progressive

An exhibition has recently left England, under the evolution. It requires, therefore, the union of auspices of the Royal Geographical Society, to ex. induction and deduction, and the mind that is plore the interior of Greenland. This immense island

-if island it be-supposed to be larger than the equal to it must bave been well disciplined in whole United States between the Canadian line and both. But familiarity with scientific experi. the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mississippi and the Atments at least does the useful service of inspirlantic Ocean, bas never yet been thoroughly explored.

Edward Whymper, of Alpine fame, and Robert Brown, ing a wholesome scepticism about the conclu

a Rocky Mountain explorer, are the leaders of this sions which the mere surface of experience expedition. suggests.

The slaves who were emancipated by John Ran(To be continued.)

dolpb were settled by him upon land which he gave

them in Obio. The Judge of their district says LIBERALITY IN FARMING.

there never was one of them before him for any vioIn this art, and almost in this art alone, “it lation of law.. They are peaceable, la w-abiding, in. is the liberal band which maketh rich."

dustrious, thrifty and courteous, and command the

respect of their neighbors. Liberality in providing utensils is the saving

Sir Charles Lyell in a new edition of his “ Princiboth of time and labor. The more perfect his ples of Geology notices tbe discovery of fish in some instruments, the more profitable are they. of the Artesian Wells suok in the desert of Sabara.

So also is it with his working cattle and his They were brought from the depth of 175 feet, and stock. The most perfect in their kiods are ever

were not blind like those of Adelsburg, but bad per

fect eyes. the most profitable.

It is estimated that there are tbirty-two and oneLiberality in good bards and warm shelter is balf millions of sheep in the loyal twenty States the source of health, strength and comfort to and two territories. It is supposed that the annual animals; causes them to thrive on less food; number of lambs will be over twenty-four millions. and secures from damage all sorts of crops.

THE DIAMOND MINES OF BRAZIL.—These mines have Liberality also in the provision of food firing the gems fron the earth, a driver places a gang

been visited by a gentleman who writes that, in tak. domestic animals is the source of flesh, muscle of slaves in a mud-hole where the gems are found, and manure.

and pans out the earth in the water like gold-washLiberality to the earth, in seed, culture, and ers. The negroes are naked, to prevent their secret. compost, is the source of its profit.

ing the diamonds in their clothes. They are required Thus it is in agriculture, as in every part of raise a band to the face, lest they should swallow the

to work facing the overseer, and are forbidden to creation, a wise and paternal Providence has in- jewels when found. Yet they do carry them away, separably connected our duty and our happi- by becoming so espert that they can stap them with Dess.

their fingers from the pan to the mouth without deIn cultivating the earth, the condition of

tection. man's success is his industry upon it.-Josiah stone bas sailed from England.

The expedition to Africa in search of Dr. LivingQuincy.

The New York branch of the American Freed.

men's Union Commission bas, since the first of 10th ITEMS.

month, put into the field 163 teachers, of whom 186 AN IMMENSE Telescope. One of the largest and are now actively engaged in the service. They are most improved telescopes ever constructed in Eng-distributed as follows: Delaware, 4; Maryland, 7; land is now nearly completed, and is intended for District of Columbia, 24; Virginia, 41; North Caro. Melbourne. It was made under the direction of the lina, 23; South Carolina, 39; Florida, 7, and leoRoyal Society, at a cost of $25,000, Tbe form which 'nessee 1.


[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]




The Ministry of the Senses and Appetites to Human Culture 242
Counsel from an Aged Mother.......

Extracts from an Essay on the Effects of Sorrow

Pure Air Essential to Profitable Worship.

246 At Publication Office, No. 144 North Seventh Street, Companionship.

Open from 9 A.M. until 5 P.M,
Saving Faith


248 TERMS:-PAYABLE IN ADVANCE Doing Good by Proxy. The Paper is issued every Seventh-day, at Three Dollars per How our Indian Troubles Arise.

250 annum. $2.50 for Clubs; or, four copies for $10.

Strength of the Beetle..

250 Agents for Clubs will be expected to pay for the entire Club.


251 The Postage on this paper, paid in advance at the office where It is received, in any part of the United States, is 20 cents a year. Sympathy for the Poor.......

251 AGENTS -Joseph S. Cohu, New York.

John G. Whittier on his own Literary Life.

Henry Haydock, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Lead Pencils-......

Benj. Straiton, Richmond, Ind.
William H. Churchman, Indianapolis, Ind.

Extracts from John Stuart Mill's Inaugural Address. ....... 253
James Baynes, Baltimore, Md.





THE MINISTRY OF THE SENSES AND APPETITES able from all others. We see the inconvenience,

and sometimes fatal inconvenience, of not being
able to distinguish one man from another, in the

very few and rare cases of remarkable resemThere are other peculiarities in the human blance. If this were common, it would hardly organization to be noticed.

be too much to say that the intercourse, the One is the countedance. You can conceive, business, the very civilization of the world must though perhaps with difficulty, that on striking stop. Not to know certainly whom we talked an ox or a dog with a cruel blow, the animal with, whom we traded with, who had told us or might turn around upon you, with a distinctly promised us this or that, whom we had married or human expression of indignation or reproach; / who our children were; the world would be as much as to say, “I have my thoughts, and thrown into utter confusion; and all good relathis is cruel.” If no other feature could express tions would become impossible. To prevent that, the eye might. It does not; that power this, there is achieved in the human counteis not given to the animal face; if it were, it Dance, what seems to me scarcely short of a mirwould be such a metamorphosis as would fill us acle. Here it is—a little patch of white ground, with terror, and would penetrate with horror nine inches long and six wide, with the parts every reckless or savage abuser of the uncom- the same, the configuration the same, and the plaiding, dumb creatures that God has given hues generally the same; and yet, if all the for his service. But man is made to stand hundreds of millions of the human race were erect, and the crowning glory of his person is a brought together, every man could pick out countenance, every lineament of which is from them all, his friend, with a certainty equal clothed with moral expression. The lowering to that of his own identity: brow of defiance, the cheek blanched with in- Finally, the human hand is to be mentioned. It dignation, the eye challenging truth, or killing serves indeed one of the purposes of the animal with accusation, or veiled and shaded with soft-claw or forefootmi. e., to obtain food. Taking eping pity, the winning sweetness of smiles, into account the forearm, the arm, and shoulder, the whole manifold mirror of radiant goodness it is worthy of note, that a similar formation and honor-all is moral ministration. And in- prevails throughout the entire animal eo nomy, deed, speaking of smiles, I think I never saw a as if nothing more perfect could be devised. smile that was not beautiful. Hardly less re- That is to say, there are the scapulæ or shoul. markable, perhaps, is the circumstance of every der blades, the clavicles or collar bones to keep man's face being his own, clearly distinguish them from pressing upon the chest, the arm,

[ocr errors]

the forearm, and the hand, claw, or hoof, as the sensitive constitution; and I am persuaded the
case may be. The same general construction question can be met. But I ask the inquirer
is found in the fins of the fish, the wings of the to see, in general, what his sinple senses teach
bird, and the foreleg of the quadruped. But in him. I ask him to consider his own physical
this organ,

I do not say, comes to its per- frame, fearfully and wonderfully made, as the
fection for all its perfection, every animal has very shrine of wise and good teaching, and to
that which is best for itself--but this organ listen to the oracle that comes from within. Ay,
comes in man to answer purposes peculiar to to the oracle ; but remember it is when pature's
himself; and most of these are mental and flame burns upon the altar, and not the strange
moral. " The indefeasible cunning" that lies fire of idolatrous passion. I appeal to nature
in the right band, has more to do than to pro- against sensualism; and am willing to risk the
cure food. For instance, it has to fashion cause of virtue on that issue. I will show you
olothing, without which there could not be com - I think, at least, I can show-that simple na-
fort in all climates, nor civilization in any. No tural appetite it is not, that leads to vicious and
animal could cut cloth, or sew it, or thread the ruinous excess, but something else. I concede
needle. Then, again, all the practical arts de the liberty in our physical constitution-pro-
pend upon the hand-building, the use of tools, vided it can be truly understood—to follow
all skill in making fabrics, which is called nature.
manufacturing. Then, all the fine arts require “ Fatal concession !" I heard it said. “Fa.
the hand-painting, sculpture, music. Then, tal concession !" exclaim both ancient philoso-
once more, all writing is handwriting. All bu phy and modern religion. “What can the body
man communication, beyond that which is oral, teach, but evil, error, excess, vice?”
all literature, all books, all works of genius, all

Let us see.

You find yourself possessed with the grandest agencies in the world depend upon a nature other than your spiritual nature : difthe hand. Yes, in the human hand lies the ferent from it, inferior to it; and you hastily whole moral fortune, the whole civilization, the cooclude that because its qualities are lower, its whole progress of humanity. The right arm is uses must be lower, and its tendencies all downa lever that moves the world.

ward. You say, or think, perhaps, that if your I have thus spoken of certain parts of the being were a purely spiritual essence, you would human organism as superior to the animal, and be free from all swayings to evil. But how do as evidently intended to answer bigher purpose you know that? Nay, keeper than the tempta-touch, speech, laughter, the human face and tions of sense itself, are the spiritual passions hand. Let us now consider, in the next place, ambition, envy, revenge, and malignant bate. the general ministry of the senses, appetites, You imagine that if your present frame were and passions.

exchanged for some ethereal body, you would Some of you, I have no doubt, will feel, when have passed out of the sphere of evil and peril. you hear these words, appetites and passions, as That, again, you do not know. Come, then, to if I named things that are not friends, but ene- the simple fact, and let it stand upprejudiced mies to human culture. You have associated by any theory, or any fancy, or any comparison. with them perbaps only ideas of temptation. God has given to us, in the present stage of our But in the good order of Providence, I am per- being, this body—this wonderful frame. Sinews suaded it will always be found that temptation and ligaments bind it together, such as no huand ministration go together, and that ministra- man skill could ever have devised. Telegraphic tion is the end, and temptation only the inci. nerves run all over and through this microcosm, dent. Temptation is but another word for this little world, and bear mysterious messages, strong attraction to a thing; that attraction is vital as thought and swift as sunbeams. Now necessary, and was never meant to be injurious I say that these are all moral bonds, good midbut useful. I do not say, therefore, with some, istries, channels meant to inform and replenish that powerful passions and appetites were placed the soul, and not to clog or corrupt it. in man on purpose to try his virtue, but that I bardly need say this, in the first place, of they were placed there for other ends; that the five distinct senses-touch, taste, smell, they are, in fact, a necessary part of the human sight, hearing. They are the mind'e instrueconomy; and that the trial is purely incidental, ments to communicate with the outward world; and in fact unavoidable. Just as fire was not instruments so varied as to convey every kind meant to burn the house, nor, as the main in- of information; servants that need not to be tent, to make the keepers vigilant, but simply sent to and fro on errands, but that stand as to warı it, though it could not warm, without perpetual ministrants—before the gates of mornbeing liable to burn it.

ing, and amidst the melody of groves, and by I shall solicit attention particularly to this the bowers of fragrance, and at the feast of napart of the human economy, to these fires of ap- ture, and wherever the pressure of breathing petite and passion in the house of life; because life and beauty comes to ask admission to the here arises the only moral question about our soul. The body is a grand harmonicon, a pan

« PreviousContinue »