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such means to loosen the terrible bondage of forms, many social customs, many abuses digniFashion ? If a woman singly has not the moral fied by Fashion, and now considered as necescourage to resolve that she will adopt no fashion sities, will be abolished, and in the liberty, the that makes her appear bold and unfeminine, enjoyment and the development of a higher none that is injurious to health, none that order of faculties which will ensue, society will make scrupulous cleanliness impossible, none look back with astonishment, and ask, “Were that are unbecoming, inconvenient or too ex- these things ever so ?” “Did women ever pensive, then let her strengthen her feeble will sacrifice good taste, convenience, and even modand supply her want of independence by asso-esty at the bidding of some one, they knew not ciation with others who are prepared practically whom ? and did the sensible and high-minded to protest that they will be slaves no longer. bow down also, while they inwardly protested If such an association could be formed, large against it?” Fancy might run riot in depictenough and influential enough to tell upon a ing the change that would be produced were community, Fashion would be foiled with its this tyrant laid low. Many a young woman own weapons, and it might come to be the whose appearance and manners suggest the idea fashion for each one to dress according to ber of a butterfly existence would be transformed own taste and her own sense of fitness, without into a being she would herself scarcely recogdanger either of forfeiting her position in society nize. Powers she was hardly aware of possessor of being supposed more religious than she ing would be discovered, and the time, the really is.
thought and the means once 'spent in votive Although it is in dress that the tyranny of offerings at this shrine would go to enrich and Fashion is most seen, yet there is a social emu- beautify her whole nature, making her existence lation springing from the same source, which not an ephemeral one, like the butterfly, but creeps into almost every department of life, enduring in its influence, because a part of the repressing spontaviety, originality and inde fabric of Christian Civilization. pendence of character, and doing its utmost to In the reform of many of those social babits reduce all to a dead level. It strains every en- imposed upon us by custom, we should find a ergy in those whose means are narrow to keep freedom, a sincerity, and a consequent enjoy. up as nearly as possible in style of living with ment of social intercourse, to which we are now those whose means are ample; it fashions our strangers. Were the insincerity and untruth. entertainments without regard to our pecuniary fulness which are now thought necessary in means, transfers the habits of the city to the order that the machinery of society may move country, however inconvenient and unfitting, smoothly, laid aside, the necessity for cultivating and substitutes a restless craving to do as oth- those virtues wbich politeness only simulates ers do for that calm serenity which is the por- would be doubly felt, and in place of mere potion of thcse who assume nothing and are con- liteness we should have justice, kindness, selftent to appear what they really are. What a denial, generosity. But, it may be urged, these state of society would be witnessed were this are Christian virtues, and the fruits of the unhealthy stimulant withdrawn! for a stimulant Spirit! Truly they are; but no one can know it undoubtedly is, and one too that leads to much until he has put away evil (and much of the activity and improvement in material things. fruit of Fashion is evil) how many of the ChrisMany a character would then shine out resplen. tiau graces will take its place.
S. dently that is now shrouded by striving to be like someone else. How much care and toil
Quiet confidence in God is the only way to and fretting would be avoided, and the energy in times of distress forsake the mercy seat and
obtain deliverance from darkness. They who thus expended, if turned into purer channels, would enrich and sweeten life.
rely on their own devices must “ lie down in Much of this emulation and restlessness is sorrow.” peculiar to our own country, and is no doubt
PROGRESSION. partly owing to the equality and absence of Read at the Fourth Annual Reunion of Friends' Social distinctly marked classes existing amongst us. Lyceum, on the grounds of Swarthmore College. But this effect need not be permanent. May “And God said let there be light." Gen. i. 3. “There is no we not hope that a higher culture, that is, a culture of the higher faculties (which is to be His word returns not void. Around the world in "the good time coming,") and a more en- Progression, means alone perceiving facts
The light is spreading, and that term we call larged sphere of useful activity, will raise wo- And learning plans of Nature,-means alone man above the liability of being brought under the seeing of those truths, long overlooked, bondage to a power which in ber best moments which are as old as their Eternal Source. she despises. The world is gradually breaking Fresh applications of some well known fact loose from all the grosser and more palpable Inventions called, which fill these modern days,
We make in physics, and the new results, forms of tyranny; and when attention shall be so passing full of wonders, but repeat called by the wise and gifted to its more subtle | The words-—"There's no new thing beneath the sun."
new thing under the sun." Eccl. 1. 9.
Five years ago, in yonder city fuir,
there better entertainment with the creature When darkness nightly came upon the earth, than with God I-Flavel. The merchants closed their shutters, and the grate Of bolts was heard, and all tbeir costly wares Were hid. Now, far across the cheerful streets
LIFE IN THE HEBRIDES. The light streams out through windows wide, and The Habits of the Middle Ages in the Nineteenth Century. shows
The Scottish Educational Commission gives To passers all the merchandize within. Our princely traders here the olden fact
incidentally some curious glimpses of Scottish Apply, that burglars fear revealing light
life. Mr. Nicholson, an assistant commissioner Far more than bolts and bars, and so they make who visited the Hebrides, gives an account of A guard of its clear beams.
the way in which the people live in the island Three years ago, When ships put out to sea and bore the loved
of Lewis, which has a population of more than At home distant lands, the anxious friends twenty-one thousand souls. Awaited for the weeks to bring the news
After specially excepting Stornoway, he says: That safe the ship had reached its port. Last month " In other parts of the island the general apI heard a mother say, "the ship in which Our Edward sailed, at Queenstown touched to-day;" | described as that of ill-developed hybrids be
pearance of the dwellings of the people may be And then the thrill that through the cable ran Beneath the sea, ran through our hearts, and filled
tween the hay and the peat stack. In fact the Our souls with awe, our eyes with joyful tears, peat-stocks, which generally line the space in And thanks arose that man had learned so much front of them, are of much more symmetrical Of that which Nature always beld for him.
architecture than the houses. The practice of Ten years ago our country's banner red
housing the cattle under the same roof with the With blood we saw. The proud oppressor's arm Was strong, and wrong appeared triumphant. Now
human family still prevails to a very large exThe slave 18 rearing schools, and wielding votes,
tent. The Lewis people for the most part And singing loud Hosannas on the banks
tenaciously adhere to the rude menage of their Of all the rivers where he toiled in pain,
ancestors. The description of their houses And Kelley stands in Mobile's streets, and speaks given in the old statistical account seventy The equal truth to slave and master. Here At last we've learned the olden truth that Wrong years ago, requires no modification yet. The Must fall, and Right is strong, and Justice blooms
uncouthness of the outside is generally in faithAll over with the lilies white of peace.
ful correspondence with the state of the interior. Nature adberes unto her first-laid plan
i Windows in the wall are a rare extravagance. In all her work, and God, to every soul,
Usually there is just a single pane in the lower Repeats the law that never knew a change.
part of the roof, dimly revealing the otherwise By ancient rules these trees and flowers compound
conspicuous absence of furniture. From air and earth their essences and sweet Aromas, build, by them, their structures fair,
“ Visiting one of these dwellings with a And scatter seeds to bring renewing green
friend who knew the occupants, the old woman To all the summers.
who did the honors of the house at the time, acHe, the Beautiful,
commodated us with stools, humbly apologizing Who stood transfigured on the mountain, in for the absence of the chair.' My friend inHis dispensation new, transcended not
quired what had become of it, whereupon the That old sublime command, the Lord thy God, With all thy heart and all thy mind, thou still
venerable woman gave a full and true account Shalt love, and love thy neighbor as thyself.
of how it had been sent to a neighbor on the In coming times, the daughters and the sons occasion of a call from the minister, and had Shall understand a little more of God's
progressed from house to house for the same Great work in Nature than their fathers knew.
purpose, and not yet returned. [In reference They sball be taught, with fearless hearts, to bring The fullest light to bear on every aet
to this subject it is right to bear in mind the And thought, and trained to feel that truth shall almost total want of native timber.] The enstand,
trance to a house is generally through a rude And error only, sbrink and flee before
porch, of aspect like a small cave in a hillside Its beams; and thus an outlook far and wide, A life more rich and large, shall be secured ;
of a trap, the walls being of dry stone, someBut for that rest for which the spirit sighs,
times mixed with turf. Beyond this one de. And for that triumph which alone gives life scends-supposing the season to be summer or Its crown of glory,-triumph over self
autumn; in spring, before the contents are And over death and over every fear
emptied, it is an ascent--into the apartment of Saro that of sin,--the olden way must still
the cows. Be trod, and mun within the quiet deeps of his own soul must still acquaint bimself
“ Cautiously picking his steps, the explorer With God to be at peace.
Ang Preston. turns to the right, and through the gloom ad
vances to where the peat fire, burning in the It is as necessary as sweet that we and our centre of the floor, reveals the residence of the reios (that is our secret thoughts) should con- human inhabitants, and sends the circling fer together every night. We should call our eddies of blue smoke up to the straw roof, hearts to account every evening, and say, through which it makes its way'at its own my heart, where hast thou been to-day? Is sweet will,' without the aid of a chimney. For,
strange to say, the chief end of a house is studies and duties leads them to find no interest Lewis is not to keep out the elements, but to in commonplace duties and everyday affairs. produce manure for the potatoes from the floor Even Howard, the philanthropist, who visited beneath the cattle and the sooty thatch above, all the prisons in Europe, and performed the which is regularly lifted off once a year. Yet most important works for humanity, has been within these murky receptacles live many brave accused of grossly neglecting the education and and stal wart, and sometimes most exemplary proper treatment of his own son. Alas, poor men. There are probably no better or bolder youth! had he only been a prisoner and his boatmen on the British coasts than the fisher- father not known him, he might have been remen of Lewis, especially of Ness and Uig. On lieved. We heard of a clergyman's wife lamentany sea where a boat can live-and the seas ing that she were not a simple member of the there must be seen to be judged of- they will congregation, for then her husband would find venture out in open boats, however the wind leisure sometimes to give her spiritual advice. blow, far out of sight of land. Their hardihood The more men are used to work on a large is often rewarded by takes of ling such as are scale, the more prone they are to beglect the rarely to be got anywhere else. There is also a triling duties on which the happiness and usegood deal of lobster fishing.
fulness of life to so great a degree depend. " The only other important sources of em. Nearly all literary men are prone increasingly ployment in the island besides, of course, the to neglect the bodily health, so far as exercise occupations connected with agriculture, are the and recreation are concerned. In turn the useimprovements going on in the neighborhood of fulness of almost every man of peculiar power the castle and elsewhere, which give constant loses more or less of its natural strength by neoccupation to a considerable number of people, glecting some every day duties of this sphere. and the ternporary but renumerative occupation Even the most profound mathematicians are afforded in Stornoway during the herring fish- found to be so much less reliable in working ery in summer. A good many people are also out the easier and common processes and rules, employed in connection with the works erected that Say mentions in bis Political Economy by the proprietor for the extraction of oil, &c., that it was found best to let humbler arithmefrom peat. There is none of that regular yearly ticians work out the details from formulas premigration for work to the Lowlands which pre-pared by the profourder men. The fact is, vails in some of the other islands. Ecclesiastic that commonplace calculations do not entice ally, nearly the whole population is connected the mind to care and the putting forth of its with the Free Church.”-Evg. Bulletin. strength.
It is a plan which associates the commonplace DIGNITY GIVEN TO TRIFLES.
duties of life with those more profound that In an admirable work recently published by alone can make a man truly great to the full the Appletons, entitled " Literature in Letters,” extent of his power; and this habit of making edited with much taste by Dr. James P. Hol. a plan on paper for each day's campaign, so that come, of New York, there is a very suggestive no duty shall be neglected, but all attended to letter published from F. W. Robertson, of in the right time and manner carefully, and not Brighton, in which he makes this remark :“ A allowed to occupy too much or too little, is of little plap I have found very serviceable in past the utmost value. How many a general has years is to put down every night the engagements lost a battle by neglecting some little routine and duties of the next day. The advantages of work of watchfulness and inspection, while his this are several. You get more done—a health- plans were most able and wise. At the battle ful feeling pervades the whole of life. There of Inkermann the want of a little more care in is a feeling of finding at the end of the day smoothing off the escarpment of the English that the greater part of what is planned has earthworks yave the Russians a foothold of atbeen accomplished. This is the secret of giving tack tbat nearly proved fatal to the whole army. dignity to trifles. As units they are insignifi- In private life how many a close student bas cant; they rise in importance when they be lost his best friend by neglecting a call or two come parts of a plan.”
at the right time, or lost a fortune by neglectThe secret of dignity to trifles is a matter of ing opportunities passed over for the time to be the utmost importance and difficulty. To know taken up again at some future time that never how to occupy the units of time successfully came. and wisely is the great matter. As necessary A time for everything, and everything in its parts to the success of a whole, points of detail proper time, is what every man, sooner or later, may be made to assume such importance that finds most necessary to his success; and a plan they shall be sure of being well done and gives dignity to trifles as a part of a great sys. crowned with success. One of the greatest tem, every portion of which is most valuable. dangers and difficulties with exalted natures is, Perhaps it may be added, that this is one way that the love of the noblest and most intense l in which religion becomes so essential to the
success of the greatest and wisest men. It of nature is such as no other physical science gives a plan and purpose to every part of life-affords in the same kind, and is the best introa plan that comprehends all the details. The duction to the difficult questions of politics and daily prayers of a good man lead him to think social life. Scientific education, apart from of the danger he is in of omitting some duties professional objects, is but a preparation for because they are so insignificant, and others be-judging rightly of man and of his requirements cause they are so annoying and interrupting to and interests. But to this final pursuit, which what seems to be the best and noblest efforts. has been called
excellence the proper stu. They make him strive to be faithful even in dy of mankind, physiology is the most servicethat which is least, by regarding every detail able of the sciences, because it is the nearest. as the appointment of infinite wisdom and a Its subject is already Man; the same complex Heavenly Father. Certain it is that he who and manifold being, whose properties are not inrises early in the morning and lays out a distinct dependent of circumstance, and immovable from plan for each day will be surprised at the suc- age to age, like those of the ellipse and hypercess it will give him—the hour it will save him bola, or of sulphur and phosphorus, but are infrom waste and trifling, and the rapid improve finitely various, indefinitely modifiable by art ment, especially in the economical use of time, or accident, graduating by the nicest shades it will secure him.
into one another, and reacting upon one another
in a thousand ways, so that they are seldom caEXTRACTS FROM INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF pable of being isolated and observed separately. JOHN STUART MILL.
With the difficulties of the study of a being so (Continued from page 255.)
constituted; the physiologist, and he alone I have given a very incomplete and summary among scientific enquirers, is already familiar. view of the educational benefits derived from Take what view we will of man as a spiritual instruction in the more perfect sciences, and in being, one part of his nature is far more like the rules for the proper use of the intellectual another than either of them is like anything faculties which the practice of those sciences else. Io 'the organic world we study nature has suggested. There are other sciences, which under disadvantages very similar to those which are in a more backward state, and tax the whole affect the study of moral and political phenomepowers of the mind in its mature years, yet a na: our means of making experiments are almost beginning of which may be beneficially made as limited, while the extreme complexity of the in university studies, while a tincture of them facts makes the conclusions of general reasoning is valuable even to those who are never likely unusually precarious, on account of the vast to proceed further. The first is physiology; number of circumstances that conspire to dethe seience of the laws of organic and animal termine every result. Yet, in spite of these life, and especially of the structure and func-obstacles, it is found possible in physiology to tions of the human body. It would be absurd arrive at a considerable number of well-ascerto pretend that a profound knowledge of this tained and important truths. This, therefore, difficult subject can be acquired in youth or as is an excellent school in which to study the a part of general education. Yet an acquaint- means of overcoming similar difficulties elseance with its leading truths is one of those ac- where. It is in physiology, too, that we are quirements which ought not to be the exclusive first introduced to some of the conceptions property of a particular profession. The value which play the greatest part in the moral and of such knowledge for daily uses has been made social sciences, but which do not occur at all in familiar to us by all the sanitary discussions of those of inorganic nature. As, for instance, late years. There is hardly one among us who the idea of predisposition, and of predisposing
, may not, in some position of authority, be re- causes, as distinguished from exciting causes. quired to form an opinion and take part in pub- The operation of all moral forces is immensely lic action on sanitary subjects. And the im. influenced by predisposition : without that eleportance of understanding the true conditions ment it is impossible to explain the commonest of health and disease-of knowing how to ac- facts of history and social life. Physiology is quire and preserve that healthy habit of body also the first science in which we recognise the which the most tedious and costly medical treat-influence of habit—the tendency of something ment so often fails to restore when once lost, to happen again merely because it has hapshould secure a place in general education for pened before. From physiology, too, we get the principal maxims of hygiene, and some of our clearest notion of what is meant by develthose even of practical medicine. For those opment or evolution. The growth of a plant or who aim at high intellectual cultivation, the animal from the first germ is the typical specistudy of physiology has still greater recom. men of a phemonenon which rules through the mendations, and is, in the present state of ad- whole course of the history of man and society vancement of the higher studies, a real necessi- -increase of function, through expansion and ty. The practice which it gives in the study differentiation of structure by internal forces. I cannot enter into the subject at greater length;/ what is the pature and limit of our knowledge it is enough if I throw out hints which may be of them; whether the will of man is free or de germus of further thought in yourselves. Those termined by causes, and what is the real differwho aim at high intellectual acheivements may ence between the two doctrines; matters on be assured that po part of their time will be which the most thinking men, and those who less wasted than that which they employ in be- have given most study to the subjects, are still coming familiar with the methods and with the divided; it is neither to be expected por demain conceptions of the science of organization sired that those who do not specially devote and life.
themselves to the higher departments of specu- . Physiology, at its upper extremity, touches lation should employ much of their time in aton Psychology, or the Philosophy of mind : and tempting to get to the bottom of these questions. without raising any disputed questions about But it is a part of liberal education to know the limits between Blatter and Spirit, the nerves that such controversies exist, and, in a general and brain are admitted to have intimate a way, what has been said on both sides of them. connexion with the mental operations that the It is instructive to know the failures of the bustudent of the last cannot dispense with a con- man intellect as well as its successes, its impersiderable knowledge of the first. The value of (fect as well as its perfect attainments ; to be psychology itself need bardly be expatiated aware of the open questions, as well as of those upon in a Scottish university; for it has always which have been definitely resolved. A very been there studied with brilliant success. Al summary view of these disputed matters may most everything which has been contributed suffice for the many; but a system of education from these islands towards its advancement is not intended solely for the many; it has to since Locke and Berkeley has, until very lately, kindle the aspirations and aid the efforts of and much of it even in the present generation, those who are destined to stand forth as thinkproceeded from Scottish authors and Scottish ers above the multitude; and for these there is professors. Psychology, in truth, is simply the hardly to be found any discipline comparable to knowledge of the laws of human nature. If that which these metaphysical controversies afthere is anything that deserves to be studied ford. by man, it is his own nature and that of his
(To be continued.) fellow.men : and if it is worth studying at all,
ITEMS. it is worth studying scientifically, so as to reach
The broken cable which was recently injured by the fundamental laws which underlie and gov- an iceberg has been successfully repaired, and the era all the rest. With regard to the suitable-electrical communication through it between the ness of this subject for general education, a considered as reliable as though no damage had oc
two continents is completely restored, and may be distinction must be made. There are certain observed laws of our thoughts and of our feels withstanding its heavy iron armor, for a length of
curred. It was found to be absolutely crushed, notings which rest upon experimental evidence, 120 feet. and, once seized, are a clue to the interpreta- The newspapers of South Carolina and Georgia tion of much that we are conscious of in our state that the Sea Island cotton crop will be a very, selves, and observe in one another. Such, for
profitable one. Cotton mills are going up in several
localities. example, are che laws of association. Psycholo- The attempt to build a tonnel under the Chicago gy, so far as it consists of such laws--I speak of river, which runs through the city of Chicago, it is the laws themselves, not of their disputed ap- announced bas signally failed. The entire work plications—is as positive and certain a science lately in progress, including masonry, timber, &c.
, as chemistry, and fit to be taught as such. fell in with a crash, involving heavy losses to the
contractors. When, however, we pass beyond the bounds of
The total Indian population of the United States these admitted truths, to question which are is stated at from 300,000 to 350,000 persons. still in controversy among the different philo- At the Greenwich Observatory, in England, the sophical schools—how far the higher operations have an electric clock, known as the “motor clock," of the mind can be explained by association, various clocks in perfect sympathy with itself, regu:
which regulates the time in England. It maintains how far we must admit other primary princi- lates fclocks in London, sends signals throughout ples—wbat faculties of the mind are simple, the country, drops a time ball at Deal
, fires guns at what complex, and what is the composition of Newcastle and Sbields, and maintains such good the latter-above all, when we embark upon communications that the operator at Greenwich can the sea of metaphysics properly so called, and receive such reports of the going of distant clocks as
Electricity signals also contey inquire, for instance, whether time and space Greenwich time from this clock to some places in are real existences, as is our spontaneous im- Ireland, and during the laying of the Atlantic cable pression, or forms of our sensitive faculty, as is the Observatory sent signals to the Great Eastern maintained by Kant, or complex ideas generated twice a day, to enable her constantly to determine by association; whether matter and spirit are hundred this clock is said ordinarily to have an errore
her longitude. In tbirty-eight days out of one conceptions merely relative to our faculties, or of less than one second, and in only one day in one facts existing per "se, and in the flatter case, I hundred has it an error great as four seconds.--Ledger.