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RDITED AND PUBLISHED BY AN ASSOCIATION
Review of the Life and Discourses of P. W. Robertson....... 273
290 EMDOR COMLY, AGENT, OBITUARY.....
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Extracts from John Stuart Mill's Inangural Address.
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BY S. M. JANNEY.
REVIEW OF THE LIFE AND DISCOURSES OF spark would have produced explosion. They F. W. ROBERTSON.
thought the next call would be to take the mat.
ter into their own hands. (Continued from page 261.)
Accordingly, on one occasion, St. John and The second of the discourses relating to the St. James asked permission to call down fire rights of property and the rights of labor is from heaven upon a village of the Samaritans entitled, Christ's Judgment respecting In- which would not receive their message. On anheritance.” Although especially directed tn the other occasion, on a single figurative mention of relative duties of the rich and the poor in Eng a sword, they began to gird themselves for the land, it applies to some of the questions which struggle ; 'Lord,' said one, behold, here are are agitating society in this country, and the two swords.' Again, as soon as he entered conclusions arrived at are consistent with Chris. Jerusalem for the last time, the populace her. tian principles.
alded his way with shouts, thinking that the The text is, Luke xii. 13-15.-"And one of long-delayed hour of retribution was come at the company said unto him, Master, speak to my last. They saw the conqueror before them who brother, that he divide the inheritance with me. was to vindicate their wrongs. In imagination And he said unto him, Man, who made me a they already felt their feet upon the necks of judge, or a divider over you? And he said their enemies. uato them, Take heed, and beware of covetous- And because their hopes were disappointed, ness: for a man's life consisteth not in the and He was not the demagogue they wanted, abundance of the things which he possesseth." therefore they turned against IIim. Not tho
“ The Son of God,” he says, “ was misunder. Pharisees, but the people whom He had come stood and misinterpreted in his day.”. ... Even to save,—the outcast, and the publican, and llis own friends and followers misunderstood the slave, and the maid-servant: they whose Him.
cause He had so often pleaded, and whose eman. * They heard Him speak of a kingdom of Jus. cipation he had prepared. It was the People tice and Righteousness, in which every man who cried, 'Crucify Him, Crucify Him." should receive the due reward of his deeds. This will become intelligible to us, if we can They heard him say that his kingdom was not get at the spirit of this passage. far off, but actually among them, hindered only “ We ask attention to two things by their sins aud duloess from immediate ap- I. The Saviour's refusal to interfere.
Men's souls were stirred and agi. II. The source to which He traoed the. aptated. They were ripe for anything, and any peal for interference.
I. The Saviour's refusal to interfere.
So, too, He would say, Justice, like Mercy
It is a common saying, that religion has noth. this definite case, this or that brother had jus.
with human hearts, not casuistry.
age of society. Nay, it is for the very sake of procuring a hab- It binds up men in a boly brotherhood. itable atmosphere within certain limits that But what are the best institutions and surest architecture exists at all. The atmospheric laws means for arriving at this brotherhood it bas are distinct from the laws of architecture; but not said. In particular, it has not pronounced there is not an architectural question into whether competition or cooperation will secure which atmospheric considerations do not enter it. as conditions of the question.
And hence it comes to pass that Christianity That which the air is to architecture, religion is the Eternal Religion, which can never become is to politics. It is the vital air of every ques. obsolete. If it sets itself to determine the tem
Directly it determines nothing-indi-porary and the local,—the justice of this tax, rectly, it conditions every problem that can or the exact wrongs of that conventional maxarise. “The kingdoms of this world must be im,-it would soon become obsolete: it would come the kingdoms of our Lord and of His be the religion of one century, not of all. As it Christ.' How, if His Spirit is not to mingle is, it commits itself to nothing except Eternal with political and social truths ?
Principles. Nevertheless, in the popular idea that religion It is not sent into this world to establish as such must not be mixed with polities there monarchy, or secure the franchise; to establish is a profound truth. Here, for instance, the socialism, or to frowo it into annihilation; but Saviour will not meddle with the question. He to establish a Charity, and a Moderation, and a stands aloof, sublime and dignified. It was no sense of Duty, and a love of Right, which will part of His to take from the oppressor and give modify human life according to any circumto the oppressed, much less to encourage the stances that can possibly arise. oppressed to take from the oppressor himself. 2. In this refusal, again, it was implied that It was His part to forbid oppression. It was a His kingdom was ove founded on spiritual disJudge's part to decide what oppression was. It position, not one of outward Law and Jurispruwas not His office to determine the boundaries dence. of civil right, nor to lay down the rules of the That this lawsuit should have been decided descent of property. Of course, there was a by the brothers themselves, in love, with muspiritual and moral principle involved in this tual fairness, would have been much ; that it question. But He would not suffer His sublime should be determined by authoritative arbitramission to degenerate into the mere task of de- tion was, spiritually speaking, nothing. The ciding casuistry.
right disposition of their hearts, and the right He asserted principles of love, unselfishness, division of their property thence resulting, was order, wbich would decide all questions ; but Christ's kingdom. The apportionment of their the questions themselves He would not decide.property by another's division bad nothing to do Ile would lay down the great political princi- with Bis kingdom.” ple, • Render unto Cæsar the things that be
- To apply this to the question of the day. Cæsar's, and unto God the things which are The great problem which lies before Europe for God's.' But He would not determine whether solution is, or will be, this : Whether the presthis particular tax was due to Cæsar or not. ent possessors of the soil have an exclusive right
It is a
to do what they will with their own; or whether to the same book triumphantly, as if it were ex-
the servile defenders of Rank and Wealth, nor
The Bible takes neither the part of the poor nore merciful,—that tenants should be more against the rich exclusively, nor that of the honorable, and workmen more unsellish,—that rich against the poor; and this because it prowould be ivdeed a glorious thing, a triumph of claims a real, deep, true, and not a revolutionary Christ's cause; and any arrangeinent of the in brotherhood. heritance thence resulting would be a real com- The brotherhood of which we hear so much ing of the kingdom. But whether the soil of is often only a one sided brotherhood. It dethe country and its capital shall remain the mands that the rich shall treat the poor as property of the rich, or become more available brothers. It has a right to do so. for the poor,—the rich and the poor remaining brave and a just demand: but it forgets that as selfish as before;—whether the selfish rich the obligation is mutual; that, in spite of bis shall be able to keep, or the selfish poor to take, many faults, the rich man is the poor man's is a matter, religiously speaking, of profound in brother, and that the poor man is bound to redifference. Which of the brithers shall bave cognize him and feel for him as a brother. the inheritance, the monopolist or the covet- It requires that every candid allowatce shall ous ?
Either--neither; who cares? Fifty be made for the vices of the poorer classes, in years hence, what will it matter? But a hun virtue of the circumstances which, so to speak, dred thousand years hence it will matter whether seem to make such vices inevitable : for their they settled the question by niutual generosity harlotry, their drunkenness, their uncleanness, and forbearance.
their insubordination. Let it enforce that de3. I remuk a third thing. IIe refused to be mand; it may and must do it in the name of the friend of one, because He was the friend of Christ. He was mercifully and mournfully both. He never was the champion of a class, gentle to those who, through terrible temptabecause He was the champion of Humanity. tion and social injustice, had sunk; and sunk
We may take for granted that the petitioner into misery at least as much as into sin. But, was an injured man, -ove, at all events, who then, let it pot be forgotten that some sympathought himself injured; and Christ had often thy must be also due, on the same score of laught the spirit which would have made his circumstances, to the rich man. Wealth has brother right bim: but He refused to take his its temptations, --so has power. The vices of part against his brother, just because he was the rich are his forgetfulness of responsibility, his brother, Christ's servant, and one of God's his indolence, his extravagance, his ignorance family, as well as he.
of wretchedness. These must be looked upon, And this was His spirit always. The pot, certainly, with weak excuses, but with a Pharisees thought to com nit Hiin to a side, brother's eye, by the poor man, if he will assert when they asked whether it was lawful to give a brotherhooi. It is not just to attribute all to tribate to Cæsar or not. But IIe would take circumstances in the one case, and nothing in no sides as the Christ : neither the part of the the other. It is not brotherhood to say that the government agaiust the tax-payers, nor the laborer does wrong because he is tempted, and part of the tax-payers against the government. the man of wealth because he is ictrinsically
Now, it is a coinmon thing to hear of the bad. rights of man, —a glorious and a true saying; II. The Source to which He traced this apbut, as commonly used, the expression only peal for a division.” means the rights of a section or a class of men. “ Covetousness: the covetousness of all. Of And it is very worthy of remark, that in these the oppressed as well as the oppressor ; for the social quarrels both sides appeal to Christ and cry, Divide,' has its root in covetousness just to the Bible as the champions of their rights; as truly as 'I will. not.' There are no ionoprecisely in the same way in which this man cent classes; no devils who oppress, and angels appealed to Him.
One class appeal to the who are oppressed. The guilt of a false social Bible, as if it were the great Arbiter which de state must be equally divided. crees that the poor shall be humble, and the We will consider somewhat more deeply this subject submissive; and the other class appeal covetuousness. Io the original the word is a
Very expressive one. It means the desire of ble, tl at country is England, that society our having more, -- not of having more because own, that people we. • Take bied and beware there is not enough, but simply a craving after of covetousness.' more. More when a man has not enough, The true remedy for this covetousness He. more when he has. More—more. Ever more. then proceeds to give. "A man's life coesisteth Give-gire. Divide-divide.
pot in the abundance of the things which he This craving is not universal. Individuals possesses.' and whole nations are without it. There are Now, observe the di-tinction between Hig some pations the conditions of whose further view and the world's view of humanity. To the civilization is that the desire of accumulation be question, What is a man worth ? the world reincreased. They are too indolent or too unam plies by enumerating what be has. In reply to
. birious to be covetous. Energy is awakened the same question, the Son of Man replies by eseben wants are immediate, pressing, present; timating what he is. Not what be has, but but ceases with gratification.
what he is—that, through times and through There are other nations in wbich the craving eternity, is his real and proper life.
He deis excessive, even to di-ease. Preëminent clared the presence of the soul; lle announced among these is England. The desire of accu- the dignity of the spiritual man; He revealed mulation is the source of all our greatness and the being that we are. Not that which is sup. all our baseness. It is at once our glory and ported by meat and drink, but that whose very our shame. It is the cause of our commerce, life is in Truth, Integrity, Honor, Purity. of our navy, of our military triumphs, of our Skin for skin,' was the satanic version of this enormous wealth, and our marvellous inveno matter : ‘All that a man bath will be give for tions. And it is the cause of our factions and his life. What shall it profit a man,' was animosities, of our squalid pauperism, and the the Saviour's announcement, if he shall worse than beathen degradation of the masses gain the whole world and lose his own soul?" of our population.
“ Most assuredly Christianity proclaims laws That which makes this the more marvellous wbich will eventually give toeach man bis rights. is, that of all nations on the earth, pone are so I do not deny this. But I say that the hope of incapable of enjoyment as we. God has not these rights is not the message, nor the promise, given to us that delicate development which He nor the consolation, of Christianity. Kather they has given to other races. Our sense of harmony consist in the assertion of the true Life, instead of is dull and rare; our perception of beauty is all other hopes; of the substitution of blessednot keen. An English holiday is rude and ness, which is inward character, fur happiness, boisterous. If protracted, it ends in ennui and which is outward satisfactions of desire. Fir self-dissatisfaction. We cannot enjoy. Work, the broken hearted, the peace which the world tbe law of human nature, is the very need of cannot give. For the poor, the life which desan English nature. That cold shade of Puri. titulion cann.it take away. For the persecuted, tanism which passed over us, sulleply eclipsing the thought that they are the children of their all grace and enjoyment, was but the shadow Father which is in heaven. of our own melancholy, unenjoying national A very striking instance of this is found in character.
the consolation offered by St. Paul to slaves. And yet we go on accumulating, as if we How did he reconcile them to their lot ? could enjoy more by having more. To quit the By promising that Christianity would produce class in which they are, and rise into that above, the abolition of the slave-trade ? No; though is the yearly, daily, hourly effort of millions in this was to be effected by Christianity; but by this land. And this were well, if this word assuring them that, though slaves, they might
above' implied a reality; if it meant higher be inly free-Christ's freedwen. Art thou intellectually, morally, or even physically. Båt called, beiog a slave? Care not for it. the truth is, it is only higher factitiously. The This, too, was the real compensation offered middle classes already have every real enjoy. by Christianity for injuries. nient which the wealthiest can have. The only The otber brother had the inheritance; and thing they have not is the ostentation of the to win the inheritance he had laid upon his means of enjoyment. More would enable them soul the guilt of injustice. His advantage was to multiply equipages, houses, books : it could the property; the price be paid for that advannot enable them to enjoy them more.
tage was a hard heart. The injured brotber Thus, then, we have reached the root of the had no inheritance, but instead he had, or matter. Our national craving is, in the proper might have had, in pocence, and the conscious nieading of the term, covetousness. Not ihe joy of knowing that he was not the injurer. desire of enjoying more, but the desire of hav- Herein lay the balance.” ing more.
(To he continued.) And if there be a counóry, a society, a peo- All true spiritual and moral greatness roots ile, to whom this warning is specially applica.! itself in simplicity, humility and love.
TO HUMAN CULTURE.
BY O. DEWEY.
THE MINISTRY OF THE SENSES AND APPETITES that range through earth and heaven, through
infioitude, through eternity; and it must have
boundless resources. Can it find them in the (Concluded from page 203.)
body?-in that for which “two paces of the I confeng that I sometimes think that this vilest earth” will soon be “room enough.” subject—what old Lewis Coroaro devominated | Our physical frame is only the medium; as it in his book" the advantage—not the duty only were, an apparatus of tubes
, reflectors, Æblian -but the advantage of a temperate life,” is harpstrings, to convey the mysterious life and one that goes behind all the preaching. The beauty of the universe to the soul. So far as physical system, though not the temple, is the it loses this ministerial character, and becomes ve:y scaffolding without which the temple can in itself an end on which the mind fastens, on not be built. We call from the pulpit for lofty whose enjoyments the mind gloats, all is wrong, resolution, cheering courage, spiritual aspira- and is fast running to mischief, misery, and tion, divine serenity. Alas! how shall a body ruin. clogged with excess, or searched through every
this dreadful in version to be ef. pore with nervous debility; how shall a body, fecred; suppose that the all-grasping mind reat once irritable, pained and paralyzed, yield sorts to the body alone for satisfaction-forsakes these virtues in their full strength and perfec- the wide ranges of knowledge, of science, of tion? We ask that the soul be guarded, nur religious contemplation, the realm of earth tured, trained to vigor and beauty, in its mortal and stars, and resorts to the body alone, and tenement; that the flame in that shrine, bas, alas ! for it, no other resource. What will the body, be kept bright and steady. Alas! the mind do then? It will-I had almost the shrine is shattered; and rains and wind said, it must--with its boundless craving, push flaws beat iQ at every rent; and all that the every appetite to excess. It must levy unlaw. guardian-conscience--can do oftentimes, is to ful contributions upon the whole physical dahold up a temporary screen, first on one side, ture. It must distrain every physical power to and then on another; and often the flicker-the utmost. Ah! it has so small a space from inz light of virtue goes out, and all in that which to draw its supplies, its pleasures, its joys. shrine is dark and cold and solitary; it has be. It must exact of every sense, not what it may cone a tomb!
innocently and easily give, but all that it can I am endeavoring in this part of my lecture give. What ere long will be the result of this to defend man's physical coustitution in gen. devotion to the body and to bodily pleasures ? cral froin the charge that it naturally develops There comes a fearful revolution in the man! evil, vice, inteinperance, excess every way. "I The sensual passions obtain unlawful ascen. before showed that the specitic organs and at- dency-hecome masters—become tyrants; and tributes of the physical structure--ihe sense of no tyranny in the world was ever so horrible, touch, speech, laugh er, the human face and None had ever such agents as those nerves and hand—are fine ministries to the intellectual pa- senses-seductive senses, call you them !-say ture. I came then to what is thought the more rather those ministers of retribution, those questionable tendency of the seases and appe- mutes in the awful court of nature, that stand tites; and I have shown, first, that they are ready, silent and remorseless, to do their work. useful-as hunger, for instance, impelling to the soul which has used, abused, and desecraindustry; secoadly, that they are naturally in. ted the sensitive powers, now finds in them its Docent, i. e., that they do not like, but naturally keepers. Imprisoned, chained down, famishing dislike excess ; and thirdly, that they power- in its own abode, it knocks at the door of every fully teach and enforce wholesome moderation sense; no longer, alas ! for pleasure, but for reand bealthful activity.
lief. It sends out its impatient thoughts, those I deuy, therefore, that the bodily constitution quick and eager messengers, in every direction naturally ministers to evil, to vice. A similar for suppls.
A similar for supply. It makes a pander of the imaginaorganization shows no such tendency in animals. tion, a purveyor for indiscriminate sensuality of It is the mind, then, that is in fault. But now the ingenious fancy, a prey of its very affections; I wish further to show, before I leave the sub for it will sacrifice everything to be satisfied. ject, that vicious excess is a complete inversion Could it succeed—could it, like the martyr, of the natural relations of the mind and body; win the victory through these fiery agoniesthat instead of being according to nature, it but no; God in our nature forbids. Sin never turns everything upside down in our paturo. wios. Ruin falls upon soul and body together.
Certainly, in the natural order of our pow. For now, at length, the worn out and abused ers, the mind was made to be master; the body senses begin to give way: they can no longer was made to be seryant. Naturally the body do the work that is exacted of them. The eye does not say to the mind,“ Go hither and thith-grows dim; the touch is palsied ; the limbs er; do this and that;” but the mind says this tremble; the pillars of that once fair dwelling to the boly. The mind too has boundless wants I are shattered and shaken to their foundation;