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three years old, that if she (Miss Robinson), deliberate purpose to make them so can explain would make a will so that her father should in- the phenomenon. Mr. Crossman, for the de. herit no part of her property, she (Miss How. fence, testifies that he has spent nearly five land) would, in return, make a will leaving months in examioing many hundreds of signaeverything to her niece: the will of each to be tures of many well known persons; comparing deposited with the other, and neither to make the coincidence by superimposing one on the any other will without notice to the other, and other on a glass in front of a window, and also returning to that other ber will. Miss Robin. by tracing and superimposing the tracings. son agreed to this, and the wills were executed He says there was greater similarity in Miss accordingly. But the subsequent will and codi. Howland's signatures, forty or fifty of which he cil made by the aunt in 1863 and 1864 were compared with each other, than in any other executed without notice to the piece. Thus case; and he considers the two signatures to arose a question of law, a povel question in the the detached sheets to be genuine. On the courts of this country, namely, whether a con. other hand, Mr. Southworth, after similar retract for mutual wills, if proved, can be enforced search, declares that the three signatures coio. as being without cousideration and against pub.cide with mathematical accuracy, not only letter lic policy and good morals.

for letter and space for space, but also that euch But the most singular feature in this case has the same slant to the base line of each paper, still remains to be stated. To the will origi- so that the eye sees them parallel. His testi. Dally made by Miss Howland in favor of her mony covers fifty pages, and be pronounces the niece there is an addition, sewed on with fine two contested signatures to be forgeries, exethread to the first page, not changing any pro- cuted by tracing. vision of the will, but a sort of protest by the But the most curious and interesting testitestator against the validity of any subsequent mody of the whole is that of Prof. Benjamin will which she, under undue influence from Peirce of Harvard College, Superintendent of those around her, might be induced to make. the Coast Survey, and one of the best mathePart of the text is : “I implore the Judge to maticians of the age, upon the doctrine of decide in favor of this will, as nothing could chances. He said : “ He had had a large espeinduce me to make a will unfavorable to my rience relating to the computation of chances; niece; but being ill, and afraid, if any of my that the mathematical discussion of the subject caretakers insisted on my making a will, to of coincidence of signatures had never, to his refuse, as they might leave me or be angry knowledge, been proposed, but that it was not

I give this will to my niece to show, if difficult, and a numerical expression applicable absolutely necessary to have it appear against to this problem, the correctness of which would anuther will found after my death.” Miss be recognized by all the mathematicians in the Robinson testifies, under oath, that she wrote , world, could readily be obtained." Then, haring this appendage to the will at the suggestion of ascertained the relative frequency of coincideuce her aunt, and that her aunt signed it in dupli- by comparing numerous signatures of Miss Howcate in her presence. The defence to this is land to bills of sale of vessels, etc., be concludes notbing less than a charge of forgery. It is that, in her case, “ this phenomenon (of coineidenied that the signature to this additional page dence) could occur only once in two thousand is genuine, and alleged that it was copied by six hundred and sixty-six millions of millions tracing fron a signature (admitted to be of millions of times, or 2,666,000,000,000,000,genuine) of the testator to the original will to 000,000.” This number, the Professor remarks, which this appendage is found stitched. This “ far transcends human experience. So rast opens up a wide field, in which not only ques. an improbability is practically an impossibility. tions of law but of science, and even of art, come Such evanescent shadows of improbability can. up. Oo the question of forgery both parties not belong to actual life. They are unimaginhave spent much time and labor. Two skilful ably less than the least things which the law photographers have been employed for weeks; cares not for.” And bis conclusion from these and experts have expended months in procur- data is thus expressed: “Under a solema ing and comparing, in a great number of cases, sense of the responsibility involved in the assernumerous signatures by the same person, so as tion, I declare that the coincidence which has to determine the chances that any one person here occurred must have had its origio in an should write three signatures exactly alike. intention to produce it.” The testimony is to the effect that Miss How. A million of dollars has often been staked on land's signature to the original and genuine the calculation of chances; but there is not, in will, and the two sigoatures to the appended all probability, another example on record in paper, executed in duplicate, are in every letter which the verdict in a law case involving that and line and in the spaces between the three amount was liable to be determined by the tes. words, Sylvia Ann Howland, so precisely coin-timony of a learned professor, following out the cident, so identical in fact, that nothing but a principles which La Place's great work bas so


ably set forth, and applying the unalterable | been inhabited after this period, only a few rules of mathematical science to determine wbat worked Aints and bones, probably the result of may seem, to the uninitiated, a purely fortuitousan occasional visit, baving been discovered on matter, namely, the chances of coincidence, in the upper surface of the cavern. its action, while writing, of the human hand. An important point seems to be established by

There are other very curious details, to no- M. Dupont's researches,-viz. the extended cointice which would lead us too far. Among the mercial relations of these primitive people. The collateral questions raised was one interesting flint which was used fir the manufacture of to photographers, as to the comparative merit their implements is not that of Belgium, but, acof the Voigtlander and Globe lenses.- Newcording to M. de Mortillet, was brought from York Tribune, 9th mo. 11.

Touraine. Several specimens of fossil shells,

most of which have been perforated, probably From “Every Saturday.”

for the purpose of being strung together, and BELGIAN BONE CAVES.

worn as ornaments, were collected, and were The explorations of the Belgian bone caves, submitted to M. Nyst, the well-known palæonwhich have been carried on for some time past tologist. He recognized most of them as beby MM. Van Beneden and Dupont, have been re- longiog to the calcaire grossier of Courtagnon, ferred to several times in the pages of The Reader. near Rheims. Two species belonged to the We have now to lay before our readers an account department of Seine-et Oise. Some fragments of the progress of the work up to the end of Nov. of jet and a few sharks' teeth were from the last, and for this purpose we make use of a same locality. “ We cannot therefore deny," report recently presented by M. Dupont to the says M. Dupont,“ the relations of these men with Belgian Minister of the Interior. We may pre- Champagne, whilst there is no evidence to show mise that all the bone caves in this locality fur- their connection with Hainaut and the province nisb indisputable evidence of one fact, viz. : that of Liege, which could have also furnished them the cave dwellers were destroyed by a sudden with their fliot. inundation, which covered the whole of Belgium Amongst other objects brought to light during and the North of France, the evidences of which the excavations were ibe forearm of an elephant, M. Dupont finds in the limon of Hesbaye and whịch appears to be that of the mammoth of the yellow clay of the fields, and in the peculiar Siberia, an animal which did not exist in Belarrangement of the debris in the caveros. The gium at that epoch. cave at present under examination was discover. " When we reflect that, till within a comparaed in May last, and is situated on the banks of tively short time, these bones were looked upon the river Lesse, opposite the hamlet of Chaleux, as those of a race of giants, and gifted with miabout a mile and a half from the well-known raculous powers, we cannot be surprised that Furfooz cave.

our inhabitants of the caverns of the Lesse, At an epoch long before that of its habitation whose civilization may be compared to that of by man, this cavern was traversed by a thermal those African nations, who are suok in the darkspring. It is well lighted, is easy of access, and est depths of fetichism, attributed similar proits situation is most picturesque. The number perties to those enormous bones which were of objects found in this cave is enormous, and placed as a fetich near their hearth.” would appear to point to an extended period of Judging from the quantity of bones found in occupation by these primitive people. Tbe the cavern, the principal food of these cavegrand trou de Chaleaux, as M. Van Beneden dwellers was the flesh of the borse. M. Dupont has proposed to call it, has also been subjected collected nine hundred and thirty-seven molar to the inundation, but the contents have been teeth belonging to this animal, a number which preserved almost intact

, and this circunstance corresponds to about forty heads, supposing gives a value to the discoveries wbich was to each set to be complete. The marrow seems some extent wanting in the Furfooz caves. Ac- to have been in great request, all the long bones cording to M. Dupont's theory, the former in- having been broken, so as to extract it. Most habitants of the caves, warded by the dangerous of the retain traces of incisions made by their cracks in the walls and ceiling, suddenly aban. Aint tools. The large number of bones of doned their dwelling place, leaving behind them water-rats would also lead us to suppose that their tools, ornameots, and the remains of their they formed a part of the food of these people, meals. Soon afterwards the roof and sides fell as did the badger, hare, and boar. in, and the pieces thus detached covered the The number of objects obtained from this floor. In this manner the remaids have been cavern is greater thau that obtained from the preserved from the action of the waters, and whole of the caves previously explored. Of bave remained undisturbed until the present day worked flints, in various stages of manufacture, The unfortunate inhabitants doubtless saw in thirty thousand were collected. Besides these, this occurrence the manifestation of a superior M. Dupont obtained several cubic metres of power, since the cavern does not appear to bavel bones of all kinds, the horses' teeth already mentioned, and a vast quantity of miscellaneous

ITEMS. articles.

The Trustees of the Peabody Fund having deter. The facts acquired by the excavations at Cha. G. W. Peabody has placed in their hands in encoura

mined to apply the funds which the munificence of leus, combined with those obtained at the Fur- ging the introduction of free schools into the Southfooz caves, form a striking picture of the early ern States, by supplementing the work of the people ages of man in Belgium. “These ancient peo in the cause of popular education, Amos, the ple and their customs reappear, after having Southern agent of that tuod, is pow on a visit to the been forgotten for thousands of years, and like aid of the available means at the disposal of the

North with the object of obtaining contributions in the fabulous bird in whose ashes are found the trustees. Those means, though ample, are far from germ of a dew life, antiquity becomes regener. adequate to the wants of the population which it is ated from its own debris. We see them in their sought to benefit. Hence the necessity for furtber dark, subterranean dwellings, surrounding the help. Amos is furnished with testimonials of charachearth, which is protected by the supernatural seral influential gentlemen in the North bave

ter from Gens. Grant, Thomas and Howard, and power of immense, fantastically-shaped bones, already signified their warm approval of bis mission. engaged in patiently making their fint tools la view of the benefit which will accure to the South, and utensils of reindeer horn, in the midst of and, indirectly, to the wbole Union, from the sncpestilential emanations from the animal remains, cess of the plan which the Trustees of the Peawhich their indifference allowed them to retain will no doubt be liberally responded to by those who

body Fund bave adopted, the appeals of the agent in their dwelling. The skins of wild beasts, bave faith in education as an ally of free gorernhaving the bair removed, were stitched together ment. by the aid of their sharpened flints and ivory

One of the most useful inventions lately brought needles, and served as clothing. We see them into practical use is the Marine Annunciator. Its

chief design is to prevent accidents occurring through pursuing wild animals, armed with arrows and the misconception of orders to pilots and lielmsmen lances tipped with a barb of flint. We take in going into or out of port, or in moments of peril

. part in their feasts, where a horse, bear, or It consists of an instrument with two dials, placed reindeer replaces, on days when their hunting on the bridge, each one of these dials being conhas been successful, the tainted flesh of the rat, mitting rial," with another dial in the wheelbouse


nected by strong copper chains, one, the "trang. their only resource against famine. Their tra- in which the orders "Port,"

Starboard," or ding extended as far as the regions now form. "Steady" are revealed, a gong sounding at the same ing part of France, from whose inhabitants they time to call the belmsman's attention to the order obtained sheils, jet, with which they delight to sent, while the other, the “reply dial,” is connected ornament themselves, and the flint which is so instantaneously; and, as every movement of the

with the redder-bead. The orders are transmitted valuable to them. But a falling in of the roof rudder is registered upon the reply-dial, the officer drives them from their principal dwelling, in on duty can see whether bis orders are properly which lie buried the objects of their faith and obeyed. This instrument is the intention of Jobin their domestic utensils, and they are forced to S. Gisborne, is simple in its construction, and its seek another habitation. ... We know nothing operations being entirely mechanical, is not liable to certain of the relation of these people with those get out of order. of earlier times. Had they ancestors in this sion on the North Platte, are reported to demand the

The Indians, in council with the Peace Commiscountry? The great discoveries of our illustri- withdrawal of the troops in tbe Powder River coun. ous coinpatriot Schmerling, and those which try, the abandonment of the Smoky Hill Route of the Professor Malaise bas made at Engihoul, seem Pacific Railroad, and numerous presents of guns, to prove that the men whose traces I have ammunition, and other articles. brought to light on the Lesse did not belong to by Russia, according to a military order issued by

The territory recently ceded to the United States the indigenous races of Belgium, but were oply | General Halleck, is to form part of the Department the successors of the more ancient population. of California, and is to be called the military DisI have even met with certain evideuces of our trict of Alaska. Two companies of troops are asprimordial ancestors at Chaleux, but the trail signed as the garrison at Sitka, and they will take was lost as soon as found. Our knowledge of with them a field battery and one year’e supply of

ordnance stores. these ancestors stops short at this point.” We have given in the above abstract an ac-stitutional Convention of New York, recommending

Dr. Lieber has addressed a memorial to the Concount of the most important features in M. Du the abolition of the rule requiring unanimity in jur! poot's report, which is of great interest. We trials-showing that it is not required in any coun: trust that these explorations, which have been try in which the jury is in use, except Eugland and carried on at the expense of the government,

the United States. The French, German, and Italian will be continued.

rule, he says, is that if there are seven jurors against
five, the judges retire, and if the bench decides with
the minority, the verdict of the minority is taken,

while it requires eight jurors out of the twelve to If a man does not make new acquaintances as give a majority verdict. This plan be condemns, ag he advances through life, he will soon find him. opposed to our theory of the judge's position, which self left alone. A man should keep his friend. shall consist of twelve jurors, but that a majority of

is tbat of an umpire. He proposes that the jury ship in constant repair.

two-thirds shall be competent to give a verdict.

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Review of the Life and Discourses of F. W. Robertson....... 481 COMMUNICATIONS MUST BE ADDRESSED AND PAYMENTS Thoughts, by Sarah Ilunt..

482 MADE TO Scripture Illustrated.....

483 EMMOR COMLY, AGENT, Secret Prayer.....

483 At Publication Office, No. 144 North Soventh Street, The Charity that Corereth..

Open from 9 A.V. until 5 P.M,
Man an Original Creation, not a Development..

Notes of Foreign Travel, from Private Correspondence.

488 The Paper is issued every Seventh-day, at Three Dollars per ODITUARY....

489 annum. $2.50 for Clubs; or, four copies for $10.

European Correspondence..

489 Agents for Clubs will be expected to pay for the entire Club.

490 The Postuge on this paper, paid in a Ivavce at the office where Religion and Health. it is rocvived, in any part of the United States, is 20 cents a year.


491 AGENTS --Joseph S. Cohu, New York.

American Schools seen by English Eyes.

492 Henry Haydock, Brooklyn, N. Y. Two Epitaphs.

495 Benj. Stratton, Richmond, Ind.

William H. Churchman, Inilianapolis, Ind.

496 James Baynes, Ballimore, Md.


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REVIEW OF THE LIFE AND DISCOURSES of chance of remedy; but we have got doctrines

about Christ, instead of Christ, and we call the

bad metaphysics of Evangelicalism “the Gos(Continued from page 119, and concluded.)

pel," and the temporary, transient forms of As the life of Robertson drew towards its Tractarianism,“the Church.” “ To know Him, close, his views became increasingly spiritual, the power of His resurrection, and the fellow and bis enlarged charity embraced as brethren ship of his sufferings,—that is all in all; and and sisters all who were sincerely devoted to if the death and life of Christ are mockery in the cause of truth. He could say with the a inan, he is our brother, whether Tractarian apostie of the Gentiles, “Grace be with all or Evangelical, if we could but believe that that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity.” very simple proposition."

Io reply to a letter from one of the High In the spring of 1853, he fainted and fell in
Church party he wrote as follows :

the street. On his return to consciousness, he “Spirit is eternal,-Form is transient; and was affected with intense pain in the back of when men stereotype the form and call it per- the head, and his strength, which had been for petual, or deny that under other and very dif- some months declining, seemed to waste rapidly ferent forms the self-same truth may lie (as the away. Being urged by his pbysician, he conuncovering of Moses' feet is identically the sented to go to Cheltenham for rest.

In desame as uncovering our heads, -aye, and I will scribing his situation, he said, “ Severe and beeven dare to say, often with the covering of the wildering pain in the cerebellum has for the last Quakers, when reverence for God is the cause few days made work dangerous.” ..." The defor each), then I feel repelled at once, whether cline io mental power, and the entire incapacitathe form be a form of words or a form of ob- tion at times of some functions, and the severe servance. To announce spiritual religion as pain produced by the attempt to exercise them, Christ appounced it to the woman of Samaria, force me to look at the matter more seriously." independent of place, on this mountain or After a sojourn of three weeks at Chelten. that, -as Stephen announced it when they ham, feeling somewhat recruited, he returned stoned him for blaspheming the temple,-this to Brighton and resumed his labors; but it was thiuk is the great work of a Christian minister in vain he endeavored to arouse his energies ; in these days.”

his health was completely shattered, his power Referring to the bitterness of religious con. of mental concentration exhausted, and his troversy, he said, “ To understand the Life and body racked with pain, from a disease of the Spirit of Christ appears to me to be the only brain.

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“Ile retained, however, to the last, his deep, offered advancement in the Church if he would delight in the beauty of God's world. He got abate the strength of his expressions with reup once when scarcely able to move, at four gard to the Sabbath. He refused the proffer o'clock, and crept to the window, 'to see the with sterodess. Far beyond all the other perils beautiful morning. His hope and trust in his which beset the Church was, he thought, this HIcavenly Father never failed during this dread-peril: that men who were set apart to speak ful time. He felt assured of his immortality the truth and to live above the world should in Christ. A night or two before he died substitute conventionable opinions for eternal he dreamt that his two sisters, long since truths,—should prefer ease to conscience, and dead, came to crowo bim. “I saw them,' he worldly bonors to that which cometh from God said, earnestly. Nothing could be more touch- only.' ing than his patience, thoughtfulness for others, He was, on account of his refined taste and and the exquisite and tender gratitude which high mental culture, a welcome guest with the he showed towards those who attended him. aristocratic class, but by the convictions of his Those who had injured him he not only for- mind, and his sympathy with humanity, he was gave, but was anxious that all justice should be led to desire the elevation of the mass of man. done them.”

kind, and hence he labored in conjunction with The last words he wrote were these : “I have those who inclined to democracy. grown worse and worse every day. From in- The extensive circulation of bis writings, and tensity of suffering in the brain and utter power- the favor they have met with among thoughtful lessness and prostration too dreadful to describe, and devout minds of all Protestant persuasions, and the acknowledged anxiety of the medical is an encouraging sign of the times, showing men, I think now that I shall not get over this. that the age of intolerance and sectarianism is llis will be done! I write io torture.” passing away, and that the spiritual, practical

As the closing hour drew nigh, the pain be religion proclaimed in the gospel of Christ is came intense, and in agony be cried," My God, destined to gain the ascendency. my Father!"

liis attendants sought to relieve him by changing his position, but he could not

EARLY IMPRESSIONS. endure a touch. “I cannot bear it,” he said, A great part of the education of every child " let me rest. I must die. Let God do his work."

consists of those impressions, visual and other, These were bis last words. Immediately after which the senses of the little being are taking ward he expired, being on the 15th day of in busily, though unconsciously, amid the scenes Eighth month, 1853, in the 37th year of his of their first exercise; and though all sorts of age.

men are born in all sorts of places-poets in So greatly was he beloved, that on the day of towns, and prosaic men amid fields and woody his funeral there was a universal mourning in solitudes-yet, consistently with this, it is also Brighton; many of the shops were closed, and true that much of the original capital on which business was generally suspended. “ There all men trade intellectually through life, consists were united around his tomb, by a common sor- of that mass of miscellaneous facts and imagery row and a common love, Jews, Unitarians, which they have acquired imperceptibly by the Roman Catholies, Quakers and Churehmen; observations of their early years.-Prof. luson. tbe workingmen, the tradesmen, and the rank and wealth of Brighton. For once-and it

For Friends' Intelligencer. was a touching testimony to the reality of this The following thoughts bave been induced work—all classes and all sects werged their dif- by reading two articles in last pumber of your ferences in one deep feeling."

paper. Complaints tend to scatter the flock. The most striking features of Robertson's * It is not by might, nor by power, but by character, and the chief elements of his power, my spirit, saith the Lord.” were his earnestness of purpose, his thorough Here is a force God will employ to regenerate sincerity, and his deep love of Christ, as the the world and to inspire new life. It has almanifestation of the Divine Life. His nat-ways been found adequate, and it has lost nove ural endowments, both intellectual and emo- of its power. " It is given to every man to tional, were of the first order, and had been im- profit withal.” I would therefore earnestly inproved by assiduous cultivation. His memory vite the attention of all, young and old, to it. must have been exceedingly retentive, for it is Should it come in prophetic vision, then “speak related, that “ before he left college, he had to eilification and comfort;" stir up the pure literally learnt by beart the whole of the New mind by way of remembrance; say to the asTestament, not only in English, but in Greek.” sembled multitude, “ Come taste and see that

He was fearless in the utterance of his con- the Lord is good;" that his mercies are over all victions, and being an independent thinker, he his works; that he delights to bless his intellioften gave offence by declaring uupalatable gent workmanship, created in his own image. truths or rebuking popular errors. He was Feed the hungry with bread from heaven; gire

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