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determination to carry on the education of the their classes are not likely to fall asleep in their people.
hands-and on the whole, as he rightly adds, Six comprehensive topics were mentioned in they are a fine and capable body of workers in his instructions as requiring special attention ; a noble cause. Their salaries, judged by an namely—1, School legislation; 2, Pecuniary English standard, are low, and consequently support ; 3, Administration, and the selection changes are frequent. Their social position, of teachers; 4, Internal organization, modes of on the other hand, is much higher than in Engteaching, books, etc.; 5, Results; 6, Religious land. The formal and “memoriter” character training. In short, he was directed to find out of our recitations and examinations is ju:tly all that he could in the time and with the censured. But how can this be otherwise, unmeans at his command. He sums up his re- less our colleges, the highest teachers of the marks on the system of the United States in four land, will modify the example they set ? So chapters, devoted first to an exhibition of the long as “ cramming” will pass for learning ; 90 theory; then to an exhibition of the practice; long as the ability to receive page after page of third, to a critical estimate of results; and lastly Greek grammar, rules, exceptions, and exam. to a very brief horoscope of the future. ples is deemed the greatest evidence of intel
The theory of our schools he finds best stated lectual culture in college, as it was where we in formal terms in the Massachusetts laws, were educated, so long will our instruction in which he quotes with extended notes and com. high schools and grammar-schools be governed ments. We need not detain our readers with by text-books, and deal more in conventional this familiar topic.
phraseology than in positive knowledge. Under the head of practical operations, the The gradation or classification of our schools cost of our schools is the first subject he takes commends itself strongly to the approval of Mr. up, and here he runs against the common diffi. Fraser, but our own teache-s are unanimous on culty of securing definite statements made up this subject, and we therefore pass by the comon the same schedule. However, he makes an meots of our traveller. estimate worth quoting, which is based on the There is another subject on which we think reports of eleven of the first cities of the Union. Mr. Fraser's observations are less just than we Here are his figures for the “average cost of have commonly found them to be. We refer to tuition only:"-Detroit, $6 59; Toledo, $8 34; the social status of the scholars in our public Chicago, $8 69; Providence, New Haven, schools. By the theory, he says, scholars of $8 85; Philadelphia, $9 17; St. Louis, 9 38; every rank are supposed to come witbin Louisville, $11 17; Cincinnati, $11 42; Bos- the sphere of the system. This is ambiguton, $11 48; New York, $12 04; average, ous. All children may avail themselves of $10 39; or, £1 11s. 6d.
the privilege; it is not expected that all The cost of high schools he estimates as on will. Every parent is as free to decive this the average $62 50, or nine guineas, a year for question as he is to determine whether be will boys; and $36 25, or £5 10s., for girls. In the use the common park, the common post-office, rural districts the cost of tuition is much less, or the common pump. The public merely proespecially in the simple district schools. These vide public schools “good enough for anybody;" prices are evidently in great contrast with what no one is forced to accept their privileges
. This is paid in England for the corresponding ad- being the theory what is the result? In our vantages-so that it is the sober conclusion of opinion it varies from year to year and from the writer that an American farmer educates place to place. A good building, a judicious his family at the cost to the commuity of not committee, a corps of capital teachers, will more than one-third of the amount at which revolutionize a town or a district speedily, and the Comwittee of Council estimate the cost of the school forsaken one year may be crowded educating the children of an English mechanic the next. Mr. Fraser, on the other hand, asor laborer.
serts that in all the cities the wealthier class, The administration of our schools by the va indeed all who can afford to do so, almost withrious boards, committees, superintendents, and out exception, send their children to private the like, he found "soniewhat complex,” but schools." We are confident he has generalized appearing to“ run smoothly," though not quite too rapidly. Many wealthy people, we admit, "hierarchical,” or authoritative enough to pro- with hold their children from public schools ; duce the best results. Our teachers for the most but, on the other hand, in a city not very far part appear quite inadequately trained for their from New York, an important public contro. work, and the certificates of examination are versy has just terminated where the worst really worth but little. Yet there is great charge against the public schools was this: that natural aptitude for the teacher's work, especi- those who could afford to send to private ally in the women who engage in it. They schools would send to the public schools, thus have a gift of turping what they know to the taking the places which should be saved for best account, are admirable disciplinarians, and the poor. We could take Mr. Fraser to scores
of schools in New York, New Haven, Hartford, leges and of all our social educational influSpringfield, Boston, Roxbury, Cambridge, and ences. It is not the few who are carried to other towns where we are acquainted, and show high perfection; it is the entire population who him that, beyond a doubt, that the public are lifted up from ignorance and want. schools, in practice as well as in theory, are for He fears that we care too little for developall. The distinctive feature of our system, in ment as compared with information, thinking city or in country, is that the wants of the too little of the faculties and too much of fucís. whole community are provided for, not those of He makes some just criticisms on our cultivation any class. Because there is the post-office, no of taste, doubting the national competency “to one is prevented from employing the telegraph appreciate the beauty of simplicity ;” and be or the private messenger; and just so with the misses with regret “the religious tone” to which school. Actually taking the country through, he is accustomed in the conduct of the schoolthe distinction of financial caste are not yet room at home. manifest in our schools or colleges. Long dis- . In respect to the instruction of boys and taut be the day! When the public school is girls in the same classes, a point on which our the best school, men of culture will send to it. own administrators of schools are not agreed, When it is not, they will seek instruction else- Mr. Fraser makes some interesting observations. where.
Doubting the wisdom of giving to girls the But we canot pursue these observations, for same instructions as to boys, be yet admits that we still desire to call the attention of our readers where he heard the two sexes taught or cateto Mr. Fraser's estimate of the system as a whole, chised together he “should have given to the and his recommendations to the authorities at girls the palm for quickness of perception and home.
precision of reply." In all their studies they Having reminded the English reader that seemed fully competent to hold their own.” from the days of Washington till now “virtye To Americans he says: “The Roman matron and intelligence” have been relied on as the of the old republic is, perhaps, the type of safeguards of this republic, in which perfect female excellence; self-reliance, fearlessness, social equality and absolute religious freedom decision, energy, promptitude are, perhaps, the are guaranteed by law, he delinates, in a few bigbest female qualities." For himself he prenice touches, some of the actual " phenomena" fers a different theory of womanly culture; but of American life ; our “restlessness and ac- he admits that the American method at least. tivity, without, perhaps, the culture ard refine- achieves the end at which it aims. ment of the old Athenian, but with all bis ver- The religious character of our public insatility; the absorbing interest of political life, struction daturally attracts the attention of all the constantly rising aims of each individual, foreigners accustomed to the union of church the ebb and How of commercial enterprise, and and state. Mr. Fraser objects to calling the the immense development of the spirit of specu- American schools “ irreligious” or even * pan. lation; the intense energy of the national tem- religious” or purely secular. He sees and apperament, its rapidity of movement, its pre- preciates what is done in them for the inculca. cipitancy, its impatience of standing still.” |tion of Christian morality; and while he preThe American school, he says, is a microcosm fers the “denominational” theory for English of American life. It shows the same freedom schools, he would consider himself “tendering a and equality, the same rapidity of movement most fatal piece of advice" if he recomnuended and desire of progress, the same ambition, sen- its adoption here. All his views on this subsitiveness, and subordination of the individual ject exhibit a beautiful spirit of fairness and to the mass, the same utilitarian fever, the same liberality, such as we should like to see more absence of repose, elements of strength and general among our own religicus people. weakness, of success and failure, so mingled The object of Mr. Fraser's inquiries was that it is impossible, by one epithet, to charac-practical. Popular education in England is terize the resultant whole.
sure to make progress with the growih of re. In his opinion, also, our school system is in form and the diffusion of suffrage, and it is harmony with the other institutions of the with reference to possible changes in the pacountry, and it suite the people so far as they tional system that the "Schools Inquiry Com. understand their own wants. He points out mission" was instituted. It is interesting, tbe re“the cheapness” of our schools even in liberal fore, to see what points so cautious and judic. cities, and the lively “spirit of work which is ious an observer recommends to the imitation generated among both teachers and scholars. of his countrymen. He sums up the results of the system (quite “ The thing,” be says,
“ ghich I sbould like correctly, in our opinion) as tending to the to borrow is the noble public spirit, almost uni. general diffusion of intelligence rather than to versally prevalent, wbich considers that to con“high culture” or “ profound erudition.” The tribute to the general education of the people same is true, he might bave added, of our col- is the first duty, as of the commonwealib' at
large, so of every citizen in particular, and accomplished, can be expected to understand. which places religion, morality, and intelligence Mr. Fraser has done more than most observers. in the forefront of the elements that constitute His patience, his fairness, his sagacity, and his the strength and guarantee the prosperity of ever present love of the truth are reflected the nation.”
throughout the American portion of the volDescending to particulars, he especially rec-ume. We have not read the Canadian chapomiends that our system of graded schools be ters. imitated in the large towns of England. “It is As the conclusion of all his researches, it is the one thing which our elementary schools have gratifying to find him ready to admit" it is no not,” he
says, “and wbich they most need. I flattery or exaggeration to say that the Amerido not care so much about common schools; cans, if not the most highly educated, are cerI have no particular preference for free schools; tainly the most generally educated and intellibut I do see most clearly the advantages of a gent people on the earth.” This is the true graded school."
fruit of republican common schools. The second recommendation which he offers is that cevtral boards of education should be
TWO EPITAPHS. instituted in counties or districts with more or In one of England's great cathedrals rests less visitorial power, and with the obligation to one, whose gravestone, according to his own publish an annual report. The great mass of direction, bears but the single word “ViseriEuglishmen have now no authentic guarantee mus”-most miserable. upon which to rely in selecting a school for In the catacombs of Rome, one tablet bas, in their sods.
The publicity of our public schools rude letters, the simple inscription, “ in pace" seems to Mr. Fraser one of their most commendable features.
Little as these brief records at first seem to The author of this report does pot appear to tell us, a moment's thought shows them full of have considered it his business to devise sugges. disclosures. The first was a man of wealth and tions so much as to report observations. In position, or his sepulchre had never been in the deed, he is continually embarrassed by the dif. great cathedral. He had it in his power, not ferent circumstances, capacities, and prospects only in common with others to fiod for himself of the two countries. “I do not pretend to the blessedness of God's faithful children, but know where we are difting,” is a remark which more than sone to bless the world in those exhe wakes more than once. He sees impending tended ways which the rich and powerful can in Englaud the establishment of a secular sys- especially command. Ile had the offer of life tem of instruction, akin, at least, to the Ameri- in vain. He was honest enough to acknowl. can, and while he does not conceal his pre-edge his misery. He could not cheat himself, ferences for the denominational schools now in he would not cheat others; indeed he warned vogue, he does not hesitate as a clergyman to them. There in that old cathedral, among the declare that he should neither despair of Chris- tombstones of other men, where the rich and tianity nor worality if the change, so much noble, gifted like himself with noble opportunidreaded by many of his class, should actually ties, would surely come to read his record
He acknowledges as the result of his there it should be, in imperishable stone, with travels in America, that what England peeds is no name or worldly titles to tell of outward pros"intelligent education—a real quickening of perity, or divert attention from this one terrible the minds of the people," and he admits that truth. It should stand alone in its awful simhis own difficulties as a clergyman lie in the plicity, “ Most Viserable,” life a failure, the fuslow and heavy intellectual movement of his ture a terror. hearers, their scan y vocabulury, their inability The other lived in the fearful days of perseto appreciate an argument, their want of geueral cution, when the hunted Christians fled to the and broad culture.
catacombs, the burial caves where the martyrs We have noticed some statements with which were driven to live. The outward life of the we do not agree, and throughout the entire re- unknown sleeper must have been full of gloom. port there is an obvious lack of acquaintauce A child of poverty, either by birth or froio that with the progressive development of our school love to the Master which chose it with his peosystem which would have enabled the writer ple rather than enjoy the pleasures of sin, be to describe rather better some of its character. was despised and per:ecuted. Yet the record istics. The American public schools, as a sys- of that life was full of blessedness. All things tem, have grown during two hundred years into have been counted dross for the love of Christ; their preseut form; they were not contrived or life was a success—the future, glory. invented. They are adjusted, imperfectly we In the records of heaven, if not on every tomb. admit, but still adjusted, to all our other institu- stone, must not the verdict stand for each lile, tions. To be understood, our social life must either " Most miserable,” or “In peace ?” be understood, and this no traveller, however Which shall be mine?
these scbools is 4,822, and the average attendance is It is a communion with God. Oh! brethren, 3,535, or 73 i per cent.
In Alexandria (city and county) and Fairfax Co., prayer is not an apostrophe to woods and wilds Va., there are twenty-six schools, with thirty fire and waters. It is not a moan cast forth into the teachers, twenty-nine wbite ard six colored, and viewless winds, nor a bootless behest expended | 1,756 pupils. The average is 1,204, or sixty-eight on a passing cloud. It is not a plaintive cry directed to an empty echo, that can send back first opened onr schools in Alexandria, there was
The local superintendent remarks: “When we nothing but another cry. Prayer is a living almost universal opposition and ridicuie. Now the heart that speaks in a living ear, the ear of the people are strongly convinced of their benefits, and, living God.
at the late public examination, which was crowded
with the wbite citizens of the place, astonishment JOIN NEWTON once said: "The art of
and even deligh: was expressed at the fine appear.
ance of the pupils, and the great progress they bad spreading rumors may be compared to the art made. of pin making. There is usually some truth, The public school board of Washington is now which I call the wire; as this passes from hand favorable to the education of the colored people, and to hand, one gives it a polish, another a point, schools in connection with the board. In June there
are taking out vigorous measures to carry on their others inake and put on the head, and at last were thirty-two schools, baving an average attend. the pin is completed."
ance of over 90 per cent. One school in Georgetown, and the M-street school, reported an average
attendance of 100 per cent. This, in respect to at. ITEMS.
tendance, is the best report of the year. Of the 135 One of the wealthy men of New Orleans, the late teachers in the District, 109 are white and 26 colored. Jobin McDonough, bad engraved upon bis tomb a The average whole attendance is over 44 per cent. series of maxims, which be says he adopted for the of these schools, thirty-eight are primary, twentyguidance of his life, in 1804, and to which be at- eight intermediate, five grammar, and most of the tributes his success in business. He makes them remainder of mixed grades. John E. Turner bas public for the benefit of all who desire to become taught a class of meo, fitting for the Ministry, in a rich, and they are worth reproduction here :-" Rules room on Louisiana aveņue, furnia hed bim by the for Guidance of My Life, 1804.—Remember always bureau. This class bas at times been quite large, that labor is one of tbe conditions of our existence. but the attendance, owing to the necessities of tbe Time is gold ; throw not one minute away, but place men, has been quite irregular. each one to account. Do unto all men as you would
A charter bas been granted by Congress for the be done by. Never put off till to-morrow what you Howard University, which is open to all of both can do to-day. Never bid another do what you can sexes, without distinction of color. This institution do yourself. Never covet what is not your own. bids fair to do great good. Its beautiful site, so opNever think any matter so trifiing as not to deserve portunely and wisely secured, is an earnest of sucnotice. Never give out that which does not first cess. Large and commodious building are soon to
come in. Never spend but to produce. Let the be erected thereon. The normal and preparatory greatest order regulate the transactions of your life. departments of the University were opened on the Study in your course of life to do the greatest 1st of May, under the instruction of Rev. E. F. amount of good. Deprive yourself of nothing neces. Williams, an accomplisbed scholar and a thorough sary to your comfort, but live in an bonorable sim. teacher. At the close of the month the school num. plicity. Labor, then, to the last moment of your ex. bered thirty-one scholars ; it has now increased to istence. Pursue strictly the above rules, and the about sixty. Miss Lord, so long a popular teacher Divine blessing and riches of every kind will flow of this city, has been appointed assistant. The upon you to your heart's content; but, first of all, grade of this school is low for its name, but the stu. remember that the chief and great duty of your life dents are making good advancement. should be to tend, by all means in your power, to the
One school-house, large enough to accommodate honor and glory of our Divine Creator. The conclu-four hundred scholars, has been built by the bureau sion to which I have arrived is, that without tem- in Alexandria, Va., and it has assisted in building perance there is no health ; without virtue no order; three houses of the same size in the District of Cowitboit religion no happiness ; and that the aim of lumbia. Assistance has also been given in building our being is to live wisely, soberly, and righteously. three houses in Maryland.
“Jonn McDonough." Ten Northern societies are reported as having The earnings of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable, expended by them being not less than $25,000. The
aided the schools in this department, the amount during the past year, are said to have been over a million of dollars. After heavy deduction, resulting Georgetown have expended about $10,000. The
trustees of colored scbools for Washington and from the two accidents to the cable of 1866, there remained to the credit of the revenue account $140,- amount raised by colored people by subscription is 670, out of which a dividend is declared at the rate
very swall. They insist that their ta xes, wbich are of four per cent. free of income tas, upon the first 8
the same as paid by the white population, shall be per cent, preferential stock. But fir these accidents, used for the support of their schools. and a charge for back interest, the net earnings schools should get the amount now due, and that
In this District, if the trustees of the colored would have paid 7 per cent. on $ 12,000,000, leaving / which will be due the next scholastic year, they $70,000 for a reserved fund.
would bave about $80,900, an amount quite sufi. FREEDMEN'S Sonools IN THE DEPARTMENT OF WASH-cient, used economically, to free ibe societies and INGTON.
1.--The Superintendent, Jubo Kimbull, reports: bureau from any further care of schools bere. But There are ninety day and night schools in the dis. us the speedy receipt of these funds is a matter of trict, in charge of 142 teachers, of whom 129 are much doubt, there still remains a work for the bewhite and 13 colored. The number of pupils in 'nevolent to do."— Washington Chronicle.
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WOMEN AS PHYSICIANS.
BY SAMUEL M. JANNEY.
cases the labor of a woman is considerd less
valuable than that of a man, and the effect of Having recently met with the Preamble and such employments always has been to degrade Resolution disapproving of "women becoming them morally and intellectually, impairing their practitioners of medicine,” adopted by the personal charms, their delicate tastes and their Philadelphia County Medical Society, and the attractive manners. Reply of Aon Preston, M. D., they have ap- It will probably be admitted by all, that in peared to me worthy of notice and considera- quickness of perception and delicacy of taste, tion.
women are superior to men, and in order that It is not my purpose to enter into an elaborate the equality which we claim may be preserved, examination of the natural equality of the there must be some countervailing advantages sexes, as regards their intellectual and moral possessed by the sterner sex. These will endowments. It is certain that the position probably be found, not only in greater physical hitherto occupied by women in all countries strength, but in a stronger will, and a perrous has generally been unfavorable to the develop- system that will longer sustain intense intelment of the intelleet, and has made them more lectual excrtion. dependent upon men than is required by nat. It was formerly supposed that women were ural causes.
not able to engage successfully in intellectual It may be assumed that their physical organi. pursuits, but modern experience has shown zation is more delicate than that of men, and that in many departments of literature and that no training of the sinews and muscles science they can aitain to eminence; and when would copfer on them masculine strength. The the time shall come that they can enjoy all the natural ivference is, that their sphere of duty advantages of position and education wbich is not in those departments of labor that require are enjoyed by men, we way reasorably congreat physical force; they are not adapted to clude that their success will be commensurate guide the plough, to wield the blacksmith's with their opportunities. sledge, to delve in the nine, ror to encounter The elevation of woman to a dignified position the toil and peril of the mariner. It is true, in society is one of the surest evidences of a that among savages they are the drudges of the high civilization, for it shows that the law of tribe, that in some countries of Europe they love which Christianity teaches has gained the labor in the fields, and that, during the exist- ascendency over the law of violence or brute ence of slarery in our lind, they were sub force which prevail among barbarians. jected to severe agricultural toil; but in these There can be no doubt that an iccrease in