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entered the field with a zeal and devotion which

For Friends' Intelligencer. have secured for him the credit that was really

FIRST-DAY SCHOOLS. due to Mr. Ware. From its commencement to Having been interested in reading the several the present hour, the aim has been to introduce articles that have appeared in Friends' Intelliinto the charities of Boston, and of every place gencer relating to First-day Schools, I have provided with this ministry, all the best features felt that a little tribute was due from me. Hav. of the Hebrew system in the great metropolis. ing had the privilege of witnessing the operaThe visits from house to house ; the bounties of tion of one of those schools, (being a co-laborthe poor's purse; the chapel movements, with er,) and beholding the influence on the minds all their schools and services; the two lead- of 'the children, and the interest that they ing branches of the “Society for the Preven- themselves take in assembliog, together with a tion of Pauperisin” and the is Provident Asso- willingness to be iostructed in the ability that ciation," with the network of complementary is given, it seems to me (to say the least) that and subsidiary instrumentalities introduced by it is a Divine calling, and a want in our Society the Ministry at Large, or yet to spring from it, that needs to be supplied. —these give an outline of what we trust may be Truly may we admit, as has been said by combined hereafter in a well-arranged and T. W., that parents are the proper guardians of amply endowed and amended Poor-law Admin their children, and it would be cause of great istration, not for this city alone, but ultimately congratulation, if parents generally were careful for our whole country.

to collect their children together on First-days,

in order to impart to them religious instruction, For Frien Is’ Intelligencer.

and to tell them of their experience in best In the obituary column of last week is regis- things. But have we not cause to believe this tered the death of another youthful member of great duty is in many instances neglected ? Green street Monthly Meeting, Mary K. Hen. Having nothing in our Society government to zey. It is not our object to add a laudatory require this dedication, only by recommendanotice, but we feel impelled to express the de- tion, many think themselves too weak, and this sire that the repeated removals among our be- weakness is transmitted from one generation to loved young people may have the effect to en- another, until Friends' principles are lost sight courage their companions to “buy the Truth,” of, and many glide imperceptibly away. But which is of more value than gold, and abund- our First-day schools will have a tendency to antly more to be desired than five gold. Our, create an equilibrium. Where all meet on one beloved

young friend, we believe, was one who common base, and for one general cause, there had in a great degree kept ber garments “un- is a sympathy felt, and that social feeling will spotted from the world,” and in the few days of be drawn out, whereby all will begin to realize suffering allotted her, she had not to contend this great truth, that they are the children of with the remorse consequent upon evil-doing. one common Father, and that they are seeking Like several others near her age, who have one common interest, each other's good, and the been removed within a short period, she had salvation of the inmortal part. much to attach her to this life. An only A cooperation of the parents and those of daughter of fond parents, a favorite in a large religious experience is much needed, to encourcircle of relatives and friends, she had just fio- age children to lay hold of religious instruction. isbed her scholastic course and was prepared And the more we meet together for this purfor the useful life which appeared to be opening pose, the greater ability will be given to act before her. Her feelings responded to the calls under a Divine influence; and the inflowing of suffering humanity, and she promised to be of Divine love will spread from vessel to vessel, an efficient laborer in this field. She has been until there is a bubbling up of the pure waters taken from it all, and we think the great so- of life, and ability given to administer wbolelemnity which overspread the unusually large some iostruction. gathering at the time of ber funeral, and the In addition to Scripture lessons, which meet impressive testimonies borne on that occasion, my approval, there will be those, experienced may be accepted as an earnest that it is well in the school of Christ, who will be enabled to with her,—“ well with the child.”


tell wnat the Lord hath done for them, and

how he led them along in their tender years, BE MASTER, AND NOT MASTERED. which no doubt would meet with a response in It is not by regretting what is irreparable many a young nind. Strength would be given that true work is to be done, but by making the to surmount difficulties that seem to the young best of what we are. It is not by complaining and inexperienced to be insurmountable, and all that we have not the right tools, but by using would be comforted and all be edified. We well the tools we have. The wise and manly know that early impressions are the strongest. way is to look our disadvantages in the face, Hence the responsibility resting on parents and aud sce what can be made of them.

guardians, to bring up the children in a proper


manner-to direct them to the Fountain of Many Friends are to be found among these eternal truth. The wise Solomon has left on self sacrificing workers, although the Soeiety record the following saying: “ Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he provides for its own members who may require will not depart from it." If we concede this, pecuniary aid. It is one of the most striking should we not be in earnest? Should we not and beautiful features of the discipline of the come up together as much as practicable--the Society of Friends that the necessities of the parents with the children and the children with poor are to be relieved, and “they assisted in the parents? In unity there is strength. And letus see if there is not a work for each to do;

such business as they are capable of.” Where remembering the great trutlı, “ he that watereth this advice or requirement is not carried out enhimself also shall be watered;" and I believe tirely, we believe it may not be the fault of the there would be opened a fountain of life that Society, so much as the shrinking of individuwould " well up unto eternal life.” J. M. S.

als from allowing their pressing needs to be West Branch, 12th mo. 9th, 1867.

known. We honor a disposition to maintain FRIENDS' INTELLIGENCER,

an independence by self-support; but when

untoward circumstances cluster, as sometimes PHILADELPHIA, TWELFTA MONTH 21, 1867. they will, it then becomes the privilege of

those who have it in their power to realize the Note.—('ontributors will please take notice truth of the Scripture text that “he who gives ttat, to insure the publication of an article, the to the poor lends to the Lord.” In connection name of the writer must be given to the Edit- with this subject we present our readers this ors, although it may not be necessary that it week with a Review of London Pauperism should be made public.

among the Jews and Christians," and a sketch Public CHARITY.–At this inclement season of the Jewish system of public relief, by C. F. we are reminded on every band of the need of Barnard, from the Christian Examiner. remembering “the poor.” The philanthropist is importuned for relief by many who appear

The frequent reception of communications to be aware that the chilling blasts which con giving an account of meetings in different parts geal the rivulets of the material world have of the country, for the commingling of Friends, the effect upon the sensitive heart to cause the old and young, for the purpose of intellectual streams that emanate from the genial fountain and spiritual improvement, leaves no doubt that of charity to flow more freely. Unhappily the there is an awakening in the minds of many gross impositions practiced by a class who to the necessity of individual as well as Society would rather beg than work, and who expend effort, to support the noble testimonies of Truth the means thus obtained in a manner repulsive with which we as a people have been entrusted. to virtue and honor, leads to an embarrassment We rejoice in the call to labor, for verily "the which often occasions the objects of real charity fields are white unto barvest.” The mountain 10 be turned aside with the impostors. Still around which too many have pitched their tents there are many who in this uncertainty feel has been encompassed “long enough.” The that if they err, “it is better that it should be command has been given to“ move forward" on the side of mercy.” The evil of profes. to no longer rest in the labors of our fathers, sional begging cootinues to claim the serious which will avail no more than the claim of the consideration of the generous and humane, and people formerly, who called Abraham their many efforts have been, and are being made to father, yet did not the works of Abraham. remedy it. Benevolent associations exist not generation passeth and another cometh,—the only within the various religious circles but responsibilities of the latter are no less than also irrespective of sectarian bounds; and many those of the former. They who were faithful intelligent men and women, especially the latter, to the word nigh in the heart, performed the devote much time in endeavoring to ascertain work of their day and passed on to a bigber the real wants of those upon whom charity is and purer life. Those who are now upon the bestowed, and to find employment for such as stage of action are alike called to follow the have streugth and hcalth to labor.

guide which “ leads into all Truth.” We are not


to look backward, but forward; to press onward on this continent, they have always advocated " towards the mark for the prize ;” and unless and practiced a liberal and just policy towards this be steadily kept in view, we shall be likely the benefit of the tribes residing within the

the Aborigines. The efforts of Wm. Penn for to miss our way and be involved in mist and present limits of the State of Pennsylvania, have darkness. It is, therefore, a deep concern with received the admiration of the world. These us that in. the various efforts which are now efforts have been continued by the Society to being made to arouse from a state of lethargy the winter of 1795–96, a delegation of our peo

the present time. Our Records show, that, in and lukewarmness, the eye may be kept

, single ple waited upon the President of the United to the Light, that the labor required may be States, and also on the Secretary of State, clearly discerned, and that nothing may be under whose particular care the Indians at that allowed to weaken onr faith in the all-sufficiency time were, acquainting them with the concern of the grace of God, as it is suffered to operate of our Religious Society for the instruction of in the hearts of the children of men, to cleanse and in other subjects which would tend to

the Indians in the cultivation of their lands, from sin and preserve in the way of life ever their comfort and improvement, civilization and lasting.

enlightenment. The President, George Wash

ington, then in Philadelphia, assured the dele. MARRIED, At Dunning's Creek, on the 12th of Ninth monih, 1867, at the house of Jesse Blackburn, gation, that the benevolent objects of the Cuas. G. Cleaver, son of Wm. and Keziah Clenver, Friends, as thus set forth, were fully approved (deceased) to Maria BLACKBURN, daugliter of Jesse by him. The Secretary of State also approved and Euiib Blackburo.

of the objects of Friends, and manifested a de

sire to co-operate with the Society in promotDied, on the 17th of Tentlı month, 1867, ELIZA H. CRANDELL, aged nearly 69 years.

ing the Indians' welfare. In pursuance of the suddenly, on ihe 7th of Twelfth month, 1867, desigps and concern of Friends thus officially at Bordentown, V. J., Aaron Bellanger, in his 85th approved, the Society proceeded, at their own year; a member of Chesterfield Monthly Meeting, V.J. expense, to erect mills* at Waupighkannetta,

in Baltimore, Md., on the 7th of Twelfih and schools at that place, at Lewistown, on the month, 1807, JONATHAN SHOEMAKER,

Auglaize River, and other places in the State FIRST-DAY SCHOOLS.

of Ohio, and at Cattaraugus and Alleghany, in The Executive Committee appointed at the recent the State of N-w York. Our records show, Conference are requested to meet in the Monibly that one of the Chiefs went into the mills at Neering Room, Rice St., on Sixth-day afternoon, Twelith month 271h, at 3 o'clock.

Waupaghkannetta, for the purpose of obtaining Wm. W. Biddle, Clerk. instruction in the management of them, in FRIENDS' FUEL ASSOCIATION.

which he succeeded, and they were placed

In 1804, under the superA meeting of this organization will be held this under his charge. (Sevenib-day) evening, 12th mo. 21st, at o'clock. intendence of the person placed among the InJos. M. TRUMAN, Jr., Clerk. dians, by the Friends, there were raised on one

farm an abundance of different kinds of vege. FRIENDS IN tables and other productions of the garden and

field, and a number of swine; and the young To the President of the United States, the Indian women had learned to spin and knit; Secretaries of War and of the Interior, the and when the report was made, 2d month ttb, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and the Mem 1805, these young Indians were knitting yarn bers of the Senate and House of Representa of their own spinning. In 1822, a tract of tives, the following memorial in relation to the land was purchased adjoining the Indian ResAborigines of our country, respertfully repre- ervation at Waupaghkannetta, containing 214 sents, that the memorialists are members of the acres, on which the necessary buildings had Religious Society of Friends, commonly called been erected for a school house, and a dwelling Quakers, and are representatives, now assem- house for the superintendent and his family. bled in Conference in the City of Baltimore, of About twenty acres of the land were cleared, the Six Yearly Meetings, or general Assem- and under cultivation, le sening the cost of blies of our People, whose members reside in transporting provisions. This improvement the States of New York, Vermont, New Jersey, gave great satisfaction to the Indiang. The Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, mills were in good running order, under the Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and lowa, management of an Indian. and in the District of Columbia. For a very Members of the Society, under a religious long period, the Society of Frieuds, from sym- concern, went to reside amongst them in Ohio pathy with suffering humanity, has been and New York, to instruct them in agricultural deeply interested in the Iudians of our Country. Since the first settlement of the Friends


* Grain mill and saw mill.




pursuits, the mechanic arts, household econ- According to the census returns, the policy omy, and school learning; and these labors that has been pursued towards these Indiaos, were continuud, with marked and very satisfac. I has reduced their numbers from 400,764, tory evidences of improvement. Those tribes which was their population in 1850,* to 831,in Ohio, to whom our care had been extended, 093 which was their population in 1860,+ bebave since gone, or been removed west of the ing a decrease in the intervening period of ten Mississippi River; and those at Cattaraugus years, of 69,671, or more than one-sixth of all and Alleghany, have become so advanced in the Indians that existed in our country at the civilization and enlightenment, as no longer to time the census of 1850 was taken ! need our assistance and care.

But, this is now past.

All we can do with These simple facts are presented, in order these facts, startling though they be, is to make that you may see that our concern is one of them a basis from wbich to plead for a change long starding, and that you may judge of its of policy, and to draw from them lessons of excharacter and its depth. This long continued perience and instruction as guides for the fuand active connection with the Indians, and the The future is still left to us; and al. personal acquaintance and affectionate friend - though fears exist in contemplating it, hopes ship of our ancestors with some of the promi- rise superior to them. As, in the practice of bent Chiefs, as Red Jacket, Little Turtle, Five continued cruelty upon an individual, a point Medals, Corn Planter, and others, have caused may be reached in his injured physical system, us to continue to be close observers of the from which the most unremitted subsequent events affecting their condition, from that time kindness cannot restore him, nor the most asto the present. We have felt much, but have siduous nursing and attention prevent his going seen no way for efficient action. The picture' down to an untimely grave; 80, continued inof the treatment of these people, os drawn in justice, wrongs, outrages and cruelties, practhe Annual “ Reports of the Commissioners of ticed by a powerful nation upon a weak people, Indian Affairs” for the last six years, in the may be carried to such an extent, that restora" Defence of Commissioner Bogy,” the “ Let- i tiou is impossible, and nothing remain but ultiters of the Secretaries of War and Interior on mate extermination or extinction. the Fort Phil Kearney Massacre,"'* the " Let-But, we rejoice to believe, this point is by ter of the Secretary of the Interior of July no means reached in regard to the Indians. 13th, 1867, communicating information touch. There is great ground for hope, that by the ing the origin and progress of Indian hostilities government pursuing a kind, just, and liberal on the Frontier,”¥ and the “Report on the policy towards them in future, they may be Condition of the Indian Tribes,” by Senator preserved and enlightened ; and in order that Doolittle, Chairman of the Joint Special Com. such humane policy may be inaugurated towittee of the two Houses of Congress, Jan.' wards them, is the object of this earnest and 26th, 1867, is one which we do not feel called solemo appeal on their behalf. upon to characterize.

We have viewed it over : A great amount of evidence is afforded by and over, with double sorrow. Sorrow for the the Reports and Documents herein before poor, oppressed, withering Indian : sorrow for enumerated which you bave published, that the Government that fails to afford him better the Indians are highly capable of civilization protection ; fails to comply with the terms of and enlightenment, and of conducting agriculthe most solemn treaties, and whose officers, tural, mechanical and manufacturing pursuits, agents, and employees, practice such injustice, when properly instructed, protected and influcruelty and wrong upon them, as we find there enced, not only sufficient for their own support, recorded in so great a dumber of instances. : but to have a surplus. And then, the sad consequences that follow, in The following interesting picture of the Inthe destruction of these poor people! As dian character, drawn by Hon. John B. San. pathetically stated by one of their number, born, Special Indian Commissioner, and pub"Fifty years ago, our numbers were many. lished by goveroment, has much in it which is Once, we covered this great continent. From highly suggestive and encouraging : East to West, and from North to South, was * Seen in their native state,” he says, “and the Red Man's Country, and the Red Man's before they bave been brought in contact with home. To-day we are few in number. We civilized men, the Indians have many of the are fast dwindling away :--falling like the poblest traits. They have great love for fame leaves of the firest, to rise no more.” I and glory; great contempt for suffering and

* Senate Ex. Docs. Nos. 15 and 16, 39th Congress, death; and not one element in their nature 2d session.

that will lead them, under any circumstances, † Senate Ex. Docs. No. 13, 40th Congress, 1st ses- to submit to any form or condition of slavery. sion.

I Letter from Enmegahbowh, of Minnesota, an In- They have quite correct and philosophical dian Missionary, to one of your present Memorial.

* Census of 1850, page 94. ists.

f Census of 1860, pages 135 and 136.

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ideas of government and of laws; all have a the education of their children; and, as their
belief in a future state, where the conditions location is such as to give them the benefit of
will depend upon conduct during earthly exist the common school system of the State of New
ence : they have good powers of thought and York, they are not slow to avail themselves of
rea:on, and not a few of each tribe have the the privilege, there being twenty-three schools
rare faculty of oratory. Are there not sufi among them, containing eight hundred and
cient traits and elements of character here, by seventy-two scholars, out of a population of
proper influence and training, to develop into under four thousand, a larger proportion of
a noble civilized race? They seem to be, in scholars to the total population than obtains in
no respect, inferior to our European ancestors, most white communities. Notwithstanding
at and previous to the invasion of Cæsar.- the ravages of the small-yox among the Tona-
They are savage and nomadic; so were the wandas, by which forty-four persons died, the
European races. They are warlike and brave; average number of births in the agency, for the
so were the European races ; perhaps the latter past year, has exceeded the deaths,"'* that
were less so. They are superstitious and re- the whole population is increasing."
ligious; so were the European races. They are Governor Fenton, of the State of New York,
revengeful; so were the European races: and in his last annual message to the Legislature,
there seens to be nothing in their pature or says: “ These Indians in the State of New
condition to preclude them from civilization, York, living upon reservatious, bave steadily
that might not be found in the nature and increased in population for the last twenty-
disposition of our ancestors, except that our five years, without being indebted to immigra-
ancestors, when overrun and crushed by the tion for the result. This growth of the A bor-
Roman power, subunitted to the condition of iginal race is opposed to the theory of their
slavery; whereas this race will all die free, final extinction ; and their gradual improve-
rather than live slaves. It is therefore to be ment in intelligence and thrift, even induces
fairly concluded, when this race is compared the hope, that whenever they shall bave con-
with any of those who, from a state of barbar- formed to the usages of civilized people in re-
ism, have risen to civilization, that we find spect to the marriage relation, they will be pre-
then in no respect inferior, and that there is : pared to receive their lands, now held in com-
nothing in the natural organization and condi-, mon, as individual property, and the principal
tion of the Indians to preclude them from civ. of their annuities. The motives which incite
ilization and mental culture. But, if their men to acquire wealth and inheritance for
Datural organization and condition do not pre- their families would then operate in the In-
clude them from civilization and general devel- dians with appropriate effect, and they might
opment, then we must be pursuiog an erroneous fitly receive and assume all the privileges and
pilicy, or fuiling to curry a policy which is duties of the citizen." +
sound in isself into effect. For, the result has These facts and conclusions are of great in-
been, to drive an independent and lordiy race terest and significance, in the present condition
into the condition of dependents and beggars; of the Indian question among the tribes west
to consert generous, grateful, and noble spirits, of the Mississippi. We desire that our gove
into craven, bitter, and degraded souls ; to deernment may calmly weigh the result of the
grade and destroy the man, and cultivate and experiment of kind treatment and fostering
develop the fiend.”*

care of the Indians in Western New York.
Witness the advancing condition of the rem- There are enough thousands of these Indians
nant of the once powerful Confederation of the to make the experiment of real value; and the
Six Nations, in the State of New York, as ex- more so, because they have been, and are,
hibited in the several late reports of the Com. divided into separate bands--miniature nation-
inissioner of Indian Affairs. In his report of alities--encompassed about with destructive
Jast year he says: “ For the most part, these influences, in addition to the inherent tendency
people (the Indians of New York) are indus- in small communities to become extinct from
trious and intelligent in the care of their the intermarriage of blood relations, and to
faris, and succeed in making a fair living by lose heart from the numerical weakness of their
their labor. Of many of them, it may be said, respective communities. If the New York In-
they are not surpassed by the whites in the dians could live and pass the crisis, and begin
care and diligence with which they pursue to thrive and to increase in population, steadily
their business, or the success which crowns and permanently, as shown by the reports of
their efforts, as may be seen at the Annual the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, by the
Agricultural Fairs which have been instituted census returns, and by the message of the Gov.
among them.
" These Indians exhibit a great interest in

* Report of Commissioner of ladian Affairs for

1866, page 60. * Leiter of Secretary of the loterior ; Senate Ex. † Message of Governor Fenton to the New York Doc. No. 13, 40th Congress, 1st Session, page 68. Legislature, Jan'y 20, 1867, page 26.

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