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are many little fragments of stone, some of out. I found the wheat quite sound, but a them carried to the very top, any one of which little swelled. In the evening of the same day would weigh more than 25 apts. Internally I passed there again; the wheat had dried, and the apt mound contains many neatly constructed they were busily engaged carrying it in again. cells, the floors of which are horizontal; and The species of grass they só carefully cultiinto these cells the eggs, young ones, and their vate is a biennial. They sow it in time for the stores of grain are carried in time of rainy autumnal rains to bring it up. Accordingly, seasons.

about the first of November, if the fall has been The mound itself, and the surface of the seasonable, a beautiful green row of the ant ground around it, to the distance of four or five rice, about 4 inches wide, is seen springing up feet,' sometimes more, from the centre, is kept on the pavement, in a circle of 14 to 15 feet very clean, like a pavement. Everything that in circumference. In the vicinity of this cirhappens to be dropped upon the pavement is cular row of grass they do not permit a single cut to pieces and carried away. The largest spire of any other grass or weed to remain a dropping from the cows will, in a short time, day; leaving the Aristida untouched until it is be removed. I have placed a large coro-stalk ripe, which occurs io June of the next year, on the pavement, and in the course of two or they gather the seeds and carry them into the three days found it hollowed out to a mere granaries as before stated. There can be no shell; that too, in a short time, would be cut doubt of the fact that this peculiar species of to pieces and carried off. Not a green thing is grass is intentionally planted, and, in farmersuffered to grow on the pavement, with the ex-like manner, carefully divested of all other ception of a single species of grain-bearing grasses and weeds during the time of its growth, grass, (Aristida stricta.) This the ant nurses and that after it has matured, and the grain and cultivates with great care; having it in a stored away, they cut away the dry stubble and eirele around and two or three feet from the remove it from the pavenient, leaving it unencentre of the mound. It also clears away the cumbered until the ensuing autumn, when the weeds and other grasses all around outside of same species of grass, and in the same circle, the circular row of Aristida, to the distance of appears again, receiving the same agricultural one or two feet. The cultivated grass flourishes care as did the previous crop; and so on, year luxuriantly, producing a heavy crop of small, I after year, as I know to be the case on farms white, flioty grains, which, under the micro where their habitations are, during the sumscope, bave the appearance of the rice of com. mer season, protected from the depredations of merce. When it is ripe it is harvested by the cat:le. Outside of the fields they sow the workers, and carried, chaff and all, into the grass seeds, but the cows crop it down two or granary cells, where it is divested of the chaff, three times, when, fioding that there is no which is immediately taken out and thrown chance to carry on their agricultural pursuits, beyond the limits of the pavement, always to the they cut it all away and re-establish the clean lee side. The clean grain is carefully stored pavement. Our cattle did not often crop the away in dry cells. These cells are so constructed ant rice until their increased numbers have that water cannot reach them, except in long forced them to feed on all kinds of grass. That, wet spells, when the earth becomes thoroughly however, has turned out favorably to the ant saturated, and dissolves the cement with which interest. For, while the prairies are being the grapary cells are made tight. This is a great denuded of the stronger grasses, we have a calamity, and if rain continues a few days it delicate little biennial barley (Hordium pusil. will drown out the entire community. In cases, lum) that is filling all the naked places. It however, where it bas contioued long enough rises from 3 to 6 inches, producing fine grain only to wet and swell their grain, as soon as a for ant consumption. It matures about the last sunny day occurs they take it all out, and days of April, and from that time all the agrispreading it in a clean place, after it has súnned cultural ants are seen packing it home daily a day or two, or is fully dry, they take it in agaio, through the summer. This species of ant sub. except the grains that are sprouted; these they sists entirely on vegetable seeds. I have someinvariably leave out. I have seen at least a times seen them drag a caterpillar or a crippled quart of sprouted seeds left out at one place. grasshopper into their hole, that had been

They also collect the grain from several other throwo upon the pavement, but I have never species of grass, as well as seed from many observed them carrying any such thiogs bome kiods of herbaceous plants. They like almost that they had captured themselves. I du pot any kiod of seeds-red pepper seeds seem to think they eat much animal food. be a favorite with them.

(To be continued.) Io a barren rocky place in a wheat field, a few days after harvest, I saw quite a number of Have the courage to provide entertainments wheat graios scattered over the pavement of an for your friends, within your means—not be aut city, and the laborers were still bringing it youd.

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NEAR AND FAR SIGHTEDNESS. | permanent change took place in the form of the Until recently “near-sightedness" and lens, since this would impair the eye for . " long-sightedness" have been explained by seeing objects at a distance, as well as those assuming in the first case that in consequence dear at hand. Kramer and Helmholtz have of the too great convexity of the cornea and showo ibat the accommodation of the eye to seecrystalline lens, one or both, the focus is formed ing dear objects depends upon a temporary in front of the retina, while in the second the change in the form of the lens, this becomiog rays of light are concentrated behind the retina, more and more convex as the object approaches because the convexity of the parts just mentioned the nearest point of distinct vision. This is proved is too small. The correction of these imi perfec- by watching the relative position of the three tions by the use of concave glasses in the first images of a candle as seen reflected, 1st, from instance, and of convex ones in the second, the front of the cornea ; 2d, from the foremost or seemed to be all that was needed to show that convex surface of the capsule of the lens; and the explanation was true. It certainly had the 3d, from the hindmost or concave surface of nierit of meeting the facts, and so has been al- ' this capsule. The image from this last is in. most universally accepted by physiologists, and verted, and that from the front of the capsule has found its way into every text-book touch- is in the middle of the three

. The attention of ing upon the optical structure of the eye. That the person whose eye is observed being directed these conditions, if they existed, would produce ' to a distant point, if it be suddenly changed to a the effects indicated, no one will doubt; but it near one, in the same straight line with the first, should not be lost sight of that the alleged con- ' so that no motion of the globe of the eye will ditions of the cornea and leds were never satis- be necessary, the central image will change its factorily shown to be attendants of the two ab- size, becoming smaller, showing that the reflecnormal states of the eye of which we are speak. ting surface has become more convex, and at ing Recent investigations have proved that the same time will change its place to one side, both near and long sightedness may be, and in showing that the front of the lens has moved most cases are, the result of wholly other causes. forward. The first and third images undergo A moment's reflection will make it apparent to little or no change. It is the loss of this power any one that, the refracting media being quite of changing the form of the lens, a power necesnormal, if, in consequence of the axis of the eye sary to the distinct vision of near objects, that being too long, the retina is too far behind the chiefly gives rise to long-sightedness in persons lens, the rays will meet in front of this, and thus growing old. The inability to accommodate, sbort-eigbtedness will of necessity follow. The according to Donders, depends upon the lens average length of the axis of the eye is a little becoming harder, and therefore less compres. less than an inch, viz. : 24.25 millimetres, or sive, and so offering greater resistance to the about 0.95 inch. Donders has shown that in ciliary muscle, the chief agent in producing the near-sighted persons it exceeds an inch, and compression required. may amount to 1.20 inch and even more, the When directed to distant objects the accomo. other diameters being unchanged. In this case dating power is at rest, so that the sense of efthe ball of the eye becomes more or less oval fort is wholly absent. Most persons are, how. or egg-shaped, and when turned strongly to ever, conscious of a distinct effort, and those wards the pose will fill the orbit more tban who are becoming long.sighted, painfully so, usual at the outer angle. Concave glasses will, when the eye is directed to a near object. It of course, be required to disperse the ligbt suf is commonly believed that near-sighted persons ficiently to bring the rays to a focus on the re- as they grow old acquire the power of seeing tina. In proof that too great convexity of the objects at ordinary distances, because their too cornea does not produce near-sightedness, may convex refracting media become flattened with be urged the fact that this convexity is greatest advancing age. This may and does bappen to in childhood, but, as Volkunan observed, chil. ' a slight degree in a few, but not in the majority dren are rarely near-sighted.

of cases. For the most part, near-sighted per. In regard to long-sightedness, if the alleged 'sons as they grow old find that the near point cause of it, viz., the fattening of the cornea and, of distinct vision recedes, while the far point crystalline lens, existed, this would of necessity undergoes but little change. This is an importform the focus, other things being the same, be- ant fact in opposition to the theory of flattening hind the retina; but po proof was ever brought heretofore ro generally accepted, and is fully forward that this fattening actually did exist explained by the loss of the power of accomin the majority of cases. In adopting this ex- modation. -Nation. planation, its inconsistency with the fact that elderly persons still see far objects distinctly, It is easier to make a complete sacrifice which seems to bave been overlooked by physiologists. will fully satisfy conscience, than a half-sacri. The persistence of this faculty was of itself suf- fice which falls short of it.- Select Memoirs of ficient evidence to make it probable that .20 Port Royal.

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STRENGTH OF WILL TO DO RIGHT. defeat of evil allurements, will often render the While the error of a few is that overstrength rest of the struggle easy, or the resolute choice of mere will which we call obstinacy or self. of suitable con pany, and the rejection of that will, the error of the vast multitude is feebleness known to be enslaving, may settle the whole

of will. The bodies of most control their minds. question. : How many eat where reason would say abstain, But there is one habit which, more than any

or drink that which steals away the senses ! other, before the business and confusion of the How wavy are too feeble of purpise to lay aside day he entered on, will strengthen the wisdom ao interesting book or pursuit at the hour when and the will-. e., the practice of forecasting it infringes on other duties ! what hours most the whole difficulties, dangers and plan of the waste in profitless reading! Indeed, there is day devoutly in communion with the beavenly a fascination and tyranny about the present, no Father. They that wait upon the Lord shall matter what-company, passion or pleasure---renew their strength. As the moulting bird.

. feelings that we are all asbamed of afterwards. recovers youth and renewed enerys from the

The ancient moralists felt this as much as we process, so has man in all ages been found to do do. Sepeca says, in language quite as strong from real communion with the Father of Spirits. as that of St. Paul, that he sees the right and The power of vigorous will is thus most effecadmires it, and the wrong and hates, while yet tually increased. Dean Trench has thrown be practices it. Many persons seem to think this thought into a most beautiful little poem, it enough to admit all this without attempting lately much quoted, though given more at to overcome it. In fact, to be weak of will, length in the lIymns of the Ages : amiable and easily turned, they thiok a sort of Lord, what a change within us one short bour Christian virtue. Yet it is one of the most Spent in thy presepre can avail to make ! radical of vices. For all cbaracter is determined Wbat beavy burdens from our bosoms take! by the will, wbich is therefore essential to all what parched grounds refresh us with a shower ! pirtue. The glory of every human being is to We kne-1, and all around us seems to lower ;

We rise, and all tle distant and the near have a strong will, which need not be self-willed,

Stand forth in sunny outline, brave and clear; but bowed ever reverently to truth and justice We kneel, how weak! we rise, bow fnll of pow+r! and eternal law, and the Supreme Lawgiver. Why, therefore, should we do ourselves this wrong, But there must be a vital strength of will to

Or others, that we are not always strongchoose the right.

That we are ever, ever borne with care

That we shouli ever weak or heartless be, How to obtain this is the question. One clue Anxious or troubled, when with us is prayer, is the observation that our strength is not the Aod joy and strength and courage are with Thee ? same on all subjects nor in all circumstances and associations. Weakness or strength of bodi.

TUE BIRD TEACHER. ly bealth bas much to do with this. Exercise Some years ago, when the Australian goldand repose affect it. An overtasked nervous sever was bot in the veins of thousands, and system will often be weak and irresolute, when Beets of ships were conveying them to that far. half an hour's vigorous exercise or a sharp walk off upcultivated world, a poor old woman landed in the open air will renew it. The hour of the with the great multitude of rough and reckless day will have much influence. On first rising men, #bo were fired to almost frenzy by dreams in the morning the resolution is clear, compre of ponderous nuggets and golden fortunes. hensive and strong, while at night it is often For these they left behind them all the enjoyfeeble. Hence the most successful men geper. ments, endearments, all the softening sanctities ally plan out the day early, and make their and surroundings of home and social life. For mark while the will is vigorous and uodistracted. these they left mothers, wives, sisters and Sleep often restores this faculty. Habit bas still daughters. There they were, thinly teuted in more to do with it. Every success makes a the rain and the dew and the wist, a busy, future one in the same matter more easy and boisterous, womapless camp of diggers and Datoral, wbile every instance of being subdued grubbers, roughing and tumbling it in the bg circumstances makes every similar tempta- scramble for gold mites, with no quiet Sabtion proportionably powerful.' Association has bath-breaks, por Sabbath-songs, nor Sabbath

, much to do with it. In the company of those bell to measure off and sweeten a season of We respect we are easily led.

rest. He, therefore, who would rule his own spirit, Well, the poor widow, who had her cabin and be strong, must attend to these conditions within a few miles of “the diggings,” brought Habits that secure the most perfect health are with her but few comforts from the old homeland hence most favorable to virtue. Sound sleep, -a few simple articles of furniture, the Bible vigorous exercise, proper food, fresh air, thus be- and psalm book of her youth, and a lark to sing come Christian duties, to be secured at almost to her solitude the songs that had cheered her any cost. The formation of habits such as shall on the other side of the globe. And the little secure the victory to all good choices, and the thing did it with all the fervor of its first notes.

currence.

In her cottage-window it sang to her hour by must enlist the sympathies of the residents of largo hour at her labor, with a voice never heard be- cities, where the sad spectacle of overdriven and fore on that wild continent. The strange birds worn-out animals of draught is of too frequeut ocof the land came circling around in their gor

Tax Russian-AMERICAN TELEGRAPH.-The Westgeous plumage to hear it. Even four footed ani- ern Union l'elegraph Company bas abandoned the mals, with grim couotenance, paused to hear it. Russian American telegraph project, ait:r expend Then, one by one, came other listeners. They ing, as they all-ge, three millions of dollars in excame reverently; and their voices softened into plorations, in the purchase of materials, and in exsilence as they listened. Hard-visaged men, north of the capital of British Columbia. The rea

tending their lines eight bundred and fifty miles bare breasted and unshaven, came and stood

sons assigned, in a formal communication to the gentle as girls; and tears came out upon many Secretary of Siate, for this step, are, that the success a tanned and sun-blistered cheek, as the little of the Ailantic Cable destroys the hopes of reaping bird warbled forth the silvery treble of its song a commercial profit from the new line as a means of 'about the green hedges, the meadow-streams, tbat connecting links would be established, to es

communication with Europe, wbile the expectation and the cottage-homes of the fatherland. Aod

tond southward from Northeastern Asia into China, they came near unto the lone widow with peb- India, and Japan, has proved delusive. The Secrebles of gold in their hard and horoy hauds, and tary of State, in reply, regrets this decision, without asked her to sell them the bird, that it might questioning the wisdom of the action of the comsing to them while they were bending to the pany, and says he does not believe that the Uni

ied Sta'es and Russia bave given tbeir faith to pick and the spade. She was poor; and the each other, and to the world, for the prosecution of gold was heavy; yet she could not sell the warb- that great enterprise ia vaio.”Philadelphia Press. liog joy of her life; but she told them that they The American department at the Paris Exposition might come whenever they would to hear it is reported to be less complete in condition than the sing. So, on Sundays, having no other preacher, departmeot of any other country; but this is a nate por teacher, nor sanctuary-privilege, they came consider that the European exbibitors sent their

ural and almost inevitable consequence, when we down in large companies from their gold-pits, goods to Paris with less trouble than many Ameriand listened to the devotional (?) hymns of the cans were subjected to in forwarding their packages lark, and became better and happier men for its to the poiot of departure from our country. wusic.- Elihu Burritt.

The Trustees of the Peabody Educatinnal Food

determined upon a general plan, in session at New Have the courage to prefer comfort and pro-York, 3d mo. 25th. It was resolved that the promopriety to fashion, in all things.

tion of Primary or Common School Education should be the leading object, and that in aid of it normal

schools should be established in the Southern and For Friends' Intelligencer.

South-Western Sales. Dr. Sears was chosen the The eighty dollars credited to R. W. Moore for General Agent, and intrusted with the whole charge New Orleans Home should have been collections as of executing the plan, under the direction of the follows :

Trustees. George Peabody sent a letter to ibe Board, Dr. Thomas Moore.........

$20.00

in which he says that in making this noble gift be A Friend ...........

25.00

designed to give absolute power to the Trustees in Mary Wright...

15.00

regard to its distribution. An Executive Committee Tbos. B. and Lydia Longstreth.... 10.00

of five gentlemen was appointed, and the distribution Jonathan Rittenhouse...

500

of the fund will be speedily begun. Elizabeth Bacon.......

5.00

Appleton & Co., book publishers, of that city, have

magnanimously donated 100,000 volumes of school $80.00

books in rid of the liberality. Henry. M, Laing, Treasurer. 4th mo. Ist. 1867.

A Republican State Convention has been held in

Norih Carolina, in which 100 whites and fifty colored The Treasurer of Friends' Association for the Aid delegates, r« presenting fifty-six counties, were assemand Elevation of the Freedmen has received since bled. The resolutions a lopted were "radical." last report :-

An Asylum for Orphang, wbite and colored, has From City contributions..........

$141.00 been established in Charleston, S. C., under the man. Women Friends of Sadsbury, Pa... 7.00 agement of prominent citizens of New York. It is Friends of Warminster......... 17.00 called the Col. Shaw Orphan Home, and it is ready Change, Cincinnati .......... ..... .88 to receive the fatberless and motberlesg—witbout Sarah W. Doughton, Lumberton,

distinction of color. Gilbert Pillsbury (orother of N. J.......

5.00 Parker) is the Superidiendent, and his wife, the matRachel Haides, Fallston, Md........ 10.00 ron, is said to be one of the ablest teachers in all the

Souin; and it is difficult to see how the orphans of

$180.88 South Carolina could be better provided for, either Herry X. LAING, Treasurer. physically or intellectually. Phila. 4.b mo. Cth, 1867. No. 30 N. Third St. There is prospect that the cotton crop of the

present year will be much larger than that of 1866, ITEMS.

and nui much below the average crop raised Among the bills juet signed by the Governor of previous to the war. Thousands of planters in the Penneflondia is one incorporating a society tor " the South have already discovered that slavery was a preretition of cruelty to animals." Similar societies curse to the master as well as to ibe bondman, and bare been instituted in many places, and their object that freedom promoies prosperity as well as justice.

FRIENDS' INTELLIGENCER.

“ TAKE FAST HOLD OF INSTRUCTION; LET HEB NOT GO; KEEP HER; FOR SUB 18 TAY LITE."

VOL. XXIV.

PHILADELPHIA, FOURTH MONTII 20, 1867.

No. 7.

103

At Pablication Offico, No. 144 North Seventh Street, Freedmen's School at Lincoln, Va...

EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY AN ASSOCIATION

CONTENTS.

Review of the Life and Discourses of F. W. Robertson....... 97
OF FRIENDS.
Selections from the Writings of John Barclay..

99

Letters from Sarah G. Rich..... COMMUNICATIONS MUST BE ADDRESSED AND PAYMENTS

102 MADE TO

Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane..

EDITORIAL ....
EMMOR COMLY, AGENT,

104 OBITUARY..

104

104 Open from 9 A.M. until 5 P.M, Agricultural Ant of Texas..

105 Residence, 809 North Serenteenth Street, POETRY.......

107 TERMS:-PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. The Hebrew Books in the British Museum

........ 107 The Paper is issued every Seventh-day, at Three Dollars per Taste in Arranging Flowers.........

...... 108 annum. $2.50 for Clubs; or, four copies for $10.

Characteristics of Lamb-the Qualities of Mind and Heart.. 109 Agents for Clubs will be expected to pay for the entire Club.

110 The Postage on this paper, paid in alvance at the office where Importunity... is recived, in any part of the United States, is 20 cents a year. How to Live Easily.

110 AGENTS Joseph S. Cohu, New York.

Indigo

111 Henry Haydock, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Annual Report of the Female Association of Philadelphia for
Benj. Stratton, Richmond, Iord.
Willinm H. Churchman, Indianapolis, Ind.

the Relief of the Sick and Infirm Poor with Clothing.. 111
James Baynes, Ballimore, Mu.
ITEMS

112

BY SAMUEL M. JANXEY.

2. The per

REVIEW OF THE LIFE AND DISCOURSES OF recoils upon itself. If we impose on men a F. W. ROBERTSON,

burden which cannot be borne, and demand a

strictness which, possible in theory, is impossi(Contiunied from page 83.)

ble in practice, men recoil,—we have asked too The first series of Robertson's published dis much, and they give us nothing; the result is courses consists of those delivered at Brighton, an open, wanton and sarcastic desecration of the during three years, commencing in 1849. We Day of Rest." are informed in the Preface that “these are "If we say the Sabbath is shadow, this is not dotes previously prepared, nor are they ser. only half the truth. The apostle adds, "thə mons written before delivery. They are sim- body is of Christ.' . .. Hence, a very natuply · Recollections;' sometimes dictated by the ural and sinple division of our subject sugpreacher himself to the younger members of gests itself: 1. The transient shadow of the à family in which he was interested, at their Sabbath, which has passed away. urgent entreaty; sometimes written out by bim- manent substance, which cannot pass. self for them when they were at a distance, and Under the first of these beads he says: unable to attend his ministry.'

“ The history of the Sabbath is this :-- It was The sixth sermon in this series is entitled, given by Moses to the Israelites, partly as a " The shadow and the substance of the Sab. sign between God and them, marking them off bath.” It embraces some very lucid views on from all other pations by its observance; parily a subject that now claims much attention, and as commemorative of their deliverence from the whole of it is well worthy of perusal. The Egypt. And the reason why the seventh day text is, “Let no man therefore judge you in was ixed on, rather than the sixth or eighth, meat or in driok, or in respect of a holiday, or was, that on that day God rested from his laof the new moon, or of the Sabbath days : which bor. The soul of man was to form itself on are a shadow of things to come; but the body is the model of the Spirit of God.” of Christ." Col. ii. 16, 17.

“There is not in the Old Testament a single He observes that peculiar difficulties attend trace of the observance of the Sabbath before the discussion of the subject of the Sabbath. the time of Moses."

- The observance of one “If we take the strict and ultra ground of Sab- day in seven is therefore purely Jewish. The bath observance, basing it on the rigorous re- Jewish obligation to observe it rested ou the enquirements of the fourth commandment, we actment given by Moses. The Spirit of its obtake ground which is not true, and all uptruth, servance, too, is Jewish and oot Christian. whether it be ap over statement or a half-truth, There is a difference between the sjiit of Ju

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