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upon them, will surely find themselves disappointed.

The truth is, that though there are in that country few people so miserable as the poor of Europe, there are also very few that in Europe would be called rich: it is rather a general happy mediocrity that prevails. There are few great proprietors of the soil, and few tenants; most people-cultivate their own lands, or follow some handicraft or merchandise; very few rich enough to live idly upon their rents or incomes, or to pay the high prices given in Europe for painting, ftatues, architecture, and the other works of art that are more curious than useful. Hence the natural geniuses that have arisen in America, with such talents, have uniformly quitted that country for Europe, where they can be more suitably rewarded. It is true that letters and mathematical knowledge are in esteem there, but they are at the same time

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more

more common than is apprehended; there being already existing nine colleges, or universities, viz. four in NewEngland, and one in each of the provinces of New York, New- Jersey, Pennfylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, all furnished wich learned professors; besides a number of smaller academies : these educate many of their youth in the languages, and those sciences that qualify men for the professions of divinity, law, or physic. Strangers indeed are by no means excluded from exercising those professions; and the quick increase of inhabitants every 'where gives them a chance of employ, which they have in common with the natives. Of civil offices, or employments, there are few; no superfluous ones as in Europe ; and it is a rule established in some of the states, that no office should be fo profitable as to make it desirable. The 36th article of the constitution of Pennsylva

nia runs expressly in these words : “ As

every freeman, to preserve his indepen** dence (if he has not a sufficient estate), “ought to have some profession, calling, “ trade, or farm, whereby he may ho“ nestly sublist, there can be no necessity " for, nor use in, establishing offices of

profit; the usual effects of which are

dependence and servility, unbecoming “ freemen, in the poffeffors and. ex« pectants; faction, contention, corrup

tion and disorder among the peo“ple. Wherefore, whenever an office, " through increase of fees or otherwise, “ becomes so profitable as to occasion

many to apply for it, the profits ought $ to be lefsened by the legislature.”

These ideas prevailing more or less in all the United States, it cannot be worth any man's while, who has a means of living at home, to expatriate himself in hopes of obtaining a profitable civil office in America ; and as to military offices, 2.3

they they are at an end with the war, the ar. mies being disbanded. Much less is it adviseable for a person to go thither, who has no other quality to recommend him but his birth. In Europe it has indeed its value ; but it is a commodity that can not be carried to a worse market than to that of America, where people do not enquire concerning a stranger, What is be? but What can be do? If he has any useful art, he is welcome; and if he exercises it, and behaves well, he will be respected by all that know him; but a mere man of quality, who on that account wants to live upon the public by some office or salary, will be despised and disregarded. The husbandman is in honour there, and even the mechanic, because their employments are useful. The people have a saying, that God Al. mighty is himself a mechanic, the greatest in the universe; and he is respected and admired more for the variety, ingenuity,

and

and utility of his handiworks, than for the antiquity of his family. They are pleased with the observation of a negro, and frequently mention it, that Boccarorra (meaning the white man) make de black man workee, make de horse worķee, make de ox workee, make ebery ting workee ; only de hog. He de hog, no workee ; he eat, he drink, he walk about, he go to sleep when he please, he libb like a gentleman. According to these opinions of the Americans, one of them would think himself more obliged to a genealogist, who could prove for him that his ancestors and relations for ten generations had been ploughmen, smiths, carpenters, turners, weavers, tanners, or even shoemakers, and conse. quently that they were useful members of society ; than if he could only prove that they were gentlemen, doing nothing of value, but living idly on the labour of

others,

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