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THE

ESSAY ON HUMAN UNDERSTANDING continued.

in

OF IDE A S.

CHAP. XXIII.

16. No idea of abstract suba

stance.

Of the complex ideas of substances. 17. The cohesion of solid

parts, and impulse, the

SECT.

primary ideas of body.

1. Ideas of substances, how 18. Thinking and motivity

made.

the primary ideas of spirit.

2. Our idea of substance in 19-21. Spirits capable of mo-

general.

tion.

3, 6. Of the sorts of substances. 22. Idea of soul and body

4. No clear idea of substance

compared.

in general.

23—27. Cohesion of solid

parts

5. As clear an idea of spirit

body, as hard to be con-

as body.

ceived, as thinking in a

7. Powers a great part of

soul.

our complex idea of sub.

28, 29. Communication of motion
stances.

by impulse, or by thought,

8. And why.

equally intelligible.

9. Three sorts of ideas make

30. Ideas of body and spirit

our complex ones of sub-

compared.
stances.

31. The notion of spirit in.

10. Powers make a great part

volves no more difficulty

of our complex ideas of

in it than that of body.

substances.

32. We know nothing beyond

11. The now secondary qua.

our simple ideas.

lities of bodies would dis.

33-35. Idea of God.
appear, if we could disco.

36. No ideas in our complex
ver the primary ones of

one of spirits, but those
their minute parts.

got from sensation or re.

12. Our faculties of discovery

flection.

suited to our state.

37. Recapitulation.

13. Conjecture about spirits.

14. Complex ideas of sub-

CHAP. XXIV.

stances.

15. Idea of spiritual sub.

Of collective ideas of substances.

stances, as clear as of ст.

bodily substances,

1. One idea.

ness.

23--25. Consciousness alone makes

beyond the subjects deno-

self.

minated, are relative.

26, 27. Person a forensic term.

II. Conclusion.

28. The difficulty from ill use

of names.

29. Continuedexistencemakes

CHAP. XXVI.

identity.

Of cause and effect, and other

relations.

CHAP. XXVIII.

SECT.

Of other relations,

1. Whence their ideas got. SECT.

2. Creation, generation,

1. Proportional.

making alteration,

2. Natural.

3, 4. Relations of time.

3. Instituted.

5. Relations of place and

extension,

5. Moral good and evil.

6. Absolute terms often stand 6. Moral rules.

for relations.

7. Laws.

8. Divine

4. Moral.

ways two ideas.

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ings.

8. Divine law, the measure

9. Thirdly, or are matable

of sin and duty.

or undetermined.

9. Civil law, the measure of

10. Confusion, without re.

crimes and innocence.

ference to names, hardly

10, 11. Philosophical law, the

conceivable.

measure of virtue and 11. Confusion concerns al.

vice.

12. Its inforcements, com-

12. Causes of Confusion.

mendation, and discredit. 13. Complex ideas may be
three laws the

distinct in one part, and
rules of moral good and

confused in another.

evil.

14. This, if not heeded, causes

14, 15. Morality is the relation of

confusion in our argu-

actions to these rules.

16. The denominations of ac. 15. Instance in eternity.

tions often mislead us.

16. Divisibility of mat.

17. Relations innumerable.

ter.

18. All relations terminate in

simple ideas.

19. We have ordinarily as

CHAP. XXX.

clear (or clearer) notions Of real and fantastical ideas.
of the relation, as of its SECT.
foundation.

1. Real ideas are conforman

20. The notion of the rela.

ble to their archetypes.

tion is the same, whether

2. Simple ideas all r al.

the rule, any action is

3. Complex ideas are volun.

compared to be true or

tary combinations.

false.

4. Mixed modes, made of

consistent ideas, are real.

CHAP. XXIX.

5. Ideas of substances are

Of clear and distinct, obscure and

real, when they agree

confused ideas.

with the existence of

SECT.

things.

1. Ideas, some clear and

distinct, others obscure

CHAP. XXXI.

and confused.

2. Clear and obscure, ex-

Of adequate and inadequate

plained by sight.

ideas.

3. Causes of obscurity.

SECT.

4. Distinct and confused, 1. Adequate ideas are such

what.

as perfectly represent their

5. Objection.

archetypes.

6. Confusion of ideas, is in

2. Simple ideas all ade.

reference to their names.

quate.

9. Defaults which make con. 3. Modes are all adequate.

fusion. First, complex 4, 5. Modes in reference to seta

ideas made

up

of too few

tled names, may be in.

simple ones.

adequate.

$. Secondly, or its simple 6, 7. Ideas of substances, as re.
ones jumbled disorderly

ferred to real essences, not

together,

adequate,

8-II.

A4

ed right or wrong.

5. Other men's ideas, real

27. Conclusion

existence, and supposed

real essences, are what

men usually refer their CHAP. XXXIII.

ideas to.

68. The cause of such re-

Of the association of ideas.

ferences.

SECT.

9. Simple ideas may be false 1. Something unreasonable in

in reference to others of

the same name, but are 2. Not wholly from self.

least liable to be so.

love.

10. Ideas of mixed modes 3. Nor from education.

most liable to be false in 4. A degree of madness.

this sense.

5. From a wrong connexion

11. Or at least to be thought

of ideas.

false.

6. This connexion howmade,

12. And why.

7, 8. Some antipathies an effect

13. As referred to real exist-

of it.

ences, none of our ideas 9. A great cause of errours.

can be false, but those of 10-12. Instances.

substances.

13. Why time cures some

edis.

14, 16. First; Simple ideas in

orders in the mind, which

this sense not false, and

reason cannot.

why.

14--16. Farther instances of the

effects

most men.

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