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The end of our finess and end of this office was to exercise monarchy.

and administer the regal power in guiding and governing the people of this nation, for the good of the whole body, in such manner as should be agreeable, and according to the rules and laws, which for that purpose should be agreed on and prescribed ; and to assent and agree to the making such new laws, and to the changing and altering such old ones, as the two eftates of lords and commons shall find necessary, and prepare, for the good government and protection of the people and nation; and that therefore the monarch, who should be placed in the supreme regal office, should be deemed and accounted the supreme governor ; and that many of the virtues and perfections attributed to the great Creator, who governs the heavens, the earth, the seas, and all things therein, ought, in a human and subordinate fense and similitude, to be attributed to the person placed in this fupreme regal office ; such as fortitude, goodness, justice, mercy, wisdom, and activity.”

I must here again entreat my readers, to keep in view the different distinctions I have before noticed between the natural and the political capacity of the king, between the immediate and mediate appointment of God,



and also between the legislative and the ex-
ecutive power of government. The different
prerogatives of the king, which he at this
day enjoys, are very compendiously and ac-
curately set forth by Mr. De Lolme,
* " It is however to be observed, that The king

bound equally though in his political capacity of one of by the laws as

his subjects. the constituent parts of the parliament, that is, with regard to the share allotted to him in the legislative authority, the king is undoubtedly fovereign, and only needs alledge his will, when he gives or refuses his assent to the bills presented to him; yet, in the exercise of his powers of government he is no more than a magistrate, and the laws, whether those, that existed before him, or those, to which by his assent he has given being, must direct his conduct, and bind him equally with his subjects.

“ The first prerogative of the king, in his capacity of supreme magiftrate, has for its object the administration of justice.

“ 1°. He is the source of all judicial power He is the source in the state; he is the chief of all the courts trator of all of law, and the judges are only his substitutes; every thing is transacted in his name; the

and adminis


- De Lolme's Conftit. of England, c. vi, p. 71, & feq.



tions in his name.

He is the fource


He is the source of honor.

judgments must be with his feal, and are

executed by his officers. All prosecuto 2°. By a fiction of the law, he is looked

upon as the universal proprietor of the kingdom; he is in consequence deemed directly concerned in all offences; and for that reafon prosecutions are to be carried on in his name in the courts of law.

3. He can pardon offences, that is, reof mercy, and can pardon of- mit the punishment that has been awarded

in consequence of his prosecution.

« The second prerogative of the king is, to be the fountain of honour; that is, the distributor of titles and dignities; he creates the peers

of the realm, as well as bestows the different degrees of inferior nobility: he moreover disposes of the different offices,

either in the courts of law, or elsewhere. Superintendant

“ The king is the superintendant of commerce; he has the prerogative of regulating weights and measures; he alone can coin money, and can give a currency to foreign coin.

“ He is the supreme head of the church *. church of Eng. In this capacity he appoints the bishops and

the two archbishops; and he alone can convene the assembly of the clergy. This af

of commerce.

Head of the

* i. e.

of the civil establishment of the church of England, as before more fully explained.



sembly is formed in England on the model Convocation of the parliament; the bishops form the upper house ; deputies from the dioceses, and from the several chapters, form the lower house: the affent of the king is likewise necessary to the validity of their acts or canons; and the king can prorogue or diffolve the convocation.

“ He is in right of his crown the ge- Generalitime neraliffimo of all fea or land forces whatever; land forces. he alone can levy troops, equip fleets, build fortresses, and fill all the posts in them.

“ He is, with regard to foreign nations, He is the fole the representative and the depository of all of the nation in

foreign cona the power and collective majesty of the na- cerns. tion; he sends and receives ambassadors; he contracts alliances; and has the prerogative of declaring war, and of making peace on whatever conditions he thinks

proper. « In fine, what seems to carry so many His inability to powers to the height is, its being a fundamental maxim, that the king can do no wrong; which does not fignify, however, that the king has not the power of doing ill, or, as it was pretended by certain persons in former times, that every thing he did was lawful; but only that he is above the reach of all His person courts of law whatever, and that his person inviolable. is sacred and inviolable."

X 2


do wrong

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frons of modern

tion and laws.

Amongst those, who may honour these sheets with a perusal, some may be unwilling to submit to a bare exposition of these constitutional prerogatives or rights of the crown ; for their satisfaction I shall resort to the most ancient and respectable authors of antiquity, who will be allowed at least to have

known, what was looked upon and holden Falle preten

to be the law of their days; though the reailluminators to son, ground, and propriety of the law have of our constitu- only been revealed to the illuminating theo

rists of the prefent generation. 'Between five and six hundred years ago, at the very time when our ancestors, in their love and zeal for the liberties of the constitution, bequeathed to us their rights in their famous charter under Henry III. Bracton, as he tells us of himself *, for the information at least of pofterity, applied his mind with much attention and labour to scrutinize, disclose, and

arrange in order the actions, opinions, and Our ancestors judgments of his worthy ancestors. At no

period can I trace any vestiges of that exprinciples of

treme darkness and ignorance, which Drs.

anxious to transmit the reasons and

our constitution.

* Ad instructionem faltem minorum, ego Henricus de Bracton, animum erexi, ad vetera judicia justorum perscrutanda diligenter, non fine vigiliis & labore, facta ipforum confilia & responfa, & quidquid inde notatu dignum inveni, in unam fummam redigendo, &c. page 1.


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