Page images

ymuch that death ererlasting has had, and shall doctors or teachers, and lay elders, to which are base, power and dominion over all that have not to be added lay deacons, for the care of the poor. been, are not, or shall not be, regenerated from Among the clergy there is a perfect parity of bore, which regeneration is wrought by the jurisdiction and authority, and in the Church vrer of the Holy Ghost working in the hearts of courts clergy and laity have equal voices. The be clect of God an assured faith in the promise minister and the elder, indeed, are both presbyters, I God revealed in his Word;" that “from the -the one a preaching presbyter, and the other Bernal and immutable decree of God all our a ruling presbyter ; indeed, when Bucer exUration springs and depends ;” “God of mere pressed his approbation of the episcopal hierarchy hace electing us in Christ Jesus His Son before of England, Calvin said it was only another de foundation of the world was laid ; " and that papacy. Another principle, recognised alike our faith and the assurance of the same proceeds by Calvin and the Reformers of Scotland, was * from flesh and blood, that is to say from our the education of the people ; which both seem atural powers within us, but is the inspiration to have regarded as the rock upon which

the Holy Ghost ; " " who sanctifies us and the Reformed Church should be built ; and

ings us in all verity by His own operation, in Scotland, as was fit, this foundation was as Is itbost whom we should remain for ever ene- broad as the building, it being meant that, besides

les to God and ignorant of His Son Christ the universities of the kingdom, there should be 90s ; for of nature we are so dead, so blind, in every district a parish church and a parish

so perverse, that neither can we feel when school.

e are pricked, see the light when it shines, nor In its earlier history, the Church of England, Eu sent to the will of God when it is revealed, un. though mediæval and Catholic in its ritual, was

the Spirit of the Lord Jesus quicken that Calvinistic in its creed. Puritanism was neither hich is dead, remove the darkness from our more nor less than an attempt to reduce it

inds, and bow our stubborn hearts to the altogether to a Calvinistic model. In the reaction Et bedience of His blessed will ;" “so that the which followed this movement, the Church of

te of good works we confess to be not our England, while retaining its original articles, te will, but the Spirit of the Lord Jesus, who nearly parted with its Calvinistic faith ; and welling in our hearts by true faith, brings forth throughout the eighteenth century, its leading

ch works as God has prepared for us to walk divines were conspicuously Arminian or Latitu. i ;” and “whoso boast themselves of the merits dinarian. With the revival of the Evangelical

their own works, or put their trust in works of party, however, in the end of the century, som . pererogation, boast themselves in that which is Calvinism revived ; and it still maintains a

and put their trust in damnable idolatry." | powerful influence over many minds in the futher admits that “ we now, in the time of Anglican establishment, e evangel, have two chief sacraments only," to it , Baptism and the Lord's Supper ; by the for.

Mr. FROUDE ON CALVINISM, e of which we are ingrafted in Christ Jesus o be made partakers of His justice, by which our

* Calvin's name," says Mr. Froude, “is now 23 are covered and remitted ;” and in the lat

associated only with gloom and austerity. It may t it is asserted that there is a real though only

be true enough that he rarely laughed. He had tritual presence of Christ, and " in the Supper

none of Luther's genial and sunny humour, Could pbtly used, Christ Jesus is joined with us, that

they have exchanged conditions, Luther's temper e becomes very nourishment and food of our might have been somewhat grimmer, but he mals." The marks of a true Church are said to

would never have been entirely like Calvin. the true preaching of the Word of God, the Nevertheless, for hard times are needed hard men, ght salministration of the sacraments, and eccle

and intellects which can pierce to the roots where Sitical discipline rightly administered as the

truth and lies part company. It fares ill with ford of God prescribes. The polity or constitu- the soldiers of religion when the accursed thing on of the Church, however, is not detailed ; this is in their camp. And this is to be said of Calvin, as done in the “ Book of Discipline,” drawn up

that so far as the state of knowledge permitted, Krox and his brethren. The highest Church no eye could have detected more keenly the adicatory is the General Assembly, composed of

unsound spots in the received creed of Europe, epresentatives from the others, which are pro

and no hand could have been found so resolute iwciał synods, presbyteries, and kirk sessions. to excise, tear out, and destroy what was disbe officers of the Church are pastors or ministers, tinctly seen to be false, so resolute to establish

what was true in its place, and make truth to the last fibre of it the rule of practical life.

“ Calvinism, as it existed in Geneva, and as it endeavoured to be wherever it took root for a century and a balf after him, was not a system of opinion, but an attempt to make the will of God as revealed in the Bible an authoritative guide for social as well as personal direction. Men wonder why the Calvinists, being so doctrinal, yet seem to dwell so much and so empbatically on the Old Testament. It was because in the Old Testament they found, or thought they found, a divine example of national government, a distinct indication of the laws which men were ordered to follow, with visible and immediate punishments attached to disobe. dience. At Geneva, as for a time in Scotland, moral sins were treated, after the example of the Mosaic law, as crimes to be punished by the magistrates. • Elsewhere,' said Knox, speaking of Geneva, “the Word of God is taught as purely, but never anywhere have I seen God obeyed so faithfully.'

• If it was a dream, it was at least a noble one. The Calvinists have been called intolerant. Intolerance of an enemy who is trying to kill you seems to me a pardonable state of mind. It is no easy matter to tolerate lies clearly convicted of being lies under any circumstances ; specially it is not easy to tolerate lies which strut about in the name of religion ; but there is no reason to suppose that the Calvinists at the beginning would have thought of meddling with the Church if they had been themselves let alone. They would have formed communities apart. Like the Israelites, whom they wished to resemble, they would have withdrawn into the wilderness -the Pilgrim Fathers actually did so withdraw into the wilderness of New England—to worship the God of their fathers, and would have left argument and example to work their natural effect. The Catholics chose to add to their already incredible creed a fresh article, that they were entitled to hang and burn those who differed from them ; and in this quarrel, the Calvinists, Bible in hand, appealed to the God of battles. They grew harsher, fiercer, if you please, more fanatical. It was extremely natural that they should. They dwelt, as pious men are apt to dwell in suffering and sorrow on the all

disposing power of Providence. Their forlu grew lighter as they considered that God hai determined that they must bear it. But the attracted to their ranks almost every man i Western Europe that “ hated a lie." They a crushed down, but they rose again. They ra splintered and torn, but no power could beni « melt them. They had many faults: let bir that is without sin cast a stone at them. Th! abhorred, as no body of men ever more a obutel all conscious mendacity, all impurity, all ma wrong of every kind so far as they could recon nize it. Whatever exists at this moment i England and Scotland of conscientious fear doing evil is the remnant of the conviction which were branded by the Calvinists into t people's hearts. Though they failed to destr Romanism, though it survives and may sari long as an opinion, they drew its fangs; tbt forced it to abandon that detestable priacir that it was entitled to murder those who disseny from it. Nay, it may be said that by tari shamed Romanism out of its practical cortastal the Calvinists enabled it to revive. ..

“ The power of Calvinism has waned. T discipline which it once aspired to maintaini fallen slack. The argumentative and beograd side of Calvin's mind has created once more fatal opportunity for a separation betet opinion and morality. We have learnt, as say, to make the best of both worlds,-to tu political economy for the rule of our coada and to relegate religion into the espression orthodox doctrines. . . . Calvinism was spirit which rises in revolt against untruth; spirit which has appeared and reappeared. 1 in due time will appear again, unless God by delusion, and man be as the beasts that peri For it is but the inflashing upon the conscie with overwhelming force of the nature ! origin of the laws by which mankini | governed-laws which exist, whether we acktal ledge them or whether we deny them, and 1 have their way, to our weal or woe, accorting the attitude in which we please to place card towards them—inherent, like electricity, in! nature things, not made by us, not to altered by us, but to be discerned and obeyed us at our everlasting peril.”

& 14

[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

CONTENTS. Apparently Impossible Task-Italy and her Woes-Condition under Napoleon I.-Congress of Vienna-Italy and the Year 1880-Fallacious Hopes_Garibaldi's Birth and Early Years-His Family-A Sailor's

Career Chosen–First Dreams of Italian Liberty Charles Albert and Charles Felix of Piedmont-Naples and her Kinga-Secret Societies-The Carbonari

, etc.- Iazzini and Young Italy-Half-heartedness of Charles Albert-A Desperate Plot-Garibaldi and Luzzini in Exile-The South American Republics-A Commander by Sea and Land-Mastai Ferretti, A Liberal PopeGaribaldi's Letter to Pius IX.-1848 ; Ropes for Italian Unity-Piedmontese and Austrians-Mistakes of Charles Albert-Novara–Radetsky's Triumph-Rome: The Republic Proclaimed-Arrival of Garibaldi-Siege of Rome by the French--Garibaldi again a Sailor-Despotism Re-established-Naples—1859; Lombardy Gained for Italy-Francis 11.Garibaldi'r Expedition of 1860-Astonishing Success--Kingdom of Italy set up-Garibaldi and Victor EmmanuelGaribaldi's Retirement-Reasons for the Step-The Triumph and the Departure-Garibaldi at Home-Domestic Economy in Caprera–Count Carour-Expedition of 1862-Aspromonte-Garibaldi a Prisoner-Later Yearr-Venice and Rome


AN APPARENTLY IMPOSSIBLE TASK. seldom believed axiom, that truth is stranger TAE story of Joseph, or Giuseppe, Garibaldi is than fiction. Hardly in history is to be found A striking example of the oft quoted but another instance of such magnificent results,


obtained under circumstances apparently hopeless wrote Goldsmith in the iniddle of the last and desperate, as those which finally crowned century ; and went on to tell how the efforts of the heroic and simple-hearted liberator of Italy. Never was there a stronger

Each nobler aim, repressed by long control,

Expires at last, or feebly mins the soul." instance of the power wielded by a man who, indomitable in the feeling of an honest cause, But Goldsmith did not live long cnough amoni and in the attachment and sympathy of an the Italians justly to appr.ciate the nations oppressed people, strikes again and again for character. He had no idea of the fire tha justice and for right; until at length, after many lay smouldering beneath the apparent indil failures and much repeated effort, the hour comes ference and carelessness of those fiery souther when retribution is to follow tyranny, and a great nations, like volcanic forces beneath a rine-cia nation is set free from its oppressors, and starts hill, ready to burst forth when least expected joyfully, in renewed youth, upon a fresh career. The first Napoleon, himself an Italian, unda

Of all possible tasks, th unification of Italy, stood the national spirit better, and used it, as b the binding together into one homogeneous whole, used everything, from the self-devotion of of that peninsula which sneering Metternich, soldiers to the national aspirations of the Pola the chief representative of Austrian despotism, for his own advantage. Whether the “ Kingdan pronounced to be, “not a country, but of Rome," of which the investiture was bestowe geographical expression," appeared the most upon the conqueror's infant son, would ever hay utterly hopeless. Even by many who fervently been more than a name, is very doubtful; desired to see the country free and happy, the any rate, the fall of Napolcon in 1814, put possibility of the success of a popular rising end to any idea of a united Italy ander imperi against the strongly established despotic powers auspices; and the Congress of Vienna prod was not for a moment contemplated ; and by the to parcel out the country among the difed majority the man who achiered the great work Powers of Europe, with a disregard of ! of Italy's liberation was looked upon as a mis- feelings of the Italians themselves that chicvous adventurer, or at best as a Quixotic quite heroic in its completeness. The kingda enthusiast, certain to bring destruction upon of Naples, which Murat, the beau sabreur, himself and upon all who should be foolish endeavoured to retain by deserting Napoles cnough to follow him. But at last the hour his brother-in-law and benefactor, after t came, and the man; the hour was in the year battle of Leipsic in 1813, was taken from th 1860, and the man was the decried enthusiast, hot-brained but not unkindly adventurer, s who returned, strong in the consciousness of handed over to Ferdinand, its former Bourb right, to the scene of his former mournful but

possessor, who speedily proceeded, after not inglorious failure, to redeem that failure, fashion of his family, to demonstrate by! and wipe out its very memory by an astonishing narrow and selfish tyranny that he had learn and unparalleled success; and then were the nothing and forgotten nothing in exile. Vena men who had been most sceptical as to the which had been handed over to Austria possibility of Garibaldi's success among the Napoleon at the peace of Campo Formio loudest to shout “crira” for him in the day 1797, remained in the possession of that for of his victory and triumph.

which also retained Lombardy. The tempo The story of his life is especially valuable as government of the Pope was set up again in 1 teaching the lesson of the insufficiency of mere States of the Church; and the part of It argument by experience, in judging of the changes situated between these States and the Anstad brought about by great undertakings. A project possessions in the north, was parcelled out it may fail over and over again, and yet be crowned duchies, Tuscany, Modena, Parma, etc, un by success at last, when time has fully prepared the auspices and the protection of Austr the ground for the seed that takes root at length. Parma and Lucca, for instance, being giren

life to Marie Louise the daughter of the ansa ITALY AND HER WOES; CONDITION UNDER Emperor Francis, and the second wife NAPOLEON I.; THE CONGRESS OF VIENXA. Napoleon. In the north-western corner of

Peninsula was the Kingdom of Sardinia, a For many generations, the fair land of Italy

sisting of Piedmont, to which was now ad had suffered under the yoke laid upon her

Genoa, and the island of Sardinia ; and er by irresponsible power.

where throughout Italy irresponsible despx " Yan seems the only growth that dwindles here," government was established. The great for Continent united in that “ Holy Alliance,” vands sarcastically but justly designated as

GARIBALDI'S BIRTH AND EARLY YEARS; His boly alliance of kings against the liberties

FAMILY. stions," which Canning, on the part of This distinguished patriot was born at Nice and, to his lasting honour, refused to join. (at that time a part of the Kingdom of Sardinia. us one of the principles of this confederacy but now the capital of the French department of any of its members might invoke the

the Maritime Alps), on the 22nd of July 1807. wry assistance of the rest in putting down

His father, Dominique Garibaldi, had come to porement of discontent among its subjects;

settle there from the old Italian seaport of his principle was displayed in action on

Chiavari, on the Bay of Rapallo, not far from than one occasion. Thus in 1823, a French

Genoa. Dominique, Garibaldi's father, had been , tunder the Duke of Angoutême, entered

a shipowner, and he himself had served an , and put down by force the resistance

apprenticeship to the sea in one of his father's Cortes against the worthless king,

ships; and he already owned a vessel of his own sand, who had arbitrarily abolished the

when he came to live permanently at Nice, with ration he had sworn to maintain ; and

his young wife, Rosa Raguindo. The house in cly Austrian troops crossed the frontier

which they lived at Nice was remarkable as Italy, to maintain the despotic power of

the building in which the great soldier of the ing of Naples, threatened with overthrow

Revolution, Marshal Masséna was born. It was indignant subjects.

destined to witness the birth of a still more re.

markable man in the person of Joseph Garibaldi. ITALY AND THE YEAR 1830.

Of his mother Garibaldi always spoke with

unbounded admiration and affection. “I de. | July Revolution of 1830 drove King clare with pride," he says, "that she was I. into exile, and gave a heavy blow to perfect model of a woman. If there is any good aly Alliance and its method of rule. For feeling in my nature, I distinctly declare that it *King, Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, son is from her I have derived it." He also was acIt worthless “ Philippe Egalité," who, after customed to express his regret at the constant sing violent democracy, and voting for the anxiety caused to her by his adventurous and of his relative Louis XVI., had been unable perilous career, and declared that, although not this own head in the storm of the reign superstitious, in the most perilous moments of his wz, professed to rule as a “citizen king,” life, he used to have a vision of her on her knees kimselt “ Roi des Français," instead of praying for him, and that this strengthened him de France," and for the time at least took marvellously in positions of danger and trouble. und upon the platform of constitutional She lived to a good old age, dying in 1851, after thy. The hopes aroused in Italy by the she had seen her famous son fighting for his resolation faded away; but there was country at the head of the patriotic Italians in l in the kingdom of Naples a secret society, Rome, but was not spared to see the glorious the name of the Carbonari, or charcoal. part he played in the emancipation of the country,

Laving for its object the overthrow of when Italy was converted into a kingdom. spotic kings, and the establishment of a Intional government, if not of a republic. A SAILOR'S CAREER CHOSEN ; FIRST DREAMS discontent on the one hand was met by

OF UNITY AND LIBERTY. epression on the other. Military executions e favourite method of terrorism, especially Something of the roving disposition of the provinces under Austrian rulc; and the sailor, a strain of the salt in the blood derived ne of Spielberg and other fortresses were from sea-going forefathers, showed itself in the with prisoners whose chief offence was disposition of the boy. He delighted in every. hey belonged to the liberal party in Italy. thing that appertained to the sea, and cared these dangeons were like, and what manner little for study; though his parents, themselves the captives led who were incarcerated illiterate, but recognising the importance of

may be ascertained by any one who learning, made various sacrifices to give him a

to read Silvio Pellico's account given good education. Active and daring, and even ! ** Prigioni." Such was the condition of in his early boyhood a leader of others, he in Italy during the youth and early man. determined to be a sailor, and one day, in a fit Joseph Garibaldi.

of Robinson Crusoe enthusiasm, absolutely per

« PreviousContinue »