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the old market-place at Rouen to hear her of the French nation ; and in 1453, with the sur. sentence. Two monks were sent to her cell to rendering of Bordeaux, the last of the conquests apprise her of her approaching fate. Human of triumphant France, peace, freedom, and indeWeakness again assailed poor Joan. “I had pendence were restored throughout the country. mther be beheaded seven times than burnt," she The work begun by Joan completed, people reSaul, and her shrieks and sobs filled the prison. membered her propbecy, and began to think that Just then the Bishop of Beauvais entered, some kind of justice should be done to her and Joan turned to him : “ My death lies at memory. your door," she said. “For your injustice to Joan's father had died of a broken heart after me I summon YOU before God.” The Bishop his daughter's death, but her mother still lived, trembled.

and had striven hard to have the sentence proShe was allowed to receive the sacrament, and, nounced upon Joan set aside. The city of greatly comforted by it, she was calm when the Orleans gave Isabeau Romée a pension, all of time came to go forth.

which, with a great part of her little property, * At nine o'clock on the 30th of May, 1431, she she spent in trying to stir up the authorities to left the prison clothed in a woman's long gown, do justice to the memory of Joan. and wearing a mitre with the words, " HERETIC, In February 1450, letters patent were issued RELAPSED, APOSTATE, and IDOLATRESS upon it by the Crown, constituting a commission to in large letters. When she reached the scaffold inquire and report into all the circumstances of there was another long sermon to listen to. At the trial and death of Joan of Arc. The consent its conclusion Joan prayed long, fervently, and of the Pope was obtained; but it was nearly five aloud. All about her wept, even Beauvais. She years before this second process began. On the forgave her enemies, prayed for the King, and 7th of November, 1455, Joan's aged mother, then asked for a cross. An English soldier broke leaning on the arm of the son who had fought his staff and made her a rough cross from it. by Joan in the campaign of the Loirc, entered She kissed it and put it in her bosom, but begged the cathedral of Notre Dame at Paris, followed some one to bring her the crucifix from a church by a train of clergy, lawyers, nobles, and women hard by, and" to hold it lifted up straight before of high dgree. Isabeau formally openedl the her eyes to the last steps of death, that the

proceedings by demanding that justice should be cross on which God had hung might, as long as done to the memory of her daughter Jeannc. she lived, be continually before her eyes.” When The proceedings were then removed to Rouen, as it was brought she embraced it with tears, pray- the fittest place to rehabilitate the memory of the ing to God, St. Michael, and St. Catherine.

poor girl and noble heroine who had there so She was then taken to the pile, and fastened unjustly suffered death. There were a hundred high upon it, so that her death agony might be and twenty witnesses in all, and every one of prolonged. When first the flames reached her them, without exception, testified to the truth, she shrieked with terror and pain, and cried out sincerity, and piety of her character. for holy water ; but soon she became her calm, On the 7th of July, 1436, in the great hall of grand, heroic self. Weakness fell away from her the Archbishop's Palace at Rouen, the final as death approached. When she saw that the

sentence was pronounced. The twelve articles tlames came near the priest who was holding up that had been drawn up against her at the the cross before her eyes,she bade him good-bye, former trial were declared to be false and calum. and told him to stand further off, but adding, nious, and condemned to be torn from the * Lift the cross higher that I may see it!" He records and publicly destroyed. The whole trial could still hear her speak. She said : “Jesus ! and judgment were now pronounced to be false Jesus! Mary! My voices! My voices !” No more and calumnious, and thus null and void ; and it shrieks of terror. No more groans of pain. She was further declared that neither Joan nor any cried out triumphantly : “My voices have not of her relatives had incurred any shadow of deceived me—they were from God;" and with disgrace. one great cry, " Jesus !" her head fell upon her By order of the Commissioners this new judge breast, and Joan was free.

ment was publicly read in all the cities of So ended her martyrdom. Thus closed the life France. It was read on the spot where she had of this wonderful girl.

suffered death, and a stone cross was raised there

to her memory. The people of Orleans esta. AFTERWARDS.

blished a yearly religious festival in her honour, In 1449, Normandy again became the property | and took care of Joan's mother, now called

Isabelle du Lis, until her death, which happened this record (and we cannot blame his scepticism) two years after the reversal of the sentence. The until the next year, 1688, when he happened to Duke of Orleans gave a grant of land to Joan's dine with a Monsieur des Armoises, who after two brothers, in recognition of her services. All the entertainment gave him the keys of the over France crosses, monuments, and statues were family library, where, to his surprise and delight, erected to the memory of the heroine of Orleans. he stumbled on a marraige contract between

Thus, after twenty-five years, tardy but full · Robert des Armoises, knight, and Jeanne d'Arcy, justice was done to the memory of this wonderful called “Maid of Orleans.' This confirmation girl, who united so many womanly qualities with of the Metz record satisfied him. the gifts of a superior mind, and added to them a “Monsieur Delepierre then refers to some docu. high courage and daring surpassing that of even ments found at Orleans in 1740, which contain the bravest men.

charges under the years 1435 and 1436 for money

given to a messenger who brought letters from HISTORIC DOUBTS.

Jehanne la Pucelle,' and to Jehan de Lils (that Of late some doubt has been thrown on the being the title by which her brothers had been account given by historians of the fate of Joan ennobled), to help him in returning to his of Arc. In an able article published in House- sister.' There is a third entry, To Jehanne Dar. hold Words some twenty years ago, the follow- moises, as a present made to her on August 1st, ing curious particulars are recorded :

1439, after the deliberation of the Council of * A few old records exist at Metz and Orleans, this city, for the services rendered by her at the which tend to prove that she was alive long siege, 210 livres.' after the period of her martyrdom; and a short “As a last documentary evidence, there is a time ago these were collected and made the petition from her brother, previous to his being most of by Monsieur Delepierre, in an interest- ennobled in 1415,-a date contradicted by the ing tract entitled Doute Historique (Historic Orleans charge which was made in 1436. This Doubt). When are we to take up again a fact petition represents that he had left his native in history and say to ourselves, . This is settled place to join the King's service in company with beyond all doubt ?' He begins by quoting the his sister Jeanne la Pucelle, with whom, ap to authority of the Père Vignier, an eminent the time of her absence, and since then till the antiquarian of the seventeenth century. This present, he had risked his life.' intestigator, while examining the archives at "Monsieur Delepierre also urges that at the Metz in the year 1687, found an entry to the time of Joan's reputed execution in the year effect, that on the 29th of May, 1436, “La Pucelle 1431, there was a common talk that she was not Jehanne, who had been in France,' came to that dead, but that the English had put another town, and

on the same day came her two victim in her place. Thus the chronicle of brothers, one of whom was a knight, and called Metz, after relating the story of her imprison. himself Messire Pierre, and the other Petit ment, trial, and burning, concludes, " Ainsi qu'on Jehan, an esquire,' who thought she had been le raconte, car depuis la contraire à été proueé' dead, but as soon as they saw her they recog. (As they relate, for the contrary has since been nised her, as she did them. The document goes prored). on to state that on the next day they took her - He regards the period which elapsed between to Boguelon, and procured for her a horse, a pair her condemnation and execution, and the extraof lergings, a cap, and a sworil, and the said ordinary precautions which were taken to conceal Pucelle managed the horse very well, and said her as calling for some explanation. He notices many things to the Sieur Nicole. so that he felt that several women who assumed the name of sure this was she who had been in France : and the Maid of Orleans were tried and punished as she was identified by many sizns as La Pucelle impostors, while no proceedings were taken Jehanne de France who had consecrated Charles against this Jeanne des Armoises, or De Her. at Rheims. After going to Cologne and many moise or Darmoises. In conclusion, he considers other places, where she was lcokel upon as the that these various facts are only explicable on genuine Maid, she reached Erlon, where she was the supposition that some young woman was married to Monsieur de Hermoise, a knight:' substituted for her at the burning pyre of Rouen, and soon after this “the said Sieur de Hermoise and that she continued a captive until the death and bis wife La Pucelle came and lived in Metz of the Duke of Bedford in 1435, when she was in the house which belonged to the said Sieur.' released from prison, and returned to pass many * The Père Vignier did not set much value on more years in the world."

C. E. H.

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Birth and Baptism-Childhood's Promise-Her First Flirtation-Early Levity Rebuked-Elizabeth under Arrest-Love's

Aftermath-Roger Ascham-His Plan of Teaching Influence over Elizabeth-Sunshine and storin-From Puritan to
Catholic-Sent to the Tower-Released–Prisoner at Woodstock-A Triumph on the Thames-Freedom at Hatfield-
At Hampton Coust-Accession to the Throne-The Coronation-Elizabeth as a Statesman-The Last of the Tudors-
Lary, Queen of Scots-The Armada-The Elizabethan Court-Her Last Days.



queen of the baughty lord that broke the T the palace of Greenwich, on the 7th of bonds of Rome," gave birth to a daughter. The September, 1533, the young and giddy child received the auspicious name of her grand



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mother, Elizabeth, whose marriage to the first princess, and the superstition of the sixteenth of the Tudor kings had united the two Roses, century in this way explained the mysterious and for ever ended the bloodshed of the civil fondness of the Maiden Queen for the lord of wars; and the infant now born, though destined Kenilworth. To make the ceremony doubly histo be the last of her proud line, was to accom. toric, the bard of Avon, full seventy years later, plish infinitely more for the peace and unity of when the princess had finished her majestic and the great awakened Commonwealth of England. lonely life, put into the lips of Cranmer a pru

She was not Henry's first child, nor Anne phecy, which was fulfilled because it was then no Boleyn his first wife. A daughter named prophecy :Mary, à courageous girl, born to him by his

This royal infant (heaven still move about her!) divorced wife Catharine of Arragon, was now Though in her cradle, yet now promises seventeen years of age. That only “ a fair young Upon this land a thousand thousand blessings, maid” should bave been presented him by his

Which time shall bring to ripeness. beautiful and brilliant queen, for whom he had cut himself and his kingdom adrift from pope

She shall be loved and feared : her own shall biess and cardinal, sorely vexed the heart of the im

Her foes shake like a field of beaten corn, perious sovereign. In the play of Shakspeare, And hang their heads with sorrow: good grus the King turns to the lady who announced it,

with her. “I guess thy message Say ay, and of a In her days every man shall ent in safety boy!” and she walks away grumbling because

Under his own vine what he plants, and sing she had received no more than a groom's fee.

The morty songs of peace to all his neighbours. Nevertheless the ceremony of christening was

She shall be, to the happiness of England, brilliantly pompous. The church was hung with

An aged princess; many days sball see her, tapestry, and the way to it from the palace was And yet no day without a deed to crown it strewn with rushes, the ancient and filthy sub- Would I had known no more! but she inast die,stitute for the carpets that were to come into

She must, the saints must have her,-yet a virgia;

A most unspotted lily shall she pass familiar use during the reign of the child who

To the ground, and all the world shall mourn her." was the subject of all this show. The ceremony was witnessed by many lords and ladies of high

CHILDHOOD'S PROMISE. degree,-a strange gathering when we regard it But the child was born to trouble, born to be in the light of the fates of its components. In steeled in the school of political scandal, court the middle of the church stood a silver font, intrigue, and wearisome persecution, that she adorned with a crimson canopy ; the innocent might make England strong and prosperous by babe, in a mantle of purple velvet with a long her cold, keen genius. Her sorrows began ere train furred with ermine, was borne by the she was three years old. The love of Henry for Duchess-Dowager of Norfolk, mother of a lady the other sex-like his daughter's—had little who was destined by-and-by to be Henry's chance against his self-will and state-craft; anl queen, and to perish on the scaffold for her own when Anne Boleyn approached him one summer dishonour; and a splendid canopy was held day in 1536, as he stood by a window of that above the infant by her uncle, who afterwards palace where Elizabeth bad first seen the light, died upon the block, by two Howards and Lord and in supplicating attitude held out to him the Hussey, the great Lincolnshire chief, who was bright little thing who must even then have also to suffer execution in a few years. The possessed some of that magical fascination which Bishop of London performed the ceremony of struck all men in her elder girlhood, the relent. baptism ; and Thomas Cranmer, the moulder of less husband dismissed her from his presence the English Reformation, administered the with stern mien. In a few hours the accusei sacrament of confirmation,—the very man who, queen was landed from the Thames, and passed in three short years, was to pronounce the sen. beneath the gloomy and ominous portals of the tence which branded the infant as a bastard. Traitor's Gate into the Tower of London, ber On the same day, and at the same hour, said an last earthly abode. She was condemned by the untrue rumour of the age, as those which gave peers; and on the nineteenth day of that same birth to Elizabeth, a son was born to Sir John month of May, her “small” neck was severtui Dudley (afterwards Duke of Northumberland), on Tower Green. At that moment, however, who now assisted in carrying from the church there was at least one good and true heart whicha the gorgeous presents of the sponsors. That boy pitied the “motherless and worse than fatherbecame in after years the favourite of this young less child ; ” for only six days before her astest,

Queen Anne had enjoined her chaplain, Matthew knoweth Almighty God." Elizabeth was a Parker, to instruct her little daughter in the proper and charming child,- proper, when her principles of true religion. This learned priest sister Mary led her in the summer of 1537 to had to pass through persecution and poverty the baptismal font of their baby brother Edward; during the reactionary reign of Mary, but when charming, when she, a mere child of six years, Elizabeth ascended the throne she summoned addressing the Chancellor whom Henry had sent him to the primacy of the English Church. down to Hunsdon with his "blessing " for the

The care of the infant princess and her elder girls, gave her humble thanks, and asked after sister devolved on Lady Margaret Bryan at His Majesty's welfare “with as great a gravity Hunsdon, in Hertfordshire, who seems to have as she had been forty years old.” From the done her best for the neglected child of her hour she learned to lisp, she conquered all by her deceased friend and queen. "My Lord," wrote brightness and fascination. Each of the royal sbe to Thomas Cromwell, the right-hand man of Bluebeard's successive wives was charmed by Henry,“ when my Lady Mary's Grace was born, her winning ways: poor dull Anne of Cleves, it pleased the King's Grace to appoint me Lady content to receive a pension and be called the Mistress, and made me a Baroness, and so I have King's “ sister," was pleased with her ; Catharine been governess to the children His Grace have Howard honoured the child of seven with a conhad since. Now it is so, my Lady Elizabeth is spicuous place at her own wedding feast; put from that degree she was afore, and what Catharine Parr, the last and luckiest of Henry's she is at now I know not but by hearsay. There- brides, desired the company of Elizabeth, for fore I know not how to order her nor myself, nor whom already there was predicted on every none of hers that I have the rule of, that is, her hand a brilliant future ; and for a time the Prinwomen and grooms, beseeching you to be good cess lived and learned at Court with her little Lord to my Lady and to all hers, and that she brother. For some unknown reason she was may have some raiment. She hath neither gown, sent away for an entire year (1543-4); but a Dor kirtle, nor petticoat, nor no manner of linen, letter in Italian to her step-mother, full of love nor forsmocks, nor kerchiefs, nor rails, nor body and obedience, cleared the air, and she was restichets, nor handkerchiefs, nor mufflers, nor leased from her banishment. Further on, we biggens. All these Her Grace must take. I shall have occasion to speak of the intellectual have driven off as long as I can, that by my drill sbe went through ; but here it may be men. troth I can drive it off no longer .... God tioned that by the time she was eleven years knoweth my Lady (Elizabeth) hath great pain of age, she had prepared a translation of Marwith her great teeth, and they come very slowly guerite de Valois's “Le Miroir de l'Ame forth, which causeth me to suffer Her Grace to Pécheresse," which she dedicated to the Queen. hare her will more than I would. I trust to God, Elizabeth and Edward were sweetly intimate ; an her teeth were well graft, to have Her Grace they cried bitterly together at Enfield when told after another fashion than she is yet, so as I of their father's death, but her sorrow vanished trust the King's Grace shall have great comfort quickly under the current of her cold prudence ; in Her Grace. For she is as toward a child, and and the young King complimented her by letter as gentle of conditions, as I ever knew any in on the equanimity with which she had borne any life. Jesu preserve Her Grace ! ”

the trial. Mary had not been treated well by Anne Here for the first time we touch the core Boleyn. Brought up in the same house with of England's great Queen. We have seen ber Elizabeth, she had been compelled to behold the charms of manner and intellect; now we see pomp that surrounded the infant's cradle, while the cold glitter of her prudence, which perabe herself did not even enjoy the privilege of

mitted her to fold her arms and serenely survey writing. Bat no Tudor bore a long-lived ran- the future over her father's grave. There was Cour. Now that her baby-sister was degraded no girlish abandon. Probably she thought more in her turn, she continued to address her as of the annuity of £3,000 bequeathed by the - Her Grace ; " nay, she even ventured to be- selfish despot she so strangely resembled, and of sech their father's kindness, just two months the will which left her the crown of England after the execution of the Queen. “My sister in succession to Edward and her elder sister. Elizabeth," she wrote from Hunsdon," is in She was now almost within measurable distance good health (thanks to Our Lord), and such a of a throne. This wise little woman was only child toward, as I doubt not but Your Highness thirteen years of age. To complete her picture, azall have cause to rejoice of in time coming, as one feature has still to be added to the canvas,

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