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design to establish Catholicism, and receive aid their heads were separated.” He proceeded to for that purpose from the King of Spain. But the abuse Raleigh as "the most notorious traitor desire was to ruin him, and there was little ever called to the bar," a "damnable atheist,"' a scruple as to the means employed. Not only " spider of hell,” and used other epithets of equal had be been deprived of his office of Captain of
Raleigh demanded that Cobham, the Guard, but of the profitable licensing mono
whose so-called confession was relied on against pries he bad enjoyed ; and now it seemed tbat him, should be produced and confronted with ricthing short of his death would satisfy his ene him, and that other witnesses, if any, should be mies. With the mass of the nation Raleigh had produced ; but Popham told him that he was Derer been popular. His aristocratic, somewhat being tried by common law, according to which afiri gant bearing offended them, and the lower one witness was sufficient, and that the accusaclasses were unable to comprehend his political
tion of confidants, or the confession of others, theories, his scholarship, or his enlarged views was full proof. Sir Walter protested against the in the questions of the time. That he had been ruling ; but Coke vehemently endeavoured to to long the first of Court favourites was perhaps silence him, and violently said, “I will have the De reason why the mob should feel a pleasure
last word for the king !" “Nay,” answered in bis downfall; but it was also thought that he Raleigb, with spirit, “ I will have the last word baul been an enemy to Essex, who was very
for my life.” Even Cecil felt that Coke was popular. On his way to Winchester, the coach going too far, and told him he was too barsh. in which he rode was followed by a yelling mob,
In his reply to the charges, Sir Walter spoke of who threw missiles (tobacco-pipes among others)
Cobham as “a poor, silly, base, dishonourable at the vehicle.
soul;" and for himself, he said, “I was not so
bare of sense but that I saw that, if ever the CONVICTION AND SENTENCE,
State was strong and able to defend itself, it was The trial lasted from eight in the morning till now." To Elizabeth hc referred, with a finc, eleven at night. Lord Chief Justice Popham, a courtly, and epigrammatic turn of words, as judge notorious for his private vice and venality, lady whom Time surprised,” and of James he presided; and that great lawyer, but unscru spoke as “an active king, a lawful successor to palous man, Sir Edward Coke, the Attorney the Crown.” “I am not,” he said, " such a mad. General, conducted the prosecution with coarse man as to make myself, in this time, a Robin tisdictiveness. Cobham, a weak and timid man, Hood, a Wat Tyler, or a Jack Cade." influenced apparently by a hope of saving him The jury reluctantly returned a verdict of self, made a confession implicating Raleigh, but guilty; and on being asked why judgment should afterwards fully and solemnly retracted his accu
not be recorded, Raleigh replied that he was sation. Sir Walter admitted that Cobham had, innocent, that he submitted himself to the king's on the part of the Spanish ambassador, offered mercy, and recommended to his Majesty's combim a sum of money or a pension, if he would passion his wife and son of tender years. In a ise bis endeavours to promote a peace between vituperative speech, in which the accusation of the two crowns; but he wrote a letter to the being an atheist was repeated, and the accused Lords of the Council, emphatically denying that
was promised "an cternity of hell torments," be was aware of any connexion of this offer with Popham proceeded to pass the terrible sentence a trenscnable design.
of death by mutilation and disembowelling, the Michael Hicks, writing to the Earl of Shrews. then doom of traitors. Raleigh requested the bary, says, “ Raleigh, at the trial, carried himself Earl of Suffolk, the Earl of Devonshire, and Lord so temperate in all his answers, and answered so Cecil (who, although one of his greatest oppowirely and readily to all objections, as it wrought nents, was not of a sanguinary disposition, and both admiration in his hearers for his good parts, might be supposed to have some respect for the and pity towards his person. His answers were abilities and character of the illustrious prisoner) interlaced with arguments out of divinity, to intercede with the king, that his death might bumanity, civil law, and common law." Coke be honourable, and not ignominious. Raleigh was unjust enough to refer to the Bye Plot, in then followed the sheriff out of Court, “ with respect of which no imputation whatever rested admirable erection,” says Sir Thomas Overbnry, on Raleigh; but, said Coke, "It will be seen who was present, “but yet in such a sort as that all these treasons, though they consist of became a man condemned." beveral parts, closed in together, like Samson's In the gallery of the Court sat the lady whose taxes, which were joined in their tails, though name had been so frequently mentioned in con.
nection with the “ plot,” Lady Arabella Stuart; conveyance of his Sherborne estate to his son ; and when sentence had been passed, the Earl of but the sharp eyes of the infamous and greedy Nottingham, formerly Lord Howard of Effing- Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, discovered a techham, who accompanied her, stood up and said, nical flaw in the deed. He exercised a powerful " the lady, then present, protested on her salva- and mysterious influence over James, possessing, tion that she never dealt in any of these things." it was believed, the key to some secret the disclo
Intelligence of the result of the trial was sure of which the King dreaded ; and he asked that brought to the King by Roger Ashton, and one the estate might be given to him. Lady Raleigh of the Scotch hangers-on of the Court. One of threw herself at the King's feet, and implored them affirmed that never any man spoke so well
that she and her children suould not be reduced in times past, nor would do so in the world to to poverty, in addition to being deprived of the come, as Raleigh bad spoken on his trial ; and companionship and support of her dear husband. the other said, that when he first saw Sir Walter James could only mutter, “I mun hae it for he was so led with the common hatred, that he Carr ;” and Lady Raleigh quitted the ignoble would have gone a hundred miles to see him presence a broken-hearted woman. hanged, but ere he parted he would have gone a In the Tower Raleigh appears to have been thousand miles to save his life. “In one word,"
allowed considerable freedom and the use of he addel, “never was a man so hated and so books. He had for fellow-prisoners, with whom popular in so short a time.”
communication was permitted, Henry Percy, the The general public shared the revulsion of Earl of Northumberland, who had been an feeling, and Sir Walter, a few days earlier dis- earnest promoter of science and learning; Hosliked, became a popular hero. The King, shrink. kins, the scholar, wit, and critic; and Daniel, ing perlaps from permitting the sentence to be friend and literary corrector of Ben Jonson; carried out, and satisfied with the confiscation of and among his visitors were Harriot, the mathethe estate and the Virginia patent, decided to matician, whom he had sent to Virginia, and Dr. spare the life of Raleigh, and not only his, but Burkett, a great Greek and Hebrew scholar and the lives of the other accused ; but could not commentator. deng himself the pleasure of a little preliminary
Anne of Denmark, queen of James, was a cruelty. He sent the Bishop of Winchester to staunch friend of Raleigh; and her son, the prepare Raleigh for execution, and the scaffold accomplished and amiable Henry, Prince of was erected at Winchester ; Cobham, Lord Grey, Wales, whose premature death at the age of and others were led out as if to the block, and eighteen caused general sorrow, was one of his Raleigh was brought out to witness their execu- most ardent admirers. It is supposed that it tion, with the full assurance that his own death was with a view to his instruction that Raleigh would follow. Then the sheriff announced that began to write the famous “ History of the his Majesty had been graciously pleased " in his World." The Queen, we are told, “regarded princely clemency to spare their lives."
him with pity and interest, and he owed most Raleigh had prepared himself for death with of his indulgence to her intercession, through the resolution and resignation of a great mind. which, though a prisoner in the Tower circle, He wrote to his wife, “ God is my witness that he retained not only his actual property, but it was for you and yours that I sued for life ; the income of £200 per annum as governor of but it is true that I disdained myself for beg- Jersey." ging it; for know, dear wife, that your son is When Prince Henry was dying, in 1612, a the son of a true man, and one who, in his own general impression was entertained that he was respect, despiseth death and all his misshapen
the victim of foul play, and suspicion even pointed and ugly forms. May the everlasting and omni- at the King. Raleigh, among other means of potent God, who is goodness itself, keep thee and amusement in the Tower, had erected a small thine, have mercy on me, and teach me to forgive laboratory, where he experimented in chemistry my persecutors, and send us to meet in His and pharmacy. He had supplied the Queen glorious kingdom.” Such was the language of with an effective remedy for ague, and she, the 6. damnable atheist” of Coke and Popham. believing in his skill, asked him to send some
thing which might benefit the Prince. He sent IN THE TOWEG.
a preparation, with the assurance that "it would He was taken to the Tower, and then followed cure all maladies excepting poison." The Prince another instance of the meanness of the King. took it, and rallied wonderfully for a short time, Several years before, Raleigh had executed a but again sank, and on the 5th of November,
1612, breathed his last. The failure of the hundred and fifty men, After a month, they remedy, and Raleigh's words, convinced the reached St. Thomas, a small Spanish town, Queen that her dear son had indeed been poi which they captured after a sharp fight, in soned. Nearly a hundred years afterwards, which Raleigh's son and the Spanish governor William the Third was kept alive for several were killed. Keymis could not discover the gold bours by the administration of what the news. mine, and returned to Trinidad, where Raleigh
papers of the day described as “Sir Walter awaited him. The unfortunate captain was 324 Raleigh's cordial," which was a strong spirituous received with reproaches, which had such an 40: compound.
effect on him that he committed suicide. The intercession of the Queen, her brother the
EXECUTION. King of Denmark, and the Prince of Wales, had been unavailing to obtain the release of Raleigh,
Raleigh returned to Plymouth in July, 1618, James has himself left it on record that he
and found that a royal proclamation had been withheld a pardon in order more readily to hold
issued, no doubt at the instance of the Spanish Raleigh in subjection. The captive was not so
ambassador, Gondomar; and he was placed immersed in literary and chemical labours as
under arrest. He was subjected to most inqui. to forget the supposed riches of Guiana ; and in
sitorial proceedings, and even his private letters 1611, when he had been eight years imprisoned,
to his wife were intercepted and read. James he made an offer to the King, which seems
was then desirous to please Spain, for there was to have been conditionally accepted, that a ship
a negotiation pending for the marriage of Prince ccmmanded by Captain Keymis should be de
Charles with the Infanta ; and Raleigh was to spatched to Guiana ; and if Keymis should
be sacrificed. The Government was complaisant fail to bring back half a ton at least of " that
enough to revive the old sentence, and on the slate gold ore, whereof I have given a sample,"
29th of October, 1618, the memorable Englishbe (Raleigh) would bear all the expenses of the
man, unquestionably the foremost man in achieve. expedition; but, if that quantity were brought
ment of that great age, was beheaded in Palace home, he should have a pardon and his liberty."
Yard, Westminster, in the sixty-sixth year of Why this extraordinary proposition was not carried into effect is unknown. Raleigh had
He encountered death with a cheerful dignity contrived in some manner to maintain a com
of deportment. On the scaffold he made a long munication with Guiana, and even to have some
speech, concluding by saying, “I entreat you all of the natives of the place brought to this
to join with me in prayer that the great God of heaven, whom I have grievously offended--being
a man full of all vanity, having been a seafaring SECOND EXPEDITION TO GUIANA.
man, a soldier, and a courtier, and in the tempAfter he had been thirteen years in the Tower
tations of the least of these there is enough to he was released, but without a formal pardon; overthrow a great mind and a good man-that and he was permitted to arrange for a new ex
God, I say, would forgive me, and cast away my pedition. He informed the Government that he sins from me, and that He would receive me intended to open a gold mine; but in the com into everlasting life. I die in the faith professed mission given him the place is not mentioned, by the Church of England, and I hope to be for fear of the Spaniards preparing an oppo
saved, and to have my sins washed away by the stion. He afterwards complained that the precious blood of our Saviour Christ. So I take Government communicated his intentions to my leave of you all, making my peace with God." Spain, and so thwarted him. It cannot be The executioner asked forgiveness. Raleigh freely doubted that buccaneering adventures were also gave it, and then asked to feel the axe. “It is," privately a part of his scheme; for neither Raleigh he said, “a sharp and fair medicine, and can nor any other of the maritime adventurers of those cure all diseases.” He knelt and prayed, and days saw any barm in such exploits.
then gave the signal by extending his bands. In the following year, 1617, a fleet of thirteen The executioner was unnerved, and struck feebly. Feasels was collected, Raleigh's own ship, the
“ Strike sharper,” said Raleigh, and the blow Detiky, having been built under his special di followed, and the head fell to the ground. It rection. The expedition reached the coast of
was shown to the people, and "a general shudder Gniana in the middle of November ; but, being unwell, Raleigh did not himself ascend the His body-the head was long preserved in the Orinoco. He sent Captain Keymis, with two family-was buried in St. Margaret's Church,
Westminster, where. in 1815, a tablet was crected with this inscription : Within the chancel of this church was interred the body of the great Sir Walter Raleigh, on the day he was beheaded in Old Palace Yard, Westminster, October 29, 1618. Reader, should you reflect on his errors, remember his many virtues, and that he was mortal."
A memorial window is now in course of erection in the church, and Americans have contributed largely to the fund.
LITERARY PRODUCTIONS. Had not Raleigh achieved fame as a maritime adventurer and soldier, he would still occupy a conspicuous place in England's Pantheon. His “History of the World" extends from the creation of man, as recorded in the Hebrew Scriptures, to the end of the second Macedonian war. The fire books, written with great force, elegance, and sustained dignity, exbibit a vast amount of rare scholarship and curious speculations and desig. nations. He projected a second and a third part, but, he writes in the Introduction, “ Besides many other discouragements persuading my silence, it has pleased God to take that glorious Prince [Henry, Prince of Wales] out of the world, to whom were devoted. ...0 eloquent, just, and mighty Death I whom none could advise, thou hast persuaded ; what none hast dared, thou hast done; and whom all the world hath flattered, thou only hast cast out of the world and despised. Thou hast drawn together all the far-stretched greatness, all the pride, cruelty, and ambition of man, and covered it all over with these two narrow words, Hic jacet.
Aubrey, however, gives a reason for the nonappearance of the final portion of the work, which may partly explain the phrase,“ many other dis. couragements.” He says in a manuscript preserved in the Ashmolean Museum of Oxford, • His books sold very slowly at first, and the bookseller (Walter Bane) complained of it, and told him he should be a loser by it, which put Sir Walter into a passion, and he said that since the world did not understand it, they should not have the second part, which he took and threw into the fire, and burnt before his face.” The
History” was published in 1614, while the author was a prisoner in the Tower.
Oliver Cromwell wrote to his son Richard, " Recreate yourself with Sir Walter Raleigh's “ History;" it is a boriy of history, and will add
much more to your understanding than fragmenti of stones.” The elder Disraeli says, “ He whe seeks for power of intellect and grandeur of sou must study profoundly Raleigh's History of the World.'"
Only a few poems and the account of the first voyage to Guiana were printed in the author's lifetime. Of the works published after his death, and bearing his name, some few are of doubtful authenticity; but we may accept with confidence, as genuine productions and remarkable evidences of the scope and versatility of Raleigh's talents, the following list of tracts and larger works :
Political.-Iaxims of State "_" The Cabinet Council "_" The Prorogation of Parliament”“On a Match between Lady Elizabeth and the Prince of Piedmont”“On a Marriage between Prince Henry and a Daughter of Saxony "_"A Discourse touching a War with Spain * Observations on the Navy and Sea Service "_" On the Seat of Government "_" Spanish Alarm."
Practical and Economical.—"A Discourse on the character of Ships' Anchors, Compasses, etc."
—“ Observations touching Trade and Commerce" -“Cause of the Magnificence and Opulence of Cities"_“ The Art of War at Sea" (lost).
Moral and Miscellaneous.—“A Discourse on War in General"_“The Sceptic”.
"-" Instructions to his Son and Posterity "-"A Treatise on the Soul"_“ Poems."
Dugald Stewart refers with admiration to some of Raleigh's metaphysical speculations, and to the “ coincidence of thought with the soundest logical conclusions of the eighteenth century." To Milton is due the publication of the “ Maxims of State” and “ Cabinet Council.”
His poetry was graceful and elegant, tinged with the affectation of the day; but less so than the verses of many of his contemporaries.
We conclude with the magnificent eulogium by Edmund Burke: “Sir Walter Raleigh, the most extraordinary genius of his own, or perbaps any other time; a penetrating statesman, an accomplished courtier, a deep scholar, a fine writer, a fine soldier, and one of the ablest seamen in the world. The vast genius that pierced so far, and ran through so many things, was of a fiery and eccentric kind, which led him into daring expeditions and uncommon projects, which, nct being understood by a timid Prince, and erried and hated by the rivals he had in so many ways of life, ruined him at last."
Education at Brienne, and at the Military College in Paris-Lieutenant of Artillery-A Studious Subaltern-The
Thackeray, was fond of relating to his friends
and has indeed introduced the incident in the
that in the year 1819, the future great novelist,