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say, by your prayers and by your offerings, seek to spread the knowledge of that word among the nations of the earth.

THE INFLUENCE OF SINGING SALOONS ON

THE YOUTH IN LARGE TOWNS. The demoralising effect of Singing Saloons in London has often been shown in the lamentable career and end of too many of the youthful population of the metropolis, and the same melancholy consequences may be traced to similar causes in most of the large towns in the kingdom. The report just made of the Inspector of Prisons in the north of England discloses the baneful effects of singing saloons among our toiling operatives in the busy towns of Lancashire. The Inspector says, “Of eight boys committed for trial, charged with felony at the Bolton sessions, all had been in the habit of frequentiug a notorious singing saloon in that town. The price of an admission ticket was twopence, and it entitled the holder to some refreshment. At this place all the thieves and bad characters of the town are to be found, and it is here that the first lessons in crime are taught, and the seed sown that yields an abundant crop. The eight boys above referred to, went direct from the saloon to the commission of the crime with which they were charged. Six of the eight were convicted and sen- i tenced for various periods. One of the two acquitted (though he admitted his guilt in prison) went to the saloon on the night of his acquittal (Saturday), and was again committed on the following Monday for a felony, for which he is now serving a long term of imprisonment. The other acquitted boy has been again tried at the sessions, and again acquitted.” To show the feeling of those who had been frequenters of one of these saloons, and witnessed its destruction by fire, it may be mentioned that some said “ They were fain to set it in a blaze, as it had destroyed thousands." Another said, “ If he could put the fire out by spitting upon it, he would not have done it.” In that saloon may be found, on Saturday night, not fewer than

500 boys under or about the age of fifteen years. " I regret to state," says the Chaplain of the Bolton prison, “ that there is not a large town in this neighbourhood which has not similar snares open for the seduction of the young. The proprietors have set at nought the remonstrances of the local clergy, and most of the remonstrances and threats that have been hitherto employed against them by the authorities; and it is said that the powers of the Bench to restrain them are insufficient."

How important our juvenile reformatories must be to repress and diminish juvenile crime, so long as it is allowed to generate in hot-beds of vice, actually licensed by benches of magistrates. The temptations of singing saloons are not recent corruptions. The Rev. Mr. Clay, the painstaking Chaplain of Preston gaol, bore testimony to their depraving effects years ago. After showing, from a careful perusal of fifty-four narratives of the crimes of juvenile offenders, that 75 per cent. of the sad catalogue was caused by igno

rant, negligent, drunken, and brutal parents, he adds: | “Laying metaphor aside, the child neglected or outraged

at home, soon finds in the streets or fields companions in misery and idleness. Petty thefts are ventured on, bolder

ones planned and effected; then arises the inclination for ' debasing excitement, and it is plentifully supplied by low theatres and singing rooms. As manhood succeeds youth, grosser indulgences are sought, and playhouses and singing rooms are exchanged for alehouses, brothels, and beershops.” This faithful picture is painful to contemplate, and will show that, however much has been recently done" to diminish juvenile crime, still more has yet to be effected." The singing saloon is doubtless a giant evil, and the philan : thropic friends of our juvenile population must never rest in their benevolent labours till it be utterly destroyed.' With Howard, they must still ask-“How can the child in years and crime be free from the deeply corrupting influence of criminal association ?".

VARIETIES.

PLANTS IN SLEEPING ROOMS. There are two distinct and apparently opposite processes going on in the plant :-1. The decomposition of carbonic acid--the fixation of the carbon for the purpose of building up its own tissues—and the liberation of the oxygen. This constitutes vegetable nutrition. 2. The exhaling carbonic acid, the result of the union of the oxygen of the atmosphere with the carbon of the vegetable tissues. This is analogous I to respiration. The first of these processes is not only beneficial to animal life, but absolutely essential to its existence, for the animal inhales oxygen and exhales carbonic acid in the process of respiration, if some agency did not work out the reverse change, the whole of the oxygen in the atmosphere would be used up in a certain length of time, (800,000 years according to Professor Dumas), and animal life consequently disappear. But, as it is, animals and plants are thus mutually dependent upon each other ; and this is the case, not merely with regard to carbonic acid, but also some other compounds, such as ammonia, water, &c., which are formed in animals and decomposed in plants. So far, then, it is healthy to have plants in rooms. But there is the second process-a kind of decay, or by some looked upon as true respiration; and as this is precisely what occurs in animals, it must, of course, add to the carbonic acid of the atmosphere, and thus produce an effect prejudical to animal life. If both these processes were carried on to the same extent, the one would, as a matter of course, counteract the other, and neither would produce either good or evil as to its effects upon the atmosphere. But as the former, under general circumstances, preponderates excessively over the later, it is on the whole healthy to live amongst plants. There are circumstances, however, in which the respiratory process in active, and the nutritive at a stand-still, and here the influence of the vegetable upon the atmosphere will be injurious to animal life. One of these circumstances is the absence of sunshine, or day. light (as these stimuli are necessary to the carrying on the process, of nutrition in the plant). It is therefore injurious, more or less, to sleep in a room in which there are plants.

Notes and Queries. SUNSET IN THE ALPS. Anon the evening came, walking noiselessly upon the mountains; and shedding on the spirit a not unpleasant melancholy. The Alps seemed to grow taller. Deep masses of shade were projected from summit to summit. Pine forest, and green vale, aud dashing, torrent, and quiet hamlet, all retired from view, as if they wished to go to sleep beneath the friendly shadows. A deep and reverent silence stole over the Alps, as if the stillness of the firmament had descended upon them. Over all nature was shed this spirit of quiet and profound tranquillity. Every tree was motionless. The murmur of the brook, the wing of the bird, the creak of our diligence, the voices of the postillion and conducteur, all felt the softening influence of the hour. But mark ! what glory is this which begins to burn upon the crest of the snowy Alps ? First there comes a flood of rosy light, and then a deep bright crimson, like the ruby's flash or the sapphire's blaze, and then a circlet of flaming peaks studs the horizon. It looks as if a great conflagration were about to begin. But suddenly the light fades, and piles of cold, pale white rise above yon. You can scarce believe them to be the same mountains. But, quick as the lightning, the flash comes again. A flood of glory rolls once more along their summits. It is a last and mighty blaze. You feel as if it were a struggle for life, as if it were a war waged by the spirits of darkness against these celetial forms. The struggle is over: the darkness has prevailed. These mighty mountain torches are extin. guished one after one ; and cold, ghastly piles, of sepulchral hue, which you shiver to look up at, and which remind you of the dead, rise still and calm in the firmament above you.!!

You feel relieved when darkness interposes its reil betwixt' | you and them. The night sets in deep and calm, and beautiful, with troops of stars overhead. The voice of

streams, all night long, fills the silent hills with melodious echoes.- Wylie's Pilgrimage from the Alps and the Tiber.

LABOUR. Men who live by manual labour are looked down upon and pitied, and it is not until they become independent of it-until their brown and horny hands grow somewhat white and soft-drop the tool and wear the tawdry ring, that they are considered respectable and happy. It comes not within our plan to trace the origin of this monstrous idea, which has risen to such a reigning power over the civilised world. We aver, however, that it springs neither from true philosophy nor the Bible. Physical labour is a divine institution. In the days of human innocence, man was put into the garden “to dress and keep it.” As a divine institution, instead of being an obstruction to true progress, it is one of its most effective and necessary means to promote vigour of body, mind, and character. Why does the Almighty require man to labour, think you; Why does he require him to ply his physical energies in ! order to extract from the earth the necessary elements of life? Why has he left us to build our own houses, to weave our own garments, and to dig out of the soil our own food ? Could not He, who adorns the lily and feeds the fowls of heaven, have prepared all to our hand ? Manifestly yes. But he has not done so, because we have souls, and physical labour is adapted to develope their moral powers.-Thomas's Progress of Being.

BOOKS. Nations quarrel and fight; authors quarrel and fight; fortunate it is for the world that books do not fight. Folios leading on quartos to do battle with duodecimos, officered by octavos, were a sad sight. Books, in the main, are civil. They sometimes say things stupid enough, and sometimes things provoking enough, disposing one to break the peace ; but in such a case a wise man will recollect that he has to do merely with a book, and will

shelve it as the Admiralty shelves an obnoxious officer. : We are permitted to thrash an author or a publisher

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