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fectually unto the salvation of all that receive them, but of all that by faith receive them.
Q. 92. What is a sacrament?
A. A sacrament is an holy ordinance instituted by Christ, wherein by sensible signs, Christ and the benefits of the new covenant are represented, sealed and applied unto believers.
Q. 1. What is the proper signification of the word sacrament?
A. The proper signification of the word sacrament, as it was of old used, is a military oath, whereby the general did oblige himself to be faithful unto his soldiers, and the soldiers did engage themseves to be faithful unto their general.
Q. 2. Why are any of Christ's ordinances called sacraments, when we do not find the word sacrament used in any place of the holy scriptures ?
A. Although the word sacrament be not used in the scripture any more than the word Trinity, yet because the ihings signified by the sacrament and Trinity, and other words, are in the scriptures, therefore we may lawfully make use of such words.
Q. 3. What is the thing signified by the word sacrament?
A. The thing signified by the word sacrament, is a seal of the covenant of grace, whereby as the Lord doth oblige himself
fulfil the promise of the covenant unto us; so by our receiving this seal, we oblige ourselves to be the Lord's, and to be true and faithful unto him.
Q. 4. Whose ordinance is the sacrament which we are to make use of ?
A. The sacrament which we are to make use of, is an ordinance not of man's institution and appointment, but an holy ordinance of Christ's institution and appointment, who, being the only King of the church, hath alone authority to appoint holy ordinances and sacraments.
Q. How many parts are there in a sacrainent?
A. There are two parts in a sacrament: 1. The out. ward sensible signs. 2. The things signified by the signs.
Q. 6. How do the sensible signs, and the things signified in a sacrament, differ?
A. The sensible signs, and the things signified in a sacrament, do differ, as the sensible signs are an object of the understanding and faith, being represented by the outward signs.
Q. 7. What kind of signs are the sensible signs in a sacrament?
A. 1. The sensible signs in a sacrament are not natural signs, as the dawn of the morning is a sign of the approaching day, or as a smoke is a sign of fire; but they are arbitrary signs, and by the appointment not of men, but of Jesus Christ. 2. They are not bare signifying or representing signs, but withal, exhibiting, conveying, and applying signs; as a seal unto a bond, or last will and testament, doth both signify the will of him whose bond or last will and testament it is, and doth also exhibit and convey, confirm and apply, a right unto the things promised and engaged therein. When the minister doth give forth the signs or outward elements in the sacramental actions, the Lord doth give forth and convey the things signified unto the worthy receivers.
Q. 8. What are the things signified by the outward sensible signs in a sacrament?
A. The things signified by the outward sensible signs in a sacrament, are Christ, and the benefits of the new covenant.
Q. 9. What is the use of a sacrament, in reference unto Christ, and the benefits of the new covenant?
A. The use of a sacrament, in reference unto Christ and the benefits of the new covenant, is, 1. To represent Christ and the benefits of the new covenant. Gen. xvii. 10, This is my covenant, which ye shall keep between you, and
your seed after you ; Every man-child among you shall be circumcised. 2. To seal and apply Christ, and the benefits of the new covenant. Rom. iy. ll, And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had, being yet uncircumcised.
Q. 10. To whom doth a sacrament represent, seal, and apply Christ; and the benefits of the new covenant?
A. A sacrament doth represent, seal, and apply Christ, and the benefits of the new covenant, not unto all that partake thereof, but unto believers only; faith being the eye of the soul, to discern the things represented, and the hand of the soul, to receive the things sealed and exhi. bited in the sacrament.
Q. 93. Which are the sacraments of the new testament?
A. The sacraments of the new testament are baptism and the Lord's supper.
Q. 1. Were there ever any other sacraments used in the church beside those of the new testament?
A. Formerly, under the old testament, there were other sacraments of use among the Jews, and not these of the new testament.
Q. 2. What were the ordinary sacraments of common use among the Jews under the old testament?
A. The ordinary sacraments of common use among the Jews under the old testament, were circumcision and the passover; which, since the coming of Christ, are abrogated and abolished, and are no more to be used in the church under the gospel.
Q. 3. What are the sacraments then of the new testament, which are to be used in the church under the gospel ?
A. The only sacraments of the new testament, which are to be used in the church under the gospel, are baptism and the Lord's supper; baptism, which is to be received but once, instead of circumcision, for initiation ; and the Lord's supper, which is to be received often, in. stead of the passover, for nutrition.
Q.4. What is the doctrine of the Papists concerning the number of the sacraments of the new testament?
A. The doctrine of the Papists concerning the num. ber of the sacraments, is, that there are seven sacraments under the new testament. Unto baptism and the Lord's supper, they add, confirmation, penance, ordination, marriage, and extreme unction : which, though some of them are to be used, namely, marriage and or. dination, yet none of them in their superstitious way; none of them have the stamp of divine institution, to be used as sacraments; none of them are seals of the covenant of grace : and therefore they are no sacraments, but Popish additions, whereby they would seem to make -amends for their taking away the second commandment out of the decalogue, as contrary to their image-worship; whereas both such as add, and such as take away from God's laws and institutions are under a severer curse than any of the anathemas and curses of the Popish councils.
Rev. xxii. 18, 19, If any man add to these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book ; And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life.
Q. 94. What is baptism? A. Baptism is a sacrament wherein the washing with water, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, doth signify and seal our ingrasting into Christ, and partaking of the benefits of the covenant of grace, and our engagement to be the Lord's.
Q. 1. What is the outward sign or element in baptism?
A. The outward sign or element in baptism, is water, and that pure warcr; so that the addition thereunto of oil, salt and spiutle, by the the Papists in baptism, is an abominable profanation of the ordinance. Acts X. 47, Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized ? Heb. x. 22, Our bodies washed with pure water.
Q. %. What is the thing signified by water in baptism?
A. The thing signified by water in baptism, is the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ?
Q. 3. What is the outward aetion in baptism?
A. The outward action in baptism, is washing of the body with water; which is all that the word baptism doch signisy, and which may be fitly done by pouring water upon the face, to represent Christ's blood poured out for us; or by sprinkling water upon the face, to represent ihe blood of sprinkling, with which the heart is sprinkled. Heb. x. 22, Having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.
Q. 4. Is it not necessary to dipor plunge the body into the water in baptism, when the sciipture telleth us of several that went down into the water when they were baptized ; and we are to be buried with Christ in baptism, and therefore plunged and covered with water in baptism, as Christ was covered with earth in the grave?
A. It is not necessary that the body should be dipped or plunged all over in babtism: For, 1. When we read of some that went down into the water when they were baptized, we do not read, that they were dipped or plunged over head and ears: they might be baptized by pouring or sprinkling the water upon their faces : Yea, in some places which the scripture telleth us, persons were baptized, travellers tell us they were but ankle-deep, in which it was impossible they could be plunged all over ; and Ænon, where it is said there was much water, the original words do not signify deep waters, but many streams, which are known to be shallow, and not fit to plunge the body into. 2. Though some. went down into the water, when they were baptized, yet the scripture doth net say that all did so : but most probably water was brought into the house, when the jailer and all his household were baptized in the night; and not that he suffered the apostles (then prisoners) to go forth, and that he with them should go out with all his household, and leave all the other prisoners alone, to seek some river to be baptized and plunged into. 3. The burying with Christ in baptism, doth
signify the burying of sin in the soul, by the baptism of the spirit; and not the burying of the body and covering it all over in the baptism of water. There is a baptizing or washing, as was said, in pouring or sprinkling water on the body; and as our Saviour told Peter, when he would have been washed all over by bim, that the washing of the feet was sufficient : so the washing of the face is sufficient, especially for infants, who in our colder climates, cannot be plunged in a river, without manifest hazard of their lives, which none can prove by scripture to be necessary.